IJEA - Volume 5 Issue 1 (January 2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Identifying Knock-On Delays in the Trains by using Base Classifier
D.Kishore Babu, B.V.Ram Kumar, A.S.G.R.Srinivas

Abstract-Train regularity is one of the most significant success factors for a railway traffic system. And it is one that largely affect on passengers. Despite the importance of punctuality (On-time table, on-time performance, schedule adherence [agreement]), there seems to be a lack of broad understanding when it comes to the formation the act of punctuality. Within a railway traffic system, delays concatenate easily, that is, a single delay is likely to cause many other delays, socalled secondary delays. As well as ternary delays, to date, most of the studies related to delays have examined only stations and station-like systems. It is more important to limit the lengths of the transport times, rather than having high punctuality, i.e. adherence to timetable. Generally, for freight transports it is difficult to give an estimation of the cost for unpunctuality. However, especially within a singletracked infrastructure as in India a notable portion of ternary delays takes place outside stations. Thus, the examination of delay concatenation should be done by considering the whole network.

2 A Generalised Privacy and Security Framework for Online Social Networks
Mahavir A. Devmane, N. K. Rana

Abstract-The rapid growth of the volume of user-generated data on the Online Social Networking (OSN) sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, MySpace and Google+ has raised the privacy and security concern. As there are more than a Billion users of these Online Social Networks across the globe this is a serious matter to be handled with priority. The results of our previous work in field of privacy as well as analysis based on the outcomes of the survey conducted by us, it is found that OSN users are less careful about privacy and security of their own data. So there is a need of time to design a privacy and security framework for the Online Social Networks. The proposed privacy and security framework take into consideration not only the users but also the Online Social Network and Third-Parties related to it. So this framework will be a complete and unique considering all the entities. Further this framework will not be related to a typical Online Social Network but it will be general in nature and applicable to all the existing OSNs as well as will be useful while designing new Online Social Networks.

3 Effect of Process Parameters on Software Sizes by Using UML- A Review
Abhay Kushwaha, Anil Singh

Abstract-In Software Engineering, measuring the software is an important activity. For measuring the software appropriate metrics are needed. Using software metrics we are able to attain the various qualitative and quantitative aspects of software. Software Metrics are a unit of measurement to measure the software in terms of quality, size, efforts, efficiency, reliability, performance etc. Measures of specific attributes of the process, project and product are used to compute software metrics. In this work authors have tried to identify the effect of such parameters based upon Unified Modeling Languages and a graph has been plotted to show the effect of said parameters.

4 Interruption of Faults in Radial Distribution System by Using DVR
Kavitha Desai, M.Roshaiah

Abstract-This paper introduces and evaluates an auxiliary control strategy for downstream fault current interruption in a radial distribution line by means of a Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR).The proposed controller supplements the voltage sag compensation control of the DVR. Dynamic voltage restorers (DVR) can provide the most essential solution to reduce the voltage sag by injecting voltage into the system .The Dynamic voltage Restorer (DVR) is fast, flexible and more efficient solution to voltage sag problem The DVR is a series compensator used to mitigate the voltage sags and to restore load voltage to its rated value. In this project, an overview of the DVR and its functions, configurations, components, operating modes, voltage injection methods and closed loop control of the DVR output voltages are reviewed along with the device capabilities and limitations. This project presents modeling, analysis and simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) in MATLAB SIMULINK. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and understand the performance of the DVR under various fault conditions such as three phases to ground, line to line fault etc. The results showed clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

5 Voltage regulation in multiple distributed energy resources by using adaptive voltage control technique
K. Sindhu, G.Laxminarayana, M. Narendar Reddy

Abstract-An adaptive voltage control method has been proposed to dynamically modify the control parameters of a single Distributed energy (DE) to respond to system changes such that the ideal response can be achieved. Theoretical analysis shows that a corresponding formulation of the dynamic control parameters exists; hence, the adaptive control method is theoretically solid. Then, control methods have been discussed in the case of multiple Distributed energy resources regulating voltages considering the availability of communications among all the Distributed energy resources. When communications are readily available, a method is proposed to directly calculate the needed adaptive change of the Distributed energy resource control parameters in order to achieve the ideal response. When there is no communication available, an approach to adaptively and incrementally adjust the control parameters based on the local voltage changes is proposed. Since the impact from other Distributed energy resources is implicitly considered in this approach, multiple Distributed energy resources can collectively regulate voltages closely following the ideal response curve.

6 Comparative Study of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels for Industrial Purposes Using CFD
Himanshu Singh, Jitendra Raghuvanshi

Abstract-In this study we have a tendency to investigate the potentials for substitution conventional fuels in various applications. Such investigations need systems-level approaches flexible to handle multiple criteria, uncertainty, and therefore the views of multiple stakeholders. Use of standard fossil fuels is widely increasing but there are growing considerations regarding the protection of their offer, volatility in their costs and the environmental impacts of their extraction and use. Within the gift work, numerical simulations were meted out, exploitation the finite volume methodology, with the aim of analyzing and comparison the combustion method within a furnace when in operation with three sorts of fuel: Heptane, Hexane and Pentane all is reacting with air in totally different mass flow and air velocity. The results are showing the temperature distribution, droplet profiles and mass fraction.

7 Numerical Study for Nox Reduction in a Marine Diesel Engine Using SCR
Saurabh Verma, Nitin Malviya

Abstract-Combustion of a modern slow velocity diesel engine produces exhaust gases which encompass gases together with NOx, SOx, CO, CO2. Of these NOx is most crucial due their feasible carcinogenic effect, contribution to photochemical smog formation over towns. This NOx converted to high-quality particles and nitrate aerosols. These particles get thru the lungs and small enough to pass via the tissue and enter the blood. They can then cause inflammations which subsequently purpose heart and lungs failure. The NOx can be reduced each by using pre-remedy like enhancing gasoline valve design, by means of varying the gasoline timing, blending of water with the gasoline and introducing water vapour in the combustion chamber and submit combustion remedy (e.g. SCR, Exhaust gasoline recirculation approach), of those SCR i.e. Selective catalytic reactor is part of the satisfactory tool for folks that are inquisitive about NOx reduction. With the SCR method, the exhaust gasoline is mixed with ammonia NH3 or urea (as NH3 carrier) earlier than passing via a layer of a special catalyst at a temperature among three hundred and 400°C, wherein NOx is reduced to harmless N2 and H2O. The SCR can reduce the NOx emission by ninety to ninety five % however it depends upon the diverse restricting factors like the temp difference of the reactor , the degradation or deactivation of catalyst over the years , SO2 to SO3 conversion which similarly converted to Sulphuric acid, Crystallization of Urea in the injector nozzle.

8 A Study on Computational Evaluation of Emissions for Non- Premixed Methanol Combustion
Nikita Gupta, Ashish Muchrikar, Pavan Shrivastava

Abstract-The purpose of this study is to find out the percentage of NOX after the combustion of Methanol is our main interest which will help to reduce the formation of smog and acidic rain and many other harmful effects. Computational fluid dynamics is a widely used tool in optimizing natural gas burners, for instance, emission issues and the process of combustion of natural gas to detect the NOX formation like mass fraction of NO, NO2 and N2O. In order to save lots of procedure time, the flow is sculptured with an axis- Symmetrical formulation in fluent ANSYS 14.5. However with computational efforts calculating three-dimensional turbulent flames, there is necessity of simplified models in order to simulate the combustion reactions and the NOx formation. Hitherto, models explain thermal NO and prompt formation of NO, respectively, were applied in a post-processing step. Whereas, the flow field including combustion has been determined in the three-dimensional geometry. A modelling strategy has been adopted to diminish the computational time and thus to make the simulations affordable.

9 A Review Paper on Numerical Simulation of a Helical Heat Exchanger with Parameters
Pradeep Tripathi, Rohit Kumar Choudhary

Abstract-Flow and heat transfer modelling solution for industry Continuous and rapid technological advances in industrial processing require that design and operation problems be resolved as quickly as possible in order to keep companies competitive, particularly in terms of energy efficiency and low costs. For many years, experiments and empirical analysis have been the preferred solution tools for industrial analysis. Despite the robust and reliable nature of experimental methodology, certain factors limit its applicability scope. For example, flows in process installations are usually very complex; the use of experimental methodology in related analysis may demand significant simplification or a vast number of experiments to achieve an acceptable solution, indicating both cost and time constraints. Thus it has become a necessity to use advanced modelling and simulation tools in industry, and the number of industries benefitting from these products continues to expand. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a computer simulation technique used for fluid flow and heat transfer modelling. Based on increasingly powerful computer resources, CFD can be applied to solve industrial flow and complex phenomenon problems. However, there still exists a lack of data for CFD applications in different industrial areas enabling the development of general guidelines in specific numerical heat and flow studies.

10 A Simulative Study of Mass Transfer in Film Boiling Process Using Fluent (CFD)
Pratiksha Pandey, Pavan Shrivastava

Abstract-Among the assorted modes of heat transport to liquids, film boiling is taken into consideration when be associate inefficient mechanism. However, in several sensible engineering applications it happens. Consequently, film boiling should be examined and understood for design applications. Film boiling is invariably encountered in termination of metals, in chilling of biological species, in regenerative cooling of rockets, and in cooling down a refrigerant fuel tank, and generally film boiling may also happen within the apparatus or within the cryogenic. In present study we use volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model, we solve the case using appropriate solver settings and solution monitors. In multiphase interface mechanism an insufficient study has been seen in worldwide so that we decide to study in film boiling mechanism. Film boiling is invariably encountered in quenching of metals, in chilling of biological species, in regenerative cooling of rockets, and in cooling down a cryogenic fuel tank, and sometimes film boiling can also happen in the nuclear reactor or in the cryomagnet. Present study provides guidelines and recommendations for setting up and solving film boiling problems and suggests mesh resolution and solver settings.

11 Numerical Investigation of Pin-Fin Heat Sink by Transient Analysis Using CFD
Rajesh Kumar Ahirwal, Ajit Prakash Rastogi

Abstract-For over 10 years, examinations have been led to better comprehend the liquid stream and heat move attributes in siliconbased miniaturized scale channel heat sinks intended for applications in electronic cooling. These non-round channels and silicon based smaller scale channel heat sinks join the qualities of high material similarity, high surface zone per unit volume proportions and substantial potential heat exchange execution with very advanced and financial creation process. These preferences make these silicon based small scale channel heat sinks to a great degree appealing for a wide assortment of business applications. In this study we investigate electronic chips cooling with constrained convection of water in silicon based single miniaturized scale channel heat sinks by the assistance of a business CFD programming FLUENT. The computational area is disparaged with non-uniform matrices on the stream confront yet uniform network along the stream. For single miniaturized scale channel, the framework is produced by executing Gambit programming, which is fused with Cooper strategy for 3- dimensional matrix era.

12 Comparative Analysis of Heliacal Heat Exchanger with Different Material Using CFD
Raj Vicky, Dahare Santosh Kumar

Abstract-Broadening the change of heat by the utilization of Shell And Tube heat exchanger has been contemplated and inquired about by numerous scientists, on the grounds that the motion of liquid inside the channels of a Shell And Tube heat exchanger offer certain focal points over the shell and tube sort, straight tubes heat exchanger, as far as better change of heat and mass exchange coefficients. Different designs of arrangement are conceivable, and the structure in which there is a progression of vertically unstructured Shell and Tube is the most widely recognized sort. The one end of the tubes go about as the delta and flip side go about as outlet manifolds, which fill the need for the passage and way out of hot and additionally frosty liquid. This design offers a high minimized setup and a high general heat exchange coefficient; subsequently Shell And Tube heat exchangers are broadly utilized as a part of modern applications, for example, power area like atomic force era plants, power plants, heat recuperation frameworks, refrigeration and aerating and cooling commercial enterprises, sustenance handling plants, nourishment industry, mechanical HVACs and so forth.

13 Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Investigation of Nox Emissions for Non Premixed Ethanol Combustion
Dheeraj Sharma, Yogesh Tembhurne

Abstract-The reason for this study is to discover the rate of NOX after the burning of Natural gas is our principle interest which will lessen the development of brown haze and acidic downpour and numerous other destructive impacts. Computational fluid dynamics is a generally utilized instrument as a part of improving common gas burners, for occasion, outflow issues and the procedure of ignition of normal gas to identify the NOX arrangement like mass division of NO, NO2 and N2O. Keeping in mind the end goal to spare heaps of system time, the stream is melded with a pivot Symmetrical definition in familiar ANSYS 14.5. However with computational endeavours ascertaining threedimensional turbulent blazes, there is need of disentangled models keeping in mind the end goal to mimic the ignition responses and the NOx arrangement. Up to this point, models clarify heat NO and brief arrangement of NO, individually, was connected in a post-handling step. Though, the stream field including ignition has been resolved in the three-dimensional geometry. A demonstrating methodology has been received to reduce the computational time and in this manner to make the re-enactments moderate.

14 A Study on Recycled Aggregate Concrete
Nitesh Sahu, A. K. Saxcena

Abstract-The principle fixing in creating cement is Aggregate. It just about spreads 75% of the aggregate for any solid blend. The quality of the solid delivered is reliant on the properties of totals utilized. Be that as it may, the development business is progressively making higher requests of this material and is dreaded to oblige the numerous solicitations at one time. With this need different distinct options for keep this from happening. The study was led on reused total from wrecked cement. This study expects to examine the qualities of reused total solid, which comprises of different evaluations of solidified cement is broken (reuse total).

15 Bioremediation of Arsenic by a Three Tier Composite System and Characterisation of Gram Negative Short Rods from Pesticide Contaminated Wastewater
Binayak Sarkar, Maitreyee Ghoshal, Angira Das, Dr.Arup Kumar Mitra

Abstract-Arsenic contamination possesses a major threat to a large section of the people of West Bengal, particularly in the districts of North and South 24 Parganas, Malda, Murshidabad, Howrah, Hooghly, Bardhhaman, Nadia etc. affecting nearly 30 million people (WHO report, December, 2012). With this respect, the common Cattail (Typha latifolia ) has proved to be quite efficient in the uptake of arsenic from arsenic contaminated soil. In this study, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of arsenic biosorption by a three tier composite system containing three combinations - Plant in Knop’s Solution, plant with Alterneria spp and the plant with a bacterial suspension. The entire arrangement has reduced the supplied initial Sodium Arsenite concentration from 110 mg/L to 29.180 mg/L, over a period of 45 days as detected by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectroscopy) with the arrangement containing the plant and the fungal culture proving to be the most efficient (more than 50% uptake).The second phase of the experiment focuses on the biochemical analysis, characterisation and an approximate Genus level identification of the isolated bacteria by different biochemical tests. The bacterial strain isolated was found to be Gram negative straight rods showing positive results in catalase, oxygenase and Citrate-utilization tests and negative in Indole, Methyl Red and Voges-Proskauer tests. Based on the biochemical results, colony morphology and its arsenic tolerant behaviour, the Genus was proposed to be Xanthomonas. spp.Thus, the work has wide future applications as combined action of the plant, fungi and bacteria has shown promising results.