IJEA - Volume 5 Issue 6 (June2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Determination of bioremediation effect of live synergistic bacteria on soils contaminated with petroleum products in Apapa –Lagos Nigeria
Oyet G.I., Audu P.

Abstract-The bio-remediation effect of live synergistic bacteria on soils contaminated with petroleum products in Apapa Lagos Nigeria was examined. Soil samples were taken from impacted stations and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, hydrocarbon and microbiological activities. Diluted live synergistic bacteria were applied on the site and a lag period was allowed. After the lag period, post application soil samples were again taken from the established sampling station and analysed for the selected parameters above. Sampling and analysis were in accordance with standard procedures. The results show that live synergistic bacteria was able to positively adjust the soil pH, the electrical conductivity, total organic content, total petroleum hydrocarbon, BTEX and PAH. The heterotrophic microbial population was slightly increased and hydrocarbon degraders were also increased suggesting that biodegradation is likely occurring. There is in general an enhancement in population of microbial communities which also indicates a favorable soil condition. Live synergistic bacteria are hence effective as a bio-remediation agent for soils contaminated with petroleum products.

2 Punjabi Handwritten Character Recognition using Various Features and Classification Techniques
Neetu, Simpel Jindal

Abstract-In this paper, we have presented a system for Punjabi handwritten character recognition using various features and classification techniques. In feature extraction phase, we have considered zoning feature, diagonal feature, horizontal peak extent based feature and intersection & open end point feature. We have also analysed different combinations of these feature extraction techniques. For classification, we have used k-NN, MLP and SVM classifiers. For experimental results, we have considered 1750 samples of 35-class problem. These samples have been collected from 50 different writers. We have achieved a recognition accuracy of 74.62% using combination of zoning feature, diagonal feature, and intersection & open end point features with MLP classifier.

3 Intuitionistic Fuzzy HX Ring and its level sets
R. Muthuraj, M. S. Muthuraman

Abstract-In this section, we introduce the idea of level subsets of an intuitionistic fuzzy HX ring. We also discuss the relation between a given an intuitionistic fuzzy HX subring of a HX ring and its level sub HX ring. Then we investigate the conditions under which a given HX ring has a properly inclusive chain of sub HX rings.

4 Secure Video Encryption with Key based Frame Isolation & IDEA Encryption
Akshat urmaliya, Prof. shivam solanki

Abstract-Video streaming over a wireless network such as MANET, where wireless terminals (like PDAs, mobile phones, palmtops) access in video conferencing system, new challenges will be brought about. First for all, a refactoring for original system with security design should be considered due to limited wireless bandwidth for wireless terminals. In addition, a lightweight encryption algorithm to protect media data should be given due to limited battery power & computational resource. Proposed work is a Design of Secure Video Encryption module with a new Key based Frame Isolation technique & IDEA Encryption may be named KFI2E. KFI2E is also useful when we store our confidential video or image on cloud server it so it will be secure we just have to save an encrypted videos & images on cloud servers & it is a new key based algorithm to find out frame & specific pixel in video & use IDEA encryption instead for AES. Proposed methods causes significant speed enhancement for video encryption with similar security. MATLAB is generalized simulator & provides all necessary functions for image processing. work is been implemented & simulated on MATLAB12b & MATLAB standard videos are been taken for simulation of KFI2E.

5 Denoising of ECG signal with a combination of adaptive filter and Thresholding
Preeti rai, Prof. Prajaynt Pathak

Abstract-Electrocardiogram signal is one of the biomedical signals, which reflects electrical activity of the heart. ECG signals are widely studied and applied in clinic. The ECG signal is time varying signal, includes the valuable information related to heart diseases, but frequently this valuable information is corrupted by various noises. As noise corrupts the ECG signal it is very important as well as difficult task to suppress noises from ECG signal. So denoising is the method of estimating the unknown signal from available noisy data. The wavelet transform provides description of signal, decomposing it at different time-frequency resolution. Wavelet transform is well suited tool for analysis of non-stationary signals like ECG. At first step, the signal is decomposed into transform domain where filtering procedures are applied. The noise free signal is then obtained by inverse transform.

6 Image restoration using Wiener De-convolution and Sym4 Wavelet for different PSF
Suchi Singh, Prof Vipul Awasthi

Abstract-Image restoration is a field of Image processing in which there is recovering of an original image from a degraded image. One of the problems in image restoration is how to preserve the texture structures while removing blur in presence of noise. Various methods have been used for such as gradient based methods, sparsity based methods, and nonlocal self similarity methods. In this paper we have used the nonblind method of Wiener de-convolution. Further denoising process using wavelet transform is performed .Image denoising involves processing of image to get high quality image .Initially original image is Gaussian blurred then wiener filter is applied using PSF[1] followed by denoising process. The results of comparison of ISNR are tabulated..

7 Adaptive RNS filter efficient design on FPGA
Ajay Sonkesriya

Abstract-Over past few years Digital Signal Processing has gained in popularity in field for communication. rise in popularity for digital signal processing is due to many advantages it possesses, such as high noise immunity, low cost, high speed, & flexibility. In recent times, many innovative methods are being developed to make communication devices as small & portable as possible. Hence efficient hardware implementation plays a key role in making communication devices more portable. FIR filters are basic components used to manufacture communication devices hardware implementation for RNS filter may be done using Look-Up-Table (LUT) in block RAM's in FPGA's for Xilinx Virtex FPGA's. RAMs generated by core generator are used to this purpose. implementation was done on an example filter, to compare it with other implementations. result for this thesis is a highly efficient hardware realization for desired FIR filter. implemen~ations for Digital FIR filter in Residue umber System. CLBs are basic building block for FPGA. Residue Number System implen1entation utilizes block RAMs present around FPGA chip, which are generally not used by communication circuitry. hardware savings is obtained by using Block RAMs to implement filter instead for CLBs. Conventional methods for implementations are faster than Residue Number System implementation, however that is tradeoff to savings in hardware.

8 Design and Implementation of Different Adder Topologies Using M.G.D.I. Technique
Ankita Shrivastava, Abhishek Singh

Abstract-In this paper we have implemented different Adder Topologies using Modified Gate Diffusion Input (M.G.D.I) technique. This technique allows reducing power consumption, propagation delay,and area of digital circuits while maintaining low complexity of logic design. The adder topologies used in this work are ripple carry adder, carry lookahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, carry save adder and carry bypass adder. The different adder topologies are designed with MGDI technique in DSCH 3.5 and layout is generated in Microwind tool. The Simulation is done using 0.65μm technology at 1 v supply voltage and results are compared with conventional CMOS technique. Simulation result shows great improvement in terms of area, switching delay and power dissipation.

9 Design of BER Reduction Method with a New Encoder on FPGA
Pankaj Singh Kshtriya, Vivek dubey

Abstract-This paper represent a generalization of Space-Time Codes from orthogonal designs. Particularly, we show in this work, that not only the Alamouti-scheme which was useful only for OSTBC for two transmit antennas, but also its generalized version achieves capacity in the case of one receive antenna. The drafted codes are then analyzed with respect to the bit error rate performance and the spectral efficiency with optimal as well as suboptimal receiver structures. In the second part of this work the combination of Space-Time Codes with conventional channel coding techniques is considered. New OSTBC is presented and the performance of Space-Time Codes with iterative algorithms for soft-input-soft-outputdecoding is analyzed and optimized with the help of Xilinx Integrated Simulation Environment, the coding part is done in VHDL and the synthesis of work is been develop on Xilinx 12.2. the obtain results are been compared with base works and found better.

10 Design High Speed Encoder for less BER on FPGA
Pragati Soni, Mohit Khilwani

Abstract-Multiple antenna systems are an efficient means for increasing the performance. In order to utilize the huge potential of multiple antenna concepts, it is necessary to resort to new transmit strategies, referred to as Space-Time Codes, which, in addition to the time and spectral domain, also use the spatial domain. Diversity-oriented Space-Time Codes. Based on Space-Time Block Codes from orthogonal designs (OSTBC), the Space-Time Block Codes from quasiorthogonal designs are developed for any number of transmit and receive antennas. This is achieved by incorporating spatial and temporal redundancy, which results in full diversity or in other words, in the maximum decay of the bit error rate curves. Full diversity is also achieved by OSTBC, which due to their structure transform the matrix-valued channel for multi-antenna systems, so called multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-channels, into several parallel, scalar single-input-single-output (SISO)-channels.

11 A Unique combination of Audio filter for Hearing problems using Park MacLean’s and DWT
Siddharth Shrivastava, Prof Amit Mishra

Abstract-Due to many causes nearly 35% of human’s hearing system gets affected some realize that there system hearing system is not correct and some never get realise that their system not functioning well, proposed work aims to develop a combination of amplifier and filters that separate the frequencies very well and then pass it to human ear, available hearing machine are just amplifiers which amplifies the whatever signals are coming proposed design will be capable of amplification along with noise filtering. Proposed works aims to develop a general filter which can filter any type of input signal. A combination of PM filter of order 40 and 6 frequency edges in preceding of Wavelet ‘sym6’ type of order 40 have been develop and tested with two different test scenario and it is been observed that this specific combination gives very low MSE as compare to available filters.

12 Numerical Investigation of Flow variables and Heat Transfer in a Boiler using Radiation model by CFD
Kamlesh Solanki, Yogesh Tembhurne

Abstract-Numerous modern applications, for example, steam era in an evaporator or air cooling in the curl of aeration and cooling system can be displayed as two-dimensional occasional heat stream. This study shows how to set up and take care of an occasional heat exchange issue. The framework that is displayed is a bank of tubes containing a streaming liquid at one temperature that is drenched in a brief moment liquid in cross stream at an alternate temperature. Both liquids are water, and the stream is named laminar and relentless, with a Reynolds number of around 100. The mass stream rate of the cross stream is known and the model is utilized to anticipate the stream and temperature handle that outcome from convective heat exchange. Because of symmetry of the tube bank and the periodicity of the stream intrinsic in the tube bank geometry, just a bit of the geometry will be demonstrated. In present study we analyzed be system on geometrical parameters and different mass flow rate with considering radiation effect. When we increasing the tube diameters from 0.5 mm to 1.0mm and 1.5 mm diameters pressure drop is increases due to this velocity and temperature is decreases so heat transfer rate is decreased so the tube of 0.5 dia is better one and next when we increasing mass flow rate from 0.05kg/s to 0.07kg/s and 0.09kg/s pressure is decreased hence velocity and temperature is increased. This study will help in the industry for improving the heat transfer rate and geometrical parameters will be optimised through this study. Simulation results shows good stable flow phenomenon through the system.

13 Numerical Simulation of a Helical Heat Exchanger with Different Parameters Using CFD
Pradeep Tripathi, Rohit Kumar Choudhary

Abstract-In the present work CFD investigation for a helical curl heat exchanger was completed. CFD results are acceptable to the relationships utilized by the distinctive scientists. There was a proximate understanding between the CFD anticipated and relationship results. From above plainly on expanding mass stream rate and tube width the pressure drops increments. Because of the nearness of auxiliary stream inside loop and increment in diffusive stream. On expanding tube distance across the span from the focal point of the pivot of helical curl diminishes. This can build the radial constrain and bringing about improvement of auxiliary stream. The stream development of liquid from inward mass of helical tube to the external mass of helical tube increments by expanding tube distance across the ebb and flow proportion of the helical curl increments and the pressure drop inside the helical loop additionally increments of expanded mass stream rate.

14 Mathematical Modeling and Investigation of Mass Flow Variation and Heat Transfer in Boiler Tube Bank Using Fluent
Surendra Patel, Rohit Choudhary

Abstract-This study illustrates how to set up and solve a periodic heat transfer problem. Many industrial applications, such as steam in a boiler or air cooling in the coil of an air-conditioner, can be modelled as two-dimensional periodic heat flow. This study illustrates how to set up and solve a periodic heat transfer problem. The system that is modelled is a bank of tubes containing a flowing fluid at one temperature that is immersed in a second fluid in cross flow at a different temperature. Both fluids are water, and the flow is classified as laminar and steady, with a Reynolds number of approximately 200. The mass flow rate of the cross flow is known and the model is used to predict the flow and temperature fields that result from convective heat transfer. Present study is basically based on the effect of tube wall temperature variation, convective and radiation model at constant mass flow rate. CFD Simulation shows very good stable results so the flow phenomenon in entire system is universal that validate the system which we modelled. Through simulation results we conclude that when we increasing the tube wall temperature the pressure drop is decreasing and velocity will increasing hence temperature is increased so at constant mass flow rate the heat transfer rate is directly affected by tube wall temperature. This study will help in industrial application and optimization of Boiler tube bank.

15 A Computational Evaluation of Emissions for PremixedNatural Gas Combustion in a Coaxial Combustor using CFD
Shishir Tiwari, Prof. Mahesh Kumar Tiwari, Prof.Avinash Patidar

Abstract-CFD is a widely used tool inoptimizing natural gas burners, for instance, emissionissues. In present study we evaluate the NOx percentage of natural gas by premixed combustion through CHEMKIN mechanism by using CFD. This study will help to reduce the NOx by using different method like SCR, FGR method is our main interest which will helpto reduce the formation of smog and acidic rain andmany other harmful effects. However, withcomputational efforts calculating three - dimensionalturbulent flames, there is necessity of simplified modelsin order to simulate the combustion reactions and theNOx formation. It is found that fast chemistryapproaches are unable to predict the temperature field.Whereas spectral model plays a fundamental role for thecorrect analysis of such scale devices. The paperdescribes the process of combustion of natural gas anddetect the NOX formation like mass fraction of NO, NO2and N2O.

16 AGrid connected high efficient and reliable single phase transformer less inverter for PV systems
Manoj Neelam, G.Laxmi Narayan, Narendar Reddy.M

Abstract-Systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformer less PV system is introduced. Howe ver, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformer less inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter.

17 Simulation of bi- directional AC/DC converter for Hybrid Power System in Electric Ship application

Abstract-DC hybrid power systems are of interest for future low emission, fuel-efficient vessels. In spite of the advantages they offer onboard a ship, they result in a complex, interconnected system, which requires effective analysis tools to enable a full realization of the advantages. Modeling and simulation are essential tools to facilitate design, analysis, and optimization of the system. This paper reviews modeling of hybrid electric ship components including mechanical and electrical elements. Power electronic converters are modeled by nonlinear averaging methods to suit system-level studies. A unified model for bidirectional converters is proposed to avoid transitions between two separate models. A simulation platform using the derived models is developed for the system-level analysis of hybrid electric ships. Simulation results of power sharing among two diesel generators, a fuel cell module, and an energy storage system are presented for three modes of operation.

18 Stand-Alone wind energy conversion system with maximum power point tracking control system
Tulasi. Kothakota, G. Laxmi narayana, M. Narendar Reddy

Abstract-The major source of power is from the conventional sources only. Some of the conventional sources of energies like thermal energy is produced from the fossil fuel coal which are depleting and is only limited to 2030. Renewable sources of energies are Solar, Wind, Biomass, etc hold bright prospect for the future. Wind industry has made rapid strides in the recent years. In order to ensure continuous supply of power suitable storage technology is used as backup. In this paper, the sustainability of a 4-kW hybrid of wind and battery system is investigated for meeting the requirements of a 3-kW stand-alone dc load representing a base telecom station. A charge controller for battery bank based on turbine maximum power point tracking and battery state of charge is developed to ensure controlled charging and discharging of battery. The mechanical safety of the WECS is assured by means of pitch control technique. Both the control schemes are integrated and the efficacy is validated by testing it with various load and wind profiles in MATLAB/SIMULNIK.

19 Bi-directional power flow of Power Electronic converter Interface for EV, HEV, and PHEV Applications
J.Veena Reddy, G.Abhilasha Reddy

Abstract-This focuses on a universal power electronic interface that can be utilized in any type of the electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Basically, the proposed converter interfaces the energy storage de-vice of the vehicle with the motor drive and the external charger, in case of PHEVs. The proposed converter is capable of operating in all directions in buck or boost modes with a non inverted out-put voltage (positive output voltage with respect to the input) and bidirectional power flow.

20 Simulation of D-Statcom for power quality problems by using sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique
G.Santhosha, M.Roshaiah

Abstract-In this paper the power quality problems such as voltage sags and swells and its severe impact on nonlinear loads or sensitive loads. The DSTATCOM is an effective custom power device for voltage sags and swells mitigation. This paper describes the mitigation of voltage sags and swells. The design procedure for various components of DSTATCOM is presented. The control of the Voltage Source Converter (VSC) is done with the help of SPWM. The proposed D-STATCOM is modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The simulation results show clearly the performance of a DSTATCOM in mitigating voltage sags and swells and also it has a fast dynamic response.