IJEA - Volume 5 Issue 3 (March 2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 To Improve the Security in Robust Router with the concept of Double Routing by using Verilog

Abstract-The router is a” Network Router” has a one input port from which the packet enters. It has three output ports where the packet is driven out. Packet contains 3 parts. They are Header, data and frame check sequence. The switch drives the packet to respective ports based on this destination address of the packets. Each output port has 8-bit unique port address. If the destination address of the packet matches the port address, then switch drives the packet to the output port, Length of the data is of 8 bits Through this paper our attempt is to give a onetime networking solution by the means of merging the VLSI field with the networking field as now a days the router is the key player in networking domain so the focus remains on that itself to get a good control over the network, Networking router today are with minimum pins and to enhance the network we go for the bridging loops which effect the latency and security concerns. The other is of multiple protocols being used in the industry today. Through this paper the attempt is to overcome the security and latency issues with protocol switching technique embedded in the router engine itself. This paper is based on the hardware coding which will give a great impact on the latency issue as the hardware itself will be designed according to the need. In this paper our attempt is to provide a multipurpose networking double router by means of Verilog code, by this we can maintain the same switching speed with more secured way of approach we have even the packet storage buffer on chip being generated by code in our design in the so we call this as the Double router called as the VLSI Based router. This paper has the main focus on the implementation of hardware IP router. The approach here is that router will process multiple incoming IP packets with different versions of protocols simultaneously and even it is going to hold true for the IPv4 as well as for IPv6. With the approach of increasing switching speed of a routing per packet for both the current trend protocols.

2 An Innovative Method: Fingerprint Recognition and Analysis or Investigation Beauros
Dr.B.B.M.Krishna Kanth

Abstract- Security systems are now computerized. Automated security systems are essential now. These days most of the banking transactions, use of cell phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are frequently performed. This rapid progress in personal communication system, wireless communication system and smart card technology in the society makes information more quick & realistic. Reliable extraction of features from poor quality prints is the most challenging problem faced in the area of fingerprint recognition. Fingerprints are the oldest and most widely used form of biometric identification. Local characteristic called minutiae points represent fingerprints. This can be used as identification marks for fingerprint recognition. The goal of this thesis is to develop a complete system for fingerprint recognition through minutiae extracting and matching minutiae. To achieve good minutiae extraction in fingerprints with varying quality, preprocessing in form of image enhancement, image segmentation and binarization is first applied on fingerprints before they are evaluated. The combination of multiple methods comes from a wide investigation into research papers. Minutias marking with special consideration of the triple branch counting and false minutiae removal methods are used in the work. Also some novel changes like segmentation using morphological operations, improved thinning, false minutiae removal methods, minutia marking with special considering the triple branch counting, minutia unification by decomposing a branch into three terminations, and matching in the unified x-y coordinate system after a two-step transformation are used in the work. The minutiae based fingerprints recognition technique is studied in detail and implemented in MATLAB

3 A Review Report: The Security Issues and Challenges in Mobile Computing and M-commerce in Consumer Context
S.M. Roychoudri, Dr. M. Aramudhan

Abstract- Today, with the development in wireless and mobile technologies, Mobile Commerce (M-commerce) is expected to make substantial impact on the business landscape. The mobile cellular market is the fastest growing telecommunication market in terms of subscriber numbers and popularity in India. Mobile Commerce market in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 71.06 percent by the year 2016. The substantial increase of the mobile users is linked with greater adoption for mobile-commerce in India. At present, Indian users indulge in mobile purchases for low value transactions such as entertainment services, games, and music downloads. Mobile computing and Mobile Commerce is most popular now a days because of the service offered during the mobility. Mobile computing has become the reality today rather than the luxury. Mobile wireless market is increasing by leaps and bounds. The quality and speeds available in the mobile environment must match the fixed networks if the convergence of the mobile wireless and fixed communication network is to happen in the real sense. The challenge for mobile network lies in providing very large footprint of mobile services with high speed and security. Online transactions using mobile devices must ensure high security for user credentials and it should not be possible for misuse. M-Commerce is the electronic commerce performed using mobile devices. Since user credentials to be kept secret, a high level of security should be ensured.

4 Optimization of Length of Conical Draft Tube by Using CFD
Shivendra Kumar Sahu, Prof. Surendra Agrawal

Abstract- The optimum performance of draft tube is an important aspect in the design of hydraulic turbine, which can be achieved by varying the shape and size of draft tube. The recovery of kinetic energy leaving the runner determines the performance of draft tubes. The cross-sectional area at exit of draft tube is dependent of length and angle of diffuser and must be chosen to ensure maximum recovery with minimum loss. Conical draft tubes gives better efficiency in comparison to elbow draft tubes because of more recovery of vortex flow coming out of runner. Secondly, all the information cannot be found out using model testing. With the development of high speed computers and advancement in numerical techniques detail flow analysis of the desired model can be done for design optimization. The design can be altered till the best performance or desired output is obtained. This is less time consuming. CFD can provide the solution for different operating condition and geometry configuration in less time and cost and found very useful for design and development. In the present work, three lengths of draft tubes for same flow velocity of water have been analyzed using ANSYS-CFX 14.5 software, the pressure and velocity distribution are obtained and compared. Using the analysis result, the losses are computed. The result is presented in tabular and graphical form. In present case it may be concluded that efficiency of 3rd draft tube is better than other two geometric configurations.

5 Optimization of Software Projects Subjected to Different UML Diagrams to Evaluate the Size Metric
Preety Verma Dhaka, Dr. Kavita

Abstract- In Software Engineering, measuring the software is an important activity. For measuring the software appropriate metrics are needed. Using software metrics we are able to attain the various qualitative and quantitative aspects of software. Software Metrics are a unit of measurement to measure the software in terms of quality, size, efforts, efficiency, reliability, performance etc. Measures of specific attributes of the process, project and product are used to compute software metrics.

6 Heat Transfer Enhancement of Square Ducts under the Conditions of Enhanced Turbulancy
Subhash Gautam, Pooja Tiwari

Abstract-Experimental set up is prepared to study the heat transfer co-efficient between tube walls to the adjacent fluid i. e water. Longitudinal strip inserts are prepared at different Aspect Ratios (AR=1, 2, 4) and these inserts are inserted inside the tube to study the enhancement of heat-transfer compared to the bare tube. These strips will act as an obstruction to the fluid flow and create turbulence inside the tube. Heat transfer coefficient is estimated experimentally and regression equation is developed.

7 Design of a New 2-LCL Harmonic Filter for High Attenuation in PV Array System
Neha Rathore, Rashika Gupta

Abstract-The use of Distributed or Disperse Generation is rapidly increasing in the modern distribution networks because of their potential advantages. They need DC/AC converter in order to interface to the grid .These type of active rectifiers/inverters are used more frequently in regenerative systems and distributed power systems. The switching frequency of these converters is generally between 5 kHz and 20 kHz and causes high order harmonics that can disturb other EMI sensitive loads/equipment on the grid side. Choosing a high value for the line-side inductance can solve this problem, the main goal is to ensure a reduction of the switching frequency ripple at a reasonable cost and, at the same time, to obtain a high performance active rectifier. As a drawback these LCL filters have very high gain at the filter cut-off frequency. As a result system becomes highly sensitive to outside disturbances. One way of reducing the resonance oscillation in current & voltage of the system is by adding a passive damping circuit to the filter. The greater emphasis is given to active damping in proposed work. Some of the techniques are available in the literature based on current control strategy of the converter, but all above methods solve the problem up certain level but still the problem remains that to deal with switching frequency and so harmonics can be reduced proposed work has come up with a new design in which 2-LCL type filter which has high efficiency and high attenuation than previous and better response at high frequencies.

8 Face recognition using Proposed Correlation Technique
Rakhi Rai, Dhaval Beohar

Abstract-Face detection and recognition has many applications in a variety of fields such as security system, videoconferencing and identification. This document demonstrates how a face recognition system can be designed with artificial neural network using Eigen faces. A new uni-vector discrete face database is been created and recognize and authenticate the face by using correlation of its variance. In this work, a separate 5 image database is built for each person. The results observed for the method is having 97% successful face recogni tion and having throughput of 214.59 Kbps.

9 Steganography method along with DWT for highly secure data transmission
Shanu Suryawanshi, Mukesh Tiwari

Abstract-Proposed work is new theory for steganography that is analytical cum pattern based Image steganography the proposed method is been developed for achieving very high SNR and low MSE even if the size of original is less, actually the only problem with steganography is that it requires lots of data ( a full image) for transmitting few original data, so proposed work aims to reduce the size of image while maintaining the size of original data same. In proposed approach the stego image produce is of acceptable level with good imperceptibility and less distortion as compared to other cover image with different methods and enhance the overall security. Steganography is an approach to hide the data efficiently into any covering object and it should do that any intruder cannot interpret it by any means, as from the proposed method that is been achieved and one can say that generated stegno image cannot be interpreted easily by any intruder, also the total SNR observed for any scenario where the data image and cover image has ration of 1:8 or less is more than 82.9, and it is a good results for that ration better than previous work on the area.

10 An area efficient and high Throughput 32 bit DSP Processor Design
Sapana tiwari, Prof. Sunil Shah

Abstract-As known any microprocessor is a general purpose IC (Integrated Circuit) which simply follow the instructions given to it, and the instructions set for the different microprocessors are different and designed such a way that it and perform required type of computations. Proposed paper work is a new RISC processor architecture for DSP and it has FSM and new instruction set and RISC feature like executing every instruction in one cycle. Paper work has use Xilinx ISE 12.2 ISE software for designing all modules and each module has been tested and verified with all possible instruction which are been supported by proposed design. The proposed architecture of processor requires less area and higher speed as compare with the other existing RISC architecture available.

11 Design of fast and Error free ECG signal filter with LMS thresholding
Shikha meshram, Santosh chouhan

Abstract-Electrocardiogram signal is one of the biomedical signals, which reflects electrical activity of the heart. ECG signals are widely studied and applied in clinic. The ECG signal is time varying signal, includes the valuable information related to heart diseases, but frequently this valuable information is corrupted by various noises. As noise corrupts the ECG signal it is very important as well as difficult task to suppress noises from ECG signal. So denoising is the method of estimating the unknown signal from available noisy data. The wavelet transform provides description of signal, decomposing it at different time-frequency resolution. Wavelet transform is well suited tool for analysis of non-stationary signals like ECG. At first step, the signal is decomposed into transform domain where filtering procedures are applied. The noise free signal is then obtained by inverse transform.

12 Implementation of highly secure Audio Steganography with high SNR
Abhishek Tiwari, Sanchita Sarathe

Abstract-Steganography is a type of security technique through science or art of hiding available of a message between sender & intended recipient. Steganography has been used to hide secret messages in various types of files, including digital images, audio & video. three most important parameters of audio steganography are imperceptibility, payload, & robustness. Different applications have different requirements of steganography technique used. This work intends to give an overview of audio steganography, its uses & techniques. Thesis work is an implementation of Audio Steganography of same plaintext, thesis work uses key double layer of data protection, and avalanche in plaintext is very high in present thesis work.

13 Image Interpolation for High Resolution Approximation Method
Shivani Soni, Prof. Mukesh Tiwari

Abstract-The proposed work proposes a unique edgeadaptive image interpolation method using an edge-directed smoothness filter. Many image interpolation techniques are already been developed and designed we are proposing a new method is been used for edge-adaptive image interpolation which uses Newton forward difference. This difference provides very good grouping of pixels ones we consider target pixel for interpolation Proposed approach estimates the enlarged image from the original image based on an observation model. The estimated image is constrained to have many edge-directed smooth pixels which are measured by using the edge-directed smoothness filter. Simulation results for the work is developed using MATLAB and produces images with higher visual quality, higher PSNRs and faster computational times than the conventional methods..

14 Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics and Pressure Drop In the Compact Heat Exchanger Using CFD
Bhoopendra Patel, Pavan Shrivastava

Abstract-Heat transfer is that the most important industrial processes, distributed by heat exchangers in each single and multiphase flow applications. For various heat transfer mechanisms the existence of well-developed theoretical models are available. The increasing need for industrial applications requiring the design and improvement of heat exchangers has created a solid demand for experimental work and effort. Heat exchangers are the vital engineering systems with wide range of applications together with power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, heat recovery systems, and chemical process and food industries. Helical coil configuration is incredibly effective for heat exchangers and chemical reactors because they can accommodate a large heat transfer space in a small area, with high heat transfer coefficients. Our main purpose of study is to judge the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for liquid ammonia owing through the desired interrupted fin heat exchanger at a given mass flux. We simulate the average Stanton number considering all factors for turbulence modeling, likewise as our time and hardware constraints. As we from the CFD results (contour images) pressure drop, static temperature, velocity profile, total energy turbulence kinetic energy etc.

15 Comparative Study of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger in CFD
Ramnaresh Patel, Dharmendra Yadav

Abstract-The heat transfer rate is calculated from on top of formulae from which heat transfer rate is calculated across shell aspect. The contour showing that with the increasing of baffle spacing the heat transfer rate is additionally increases. When analysing the simulation results we are able to say that once we increasing the baffle spacing from 200 to 250 and 250 to 300 the Pressure drop rate is decreases. Owing to this temperature drop rate is increasing therefore heat transfer rate and velocity magnitude is additionally will increase. In shell and tube heat exchanger heat transfer rate is increasing with increasing in baffle spacing owing to pressure drop endlessly decreasing. The heat transfer and flow distribution is mentioned thoroughly and projected model is compared with increasing baffle spacing. So the model will be improved. The belief worked well during this geometry and meshing expects the outlet and inlet region wherever rapid mixing and change in flow direction takes place. Therefore improvement is predicted if the baffle utilized in the model ought to have complete contact with the surface of the shell, can it’ll facilitate in additional turbulence across shell side and therefore the heat transfer rate will increase. If completely different flow rate is taken, it would be help to induce higher heat transfer and to get higher temperature difference between inlet and outlet. moreover the model has provided the reliable results by considering the standard quality k-e and standard wall function model, however this model over predicts the turbulence in regions with massive traditional strain.

16 Numerical Study for Centrifugal Compressor (SRF) Model Using CFX
Pooja Shukla, Pavan Shrivastava

Abstract-Centrifugal compressors are accustomed attain a air mass rise in a very single stage, and are normally seen in aircraft and automotive engines, power generation systems, and gas process applications. Procedure fluid dynamics is employed extensively within the style and analysis of compressors, with the aim of achieving high efficiency for a target pressure rise and flow rate vary. In industrial applications Turbo compressors are wide used. Centrifugal compressor is that the one kind of these machines, that converts kinetic energy in to pressure energy. The Performances of Turbo compressors are use to be analysed by two main result data: pressure magnitude relation and efficiency. These two parameters are varied with volume flow and with the machine movement speed. Centrifugal compressors are wide utilized in industrial applications due to their high efficiency. They’re ready to offer a good operational range before reaching the flow barrier or surge limits. Performances and range are represented by compressor maps. This study represents the single reference frame (SRF) modelling approach for single blade row turbo machinery analysis, because the entire procedure domain is observed a moving reference frame.

17 A Review Paper on Numerical Investigation Flow variables and Heat Transfer in a Boiler Using CFD
Kamlesh Solanki, Yogesh Tembhurne

Abstract-Numerous modern applications, for example, steam era in an evaporator or air cooling in the curl of aeration and cooling system can be displayed as two-dimensional occasional heat stream. This study shows how to set up and take care of an occasional heat exchange issue. The framework that is displayed is a bank of tubes containing a streaming liquid at one temperature that is drenched in a brief moment liquid in cross stream at an alternate temperature. Both liquids are water, and the stream is named laminar and relentless, with a Reynolds number of around 100. The mass stream rate of the cross stream is known and the model is utilized to anticipate the stream and temperature handle that outcome from convective heat exchange. Because of symmetry of the tube bank and the periodicity of the stream intrinsic in the tube bank geometry, just a bit of the geometry will be demonstrated.

18 A Review Paper on Numerical Investigation of Flow variables and Heat Transfer Rate in a Boiler Using CFD
Surendra Patel, Rohit Choudhary

Abstract-Many industrial applications, such as steam generation in a boiler or air cooling in the coil of an air-conditioner, can be modeled as two-dimensional periodic heat flow. This study illustrates how to set up and solve a periodic heat transfer problem. The system that is modeled is a bank of tubes containing a flowing fluid at one temperature that is immersed in a second fluid in cross flow at a different temperature. Both fluids are water, and the flow is classified as laminar and steady, with a Reynolds number of approximately 100. The mass flow rate of the cross flow is known and the model is used to predict the flow and temperature fields that result from convective heat transfer. Due to symmetry of the tube bank and the periodicity of the flow inherent in the tube bank geometry, only a portion of the geometry will be modeled.

19 Sentiment Analysis using Modified Naïve Bayes Classifier
Vidish Raut, Manali Shiurkar, Sumit Anglekar

Abstract-Sentiment Analysis (SA) is an ongoing field of research in text mining field. SA is the computational treatment of opinions, sentiments and subjectivity of text. Sentiments are expression of one’s words in a sentence. Hence understanding the meaning of text in the sentence is of outmost importance to people of various fields like customer reviews in companies, movie reviews in movies, etc. It may involve huge text data to analyze and it becomes totally unviable for manually understanding the meaning of sentences. Machine Learning Classifier algorithm should be used to classify the sentiment of the text data. We have used supervised machine learning algorithm. By using appropriate training data to train our two different classifiers namely Naïve Bayes, Baseline and Maximum Entropy, we can simplify the task of text classification. In general, we accept a keyword by user as input, fetch tweets related to that keyword from twitter, run classifier on that fetched data and display classified results of twitter tweets in terms of positive, negative and neutral along with the count represented by charts.

20 AR Sampler using Image Processing
Smitesh Sawant, Surabhi Pawar, Prateeksha Singh

Abstract-We aim to develop image processing software that will allow us to simulate a musical instrument. Every laptop comes with a front facing camera. We intend to use this camera to capture live video which will be processed in real-time by the software. The user will act as if he is actually playing the musical instrument; the software will recognize his actions and output appropriate music to the speakers. We will release a specially designed sheet of paper that has a musical keyboard printed on it. The user has to print this sheet, keep it in front of the camera and start ’pressing’ the keys of the printed keyboard, as if it were a real-life keyboard. Our software which runs in the background, tries to simulate the key presses and generate appropriate sound.

21 Developing a technique to evaluate 1024 channel DWDM system using Duo_binary modulation

Abstract-Signal modulation format is a key issue, which determines transmission quality and spectral efficiency. The most important facts in system, which affects the choices of all other system parameters, is signal modulation format. Optical communication uses different types of modulation formats for efficient transmission of information from one place to other place. Due to huge demand of channel capacity and long haul transmission with very high speed, different modulation formats had been discovered with multiplexing techniques to cover up the requirements.

22 Quality of service based on Location
P. Anandajayam, E.Renugadevi, P.Sarojini, L.Sivagamy, A.Aafila

Abstract-With the proliferation of web services, effective QoSbased approach to service recommendation is becoming more and more important. Although service recommendation has been studied in the recent literature, the performance of existing ones is not satisfactory, since 1) previous approaches fail to consider the QoS variance according to users’ locations 2) previous recommender systems are all black boxes providing limited information on the performance of the service candidates. In this paper, we propose a novel of a combination of pre-filtering and query rewriting designed for large-scale web service recommendation. The algorithm Different from previous work, our approach employs the characteristic of QoS and achieves considerable improvement on the recommendation accuracy. To help service users better understand the rationale of the recommendation and remove some of the mystery, we use a recommendation visualization technique to show how a recommendation is grouped with other choices. Comprehensive experiments are conducted using more than 1.5 million QoS records of real-world web service invocations. The experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach.br />
23 The Study of Stiffness Irregular Building with Different Types of Bracings
Dr. M N. Bajad, Mahesh N. Suryawanshi

Abstract-Many existing steel buildings need to be retrofitted to overcome the deficiencies to resist the lateral loading. In the present study, G+9 storyed RC building has been modelled and then analysed due to lateral earthquake, dead and live load. The performance of the same steel building has been investigated for different types of bracing system such as concentric (crossed X) bracing and eccentric (V-type) bracing, inverted V bracing, diagonal bracing .The performance of the building has been evaluated in terms of lateral storey displacement, storey drift . There are different techniques of seismic analysis of structure. 'Response Spectrum analysis' is one of the important techniques for structural seismic analysis. Bracing system is one of the retrofitting techniques and it provides an excellent approach for strengthening and stiffening existing building for lateral forces. In this project work seismic analysis of 10 storeys RCC buildings assumed to be situated at seismic zone IV as per the seismic zone map of India with stiffness irregularity at ground floor level are carried out. Seismic analysis of RC building frames with X, V, Inverted V and Diagonal type bracing are done. ISHB 250 was utilized as bracing members. This paper highlights the effect of different lateral bracing system on stiffness irregular structure with 'Response Spectrum' analysis done by using ETABS software.

24 Improvement of the Power Flow in Transmission with NPC by Using DPC Technique

Abstract-In this paper three phase neutral point diode clamped(NPC) converter, implemented and direct power control(DPC)technique is used to control the achieve and reactive power without overshoot or cross coupling and also improve the dynamic performance of the system the Unified power flow control the direct power is valuable control technique. The direct flow control can be used with any topology of voltage source converter. A simulation result of full three phase model confirms minimal control delay, no overshoot or cross coupling. While comparing other controllers we can obtain the better response under balanced and unbalanced conditions.

25 Using Methyl Acetate as Diesel Additive in CI DI Diesel Engines
Dr.K.Balasubramanian, Amrish, Aravind

Abstract-Methyl acetate, also known as MeOAc, acetic acid methyl ester or methyl ethanoate, is a carboxylate ester with the formula CH3COOCH3. It is a flammable liquid with a characteristically pleasant smell reminiscent of some glues and nail polish removers. Preparation and reactions[edit]Methyl acetate is produced industrially via the carboxylation of methanol as a by-product of the production of acetic acid.[5] Methyl acetate also arises by esterification of acetic acid with methanol in the presence of strong acids such as sulphuric acid, this production process is famous because of Eastman Kodak's intensified process using a distillation’s When Methyl Acetate is added with Diesel Engine Thermal Efficiency, SFC, HRR are improved significantly. Likewise remarkable reductions in engine emissions also experienced.