IJAIR- Volume 5 Issue 9 (September 2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Simulation on Fluidised Bed Biomass Gasifier Using ASPEN Plus
Pawan Kumar Sahu, Vishwajeet Kureel

Abstract — The use of biomass as a resource of energy has been additional improved in recent years and special concentration has been rewarded to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing importance in biomass gasification, several models have been projected in order to explain and identify with this complex process, and the design, simulation, optimization and process investigation of gasifiers have been carried out. The main aim of this study is to develop a comprehensive process model for biomass gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier using the ASPEN PLUS simulator. A disadvantage in using ASPEN PLUS is not having of a library model to simulate fluidized bed unit process. However, it is feasible for users to input their own models, using FORTRAN codes nested within the ASPEN PLUS input file, to simulate operation of a fluidized bed. The products of homogeneous reactions are defined by Gibbs equilibrium and reaction rate kinetics are used to determine the products of char gasification. The intention of this study to evaluate the previous research study to develop a model of the FICFB gasifier for rice husk as a biomass feed stocks, for predicting the steady-state performance of the model, validate it against actual plant data and utilize it to examine the influence of the main operating parameters on gasifier performance.

2 A Review and analysis on “Simulation on Fluidised Bed Biomass Gasifier Using ASPEN Plus”
Pawan Kumar Sahu, Vishwajeet Kureel

Abstract — The use of biomass as a resource of energy has been additional improved in recent years and special concentration has been rewarded to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing importance in biomass gasification, several models have been projected in order to explain and identify with this complex process, and the design, simulation, optimisation and process investigation of gasifiers have been carried out. The objective of this study to analyse the previous research study to develop a model of the FICFB gasifier for rice husk as a biomass feed stocks, for predicting the steady-state performance of the model, validate it against actual plant data and utilize it to examine the influence of the main operating parameters on gasifier performance.

3 Earthquake Resistant Design of Low-Rise Open Ground Storey Framed Building
Chinnam Vinay Kumar, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Presence of infill walls in the frames alters the behaviour of the building under lateral loads. However, it is common industry practice to ignore the stiffness of infill wall for analysis of framed building. Engineers believe that analysis without considering infill stiffness leads to a conservative design. But this may not be always true, especially for vertically irregular buildings with discontinuous infill walls. Hence, the modelling of infill walls in the seismic analysis of framed buildings is imperative. Indian Standard IS 1893: 2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. As per the code the columns and beams of the open ground storey are to be designed for 2.5 times the storey shears and moments calculated under seismic loads of bare frames (i.e., without considering the infill stiffness). However, as experienced by the engineers at design offices, the multiplication factor of 2.5 is not realistic for low rise buildings. This calls for an assessment and review of the code recommended multiplication factor for low rise open ground storey buildings. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is defined as to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and to study the effect of infill strength and stiffness in the seismic analysis of low rise open ground storey building. Infill walls can be modelled in commercial software using twodimensional area element with appropriate material properties for linear elastic analysis. But this type of modelling may not work for non-linear analysis since the non-linear material properties for a two-dimensional orthotropic element is not very well understood. Seismic evaluation of an existing reinforced concrete (RC) framed building would invariably require a nonlinear analysis. Published literature in this area recommends a linear diagonal strut approach to model infill wall for both linear (Equivalent Static Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis) and nonlinear analyses (Pushover Analysis and Time History Analysis). An existing RC framed building (G+3) with open ground storey located in Seismic Zone-V is considered for this study. This building is analyzed for two different cases: (a) considering both infill mass and infill stiffness and (b) considering infill mass but without considering infill stiffness. Two separate models were generated using commercial software SAP2000. Infill weights were modelled through applying static dead load and corresponding masses considered from this dead load for dynamic analyses. Infill stiffness was modelled using a diagonal strut approach. Two different support conditions, namely fixed end support condition and pinned end support condition, are considered to check the effect of support conditions in the multiplication factors. Linear and non-linear analyses were carried out for the models and the results were compared. The analysis results show that a factor of 2.5 is too high to be multiplied to the beam and column forces of the ground storey of low-rise open ground storey buildings. This study conclude that the problem of open ground storey buildings cannot be identified properly through elastic analysis as the stiffness of open ground storey building and a similar bare-frame building are almost same. Nonlinear analysis reveals that open ground storey building fails through a ground storey mechanism at a comparatively low base shear and displacement and the mode of failure is found to be brittle. Linear and nonlinear analyses show that support condition influences the response considerably and can be an important parameter to decide the force amplification factor.

4 Strengthening Of Shear Deficient RC T-Beams with Externally Bonded FRP Sheets
Dhoddy Paramesh, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — The rehabilitation of existing reinforced concrete (RC) bridges and building becomes necessary due to ageing, corrosion of steel reinforcement, defects in construction/design, demand in the increased service loads, and damage in case of seismic events and improvement in the design guidelines. Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) have emerged as promising material for rehabilitation of existing reinforced concrete structures. The rehabilitation of structures can be in the form of strengthening, repairing or retrofitting for seismic deficiencies. RC T-section is the most common shape of beams and girders in buildings and bridges. Shear failure of RC T-beams is identified as the most disastrous failure mode as it does not give any advance warning before failure. The shear strengthening of RC T-beams using externally bonded (EB) FRP composites has become a popular structural strengthening technique, due to the well-known advantages of FRP composites such as their high strength-toweight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. A few studies on shear strengthening of RC T-beams using externally bonded FRP sheets have been carried out but still the shear performance of FRP strengthened beams has not been fully understood. The present study therefore explores the prospect of strengthening structurally deficient T-beams by using an externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP). This study assimilates the experimental works of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) retrofitted RC T-beams under symmetrical four-point static loading system. The thirteen number of beams were of the following configurations, (i) one number of beam was considered as the control beam, (ii) seven number of the beams were strengthened with different configurations and orientations of GFRP sheets, (iii) three number of the beams strengthened by GFRP with steel bolt-plate, and (iv) two number of beams with web openings strengthened by U-wrap in the shear zone of the beams. The first beam, designated as control beam failed in shear. The failures of strengthened beams are initiated with the debonding failure of FRP sheets followed by brittle shear failure. However, the shear capacity of these beams has increased as compared to the control beam which can be further improved if the debonding failure is prevented. An innovative method of anchorage technique has been used to prevent these premature failures, which as a result ensure full utilization of the strength of FRP. A theoretical study has also been carried out to support few of the experimental findings.

5 Flexural and Shear Strengthening of RC Beams with FRP –An Experimental Study
Gannarapu Vijay, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — This study deals with experimental investigation for enhancing the flexural and shear capacity of RC beams using Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) and Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Fifteen concrete beam specimens with dimensions of 110mm width, 200mm height and 1300mm length were fabricated in the laboratory. As per practical consideration of pre-stressed bridge girders, one 30mm diameter longitudinal hole was provided below the neutral axis in the tension zone in all the beams for future strengthening, service lines and other consideration. The geometry of all beams was kept constant, while steel reinforcement varied as per initial design. Out of 15 beams four were control beams. One beam was made without any steel reinforcement strengthened with two layers of GFRP fabrics U- jacketed over the full span. Five beams were weak in flexure, strengthened using GFRP fabrics with varying configurations in higher flexural zone. Four beams were weak in shear, (tied with two 6-Ø stirrups in each support, one 6-Ø stirrup at mid span to keep the grill intact for concreting) strengthened using GFRP fabrics with varying configurations in higher shear zones near both supports. One beam was made weak in shear, strengthened with CFRP fabrics in higher shear zones near both supports. All the beams were simply supported at both ends with 1000mm effective span, 150mm bearings, loaded under more realistic loading conditions, i.e. uniformly distributed loaded (UDL) and tested up to failure by gradually increasing super imposed load. The preparation of concrete surface was done with great care and showed no bond failure in all U-jacketed and inclined stripped beams. One beam bonded with GFRP fabric in the soffit bottom only failed due to debonding.The flexural and shear capacities of the beams are compared with the theoretical prediction using codal provisions. The experimental deflection of beams are also compared with the theoretical predictions. The beams weak in flexure after strengthening showed remarkable flexural strength with 33% to 83% increase in cracking load capacity with respect to the control beam depending on the configuration of GFRP. The four beams weak in shear after strengthening showed 25% to 81% increase in cracking load capacity with respect to the control beam depending on the configuration of GFRP. One beam shear strengthened with CFRP showed remarkable increase of 131% in cracking load capacity and rigidity with respect to the control beam which is highest in the series of tested beams. There was increase in the stiffness of all strengthened beams compared to the control beams.

6 Seismic Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Buildings under Varying Frequency Contents
Kasthuri Santhosh Kumar, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Earthquake is the result of sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust that generates seismic waves. Ground shaking and rupture are the major effects generated by earthquakes. It has social as well as economic consequences such as causing death and injury of living things especially human beings and damages the built and natural environment. In order to take precaution for the loss of life and damage of structures due to the ground motion, it is important to understand the characteristics of the ground motion. The most important dynamic characteristics of earthquake are peak ground acceleration (PGA), frequency content, and duration. These characteristics play predominant rule in studying the behavior of structures under seismic loads.The strength of ground motion is measured based on the PGA, frequency content and how long the shaking continues. Ground motion has different frequency contents such as low, intermediate, and high. Present work deals with study of frequency content of ground motion on reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Linear time history analysis is performed in structural analysis and design (STAAD Pro) software. The proposed method is to study the response of low, mid, and high- rise reinforced concrete buildings under low, intermediate, and highfrequency content ground motions. Both regular and irregular three-dimension two, six, and twenty- story RC buildings with six ground motions of low, intermediate, and high-frequency contents having equal duration and peak ground acceleration (PGA) are studied herein. The response of the buildings due to the ground motions in terms of story displacement, story velocity, story acceleration, and base shear are found. The responses of each ground motion for each type of building are studied and compared. The results show that low- frequency content ground motions have significant effect on both regular as well as irregular RC buildings. However, high-frequency content ground motions have very less effect on responses of the regular as well as irregular RC buildings.

7 Seismic analysis of building with floating column
M. Indrasena reddy, vallepu vishnu vardhan

Abstract — In present scenario buildings with floating column is a typical feature in the modern multistory construction in urban India. Such features are highly undesirable in building built in seismically active areas. This study highlights the importance of explicitly recognizing the presence of the floating column in the analysis of building. Alternate measures, involving stiffness balance of the first storey and the storey above, are proposed to reduce the irregularity introduced by the floating columns. FEM codes are developed for 2D multi storey frames with and without floating column to study the responses of the structure under different earthquake excitation having different frequency content keeping the PGA and time duration factor constant. The time history of floor displacement, inter storey drift, base shear, overturning moment are computed for both the frames with and without floating column.

8 3-D Analysis of Building Frame using STAAD-PRO
Mahammed Attaullah Khan, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — In these modern days the Buildings are made to fulfill our basic aspects and better Serviceability. It is not an issue to construct a Building any how its, important to construct an efficient building which will serve for many years without showing any failure. The Project titled “3-D ANALYSIS OF BUILDING FRAME USING STAAD-PRO”, aims in finding Better technique for creating Geometry, Defining the cross sections for column and beam etc, Creating specification and supports (to define a support weather it is fixed or pinned),then the Loads are defined. After that the model is analyzed by „run analysis‟. Then reviewing (whether beam column passed in loads or failed) results. Then the design is performed. In 21st century due to huge population the no of areas in units are decreasing day by day. Few years back the populations were not so vast so they used to stay in Horizontal system(due to large area available per person).But now a day‟s people preferring Vertical System(high rise building due to shortage of area).In high rise buildings we should concern about all the forces that act on a building ,its own weight as well as the soil bearing capacity .For external forces that act on the building the beam, column and reinforcement should be good enough to counteract these forces successfully. And the soil should be good enough to pass the load successfully to the foundation. For loose soil we preferred deep foundation (pile).If we will do so much calculation for a high rise building manually then it will take more time as well as human errors can be occurred. So the use of STAAD-PRO will make it easy. STAAD-PRO can solve typical problem like Static analysis, Seismic analysis and Natural frequency. These type of problem can be solved by STAAD-PRO along with IS-CODE. Moreover STAAD-PRO has a greater advantage than the manual technique as it gives more accurate and precise result than the manual technique. STAAD-PRO was born giant. It is the most popular software used now a days.Basically it is performing design works. There are four steps using STAAD-PRO to reach the goal.

9 Analysis and Capacity Based Earthquake Resistant Design of Multibay Multi Storeyed RC Frame
Vanga Mahesh, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Earthquakes in different parts of the world demonstrated the disastrous consequences and vulnerability of inadequate structures. Many reinforced concrete (RC) framed structures located in zones of high seismicity in India are constructed without considering the seismic codal provisions. The vulnerability of inadequately designed structures represents seismic risk to occupants. The main cause of failure of multistorey multi-bay reinforced concrete frames during seismic motion is the soft storey sway mechanism or column sway mechanism. If the frame is designed on the basis of strong column-weak beam concept the possibilities of collapse due to sway mechanisms can be completely eliminated. In multi storey frame this can be achieved by allowing the plastic hinges to form, in predetermined sequences only at the ends of all the beams while the columns remain essentially in elastic stage and by avoiding shear mode of failures in columns and beams. This procedure for design is known as Capacity based design which would be the future design philosophy for earthquake resistant design of multi storey multi bay reinforced concrete frames. The aim of this project work is to present a detailed worked out example on seismic analysis and capacity based design of fourstorey reinforced concrete frame building.

10 Strengthening of RC Continuous Beam Using FRP Sheet
Zubair Ahmed, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Strengthening structures via external bonding of advanced fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite is becoming very popular worldwide during the past decade because it provides a more economical and technically superior alternative to the traditional techniques in many situations as it offers high strength, low weight, corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, easy and rapid installation and minimal change in structural geometry. Although many in-situ RC beams are continuous in construction, there has been very limited research work in the area of FRP strengthening of continuous beams. In the present study an experimental investigation is carried out to study the behavior of continuous RC beams under static loading. The beams are strengthened with externally bonded glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets. Different scheme of strengthening have been employed. The program consists of fourteen continuous (two-span) beams with overall dimensions equal to (150×200×2300) mm. The beams are grouped into two series labeled S1 and S2 and each series have different percentage of steel reinforcement. One beam from each series (S1 and S2) was not strengthened and was considered as a control beam, whereas all other beams from both the series were strengthened in various patterns with externally bonded GFRP sheets. The present study examines the responses of RC continuous beams, in terms of failure modes, enhancement of load capacity and load deflection analysis. The results indicate that the flexural strength of RC beams can be significantly increased by gluing GFRP sheets to the tension face. In addition, the epoxy bonded sheets improved the cracking behaviour of the beams by delaying the formation of visible cracks and reducing crack widths at higher load levels. The experimental results were validated by using finite element method.

11 Vibration Analysis of Structures
Mannan Nayeem, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — The present focuses on dynamic nature of various structures present in an environment where they are bound to undergo vibrations. In such vibrating conditions when they are subjected to a resonance they experience high amplitudes, leading to the failure of the structure. Hence, the study of operating frequencies of 1) Machine Foundations i) Los Angels Abrasion Machine ii) Jaw Crushing Machine 2) Fiber Reinforced Glass Composites – varying the number of layers i) 16 layers ii) 12 layers 3) Steel Flats In this study we have used a non computational technique for analysis of dynamic nature of structures. Brüel&Kjær PULSE™, Multi-analyzer System Type 3560 was used in the analysis. The operating frequency ranges in case of Los Angels Abrasion Machine is found to be 48 Hz – first frequency and 73 Hz – second frequency. In case of Jaw Crushing Machine is 42.2 Hz – first frequency and 71.8 Hz – second frequency. Whereas, in case of steel flat the operating frequency is found to be 41.50 Hz. The fiber reinforced glass composites were decreased in area in a regular pattern and the pattern of frequency variation was observed. In case of 16 layers the first frequency decreased from 284 Hz – 236 Hz and the second frequency also depicted similar pattern. In case of 12 layers the first frequency decreased from 190 Hz – 160 Hz and the second frequency varied from 588 Hz – 390 Hz. The observed trend is justified as the value of K decreases as we decrease the area of the sample. We have also studied the determination of Buckling load from frequency study in case of a steel flat. When steel flat is subjected to increasing axial load the operating frequency is observed to decrease. When this operating frequency tends to zero the axial load nears the buckling load of that structure. 30cm steel flat is tested in a UTM under increasing axial load. The initial frequency under no load condition is 260 Hz. Under a load of 0.4 ton the first frequency decreases to 168 Hz. Extrapolating the decreasing trend we get the buckling load as 1.1739 ton. A similar trend was observed in case of second frequencies. The vibration analysis of the foundations of various machines will help us in designing them such that their serviceability is increased. Similarly, fiber reinforced composites are being used in various structural members. These demands require a deeper understanding of fiber composite behavior. Composites offer great promise as light weight and strong structural materials. The study of dynamic behavior of a structure holds at most importance in evaluating its engineering performance and serviceability.

12 A New Interleaved Three-Phase Single-Stage PFC AC–DC Converter
Nyalakonda Venkataramana Reddy

Abstract — The widespread use of non-linear loads, such as variable speed drives (VSDs), power factor improvement has become more difficult. The presence of harmonic currents cause power capacitors to absorb them, as capacitor impedance is inversely proportional to frequency. The effects are overheating and increased dielectric stress of power capacitors, which result in their premature failure. These traditional approaches can also interact with harmonics, leading to harmonic amplifications at resonant frequency, which can damage the capacitors or components of the system. A new integrated three-level ac–dc converter is presented. The proposed converter integrates the operation of the boost power factor correction and the three-level dc–dc converter. The converter is made to operate with two independent controllers—an input controller that performs power factor correction and regulates the dc bus and an output controller that regulates the output voltage. The input controller prevents the dc-bus voltage from becoming excessive while still allowing a single-stage converter topology to be used. The paper explains the operation of the new converter in detail and discusses its features and a procedure for its proper design.

13 Reducing the Fault Current and Overvoltage in a Distribution System with Distributed Generation Units through an Active Type SFCL
Sunke Ajay

Abstract — For a power distribution system with distributed generation (DG) units, its fault current and induced overvoltage under abnormal conditions should be taken into account seriously. In consideration that applying superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) may be a feasible solution, in this project, the effects of a voltage compensation type active SFCL on them are studied through theoretical derivation and simulation. The active SFCL is composed of an air-core superconducting transformer and a PWM converter. The magnetic field in the air-core can be controlled by adjusting the converters output current, and then the active SFCLs equivalent impedance can be regulated for current limitation and possible overvoltage suppression. During the study process, in view of the changes in the locations of the DG units connected to the system, the DG units injection capacities and the fault positions, the active SFCLs current-limiting and overvoltage suppressing characteristics are both simulated in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the active SFCL can play an obvious role in restraining the fault current and overvoltage, and it can contribute to avoiding damage on the relevant distribution equipment and improve the systems safety and reliability.

14 A methodology to detect malicious web sites using Classification algorithm
Dr.P.Suresh, K.N.Nithya, B.Manivannan

Abstract — Malicious codes have been a major ad hock initiating from a local computer destruction which perpetuates even in malfunctioning of Internet by causing invincible attacks to the IP addresses. An attempt is made to pre-study the URL sites before the end users visit. In this paper, we implement an automated URL classification algorithm using Bayesian methods that determines malicious and benign websites from the list of URLs provided. The method is very effective at the server side as detection process is done beforehand and after letting the websites to be used by the end users.It is found to be very efficient in detecting malicious websites with only modest false positives.

15 Differential draft the bottoms of vertical reservoirs, operating in Arctic conditions
A.A. Alexeev, A. M. Bolshakov, N.K.Malarov

Abstract — The analysis of differential draft the bottoms of vertical welded reservoirs operating in Arctic conditions. As a result of leveling and plumb, it was found that there is a significant excess of standards deviations reservoirs horizontally and vertically, which can cause an accident. The results of investigation of fracture and damage to reservoirs.

16 Comparison of RCS calculations of Complex Targets by using FDTD –Based Virtual Tools

Abstract — Radar cross section is one of the key parameters in the detection of targets. It is used to describe the amount of scattered power from a target towards the radar. A novel, accelerated, and parallelized Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) based radar cross section (RCS) prediction tool, MGLFastRCS, is used for different complex targets are simulated via both the finite difference time domain method and the Method of Moments (MOM).The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investigation and performs the FDTD RCS analysis. It also automatically constructs a MoM wire grid model of the targets; therefore, it is also possible to compare FDTD results against the MoM- based data. Another FDTD-based RCS Virtual prediction tool,MGL-RCS, was designed in such a way as to automatically constructs a wire-grid model of the structure under investigation.

17 Design and Development of low cost CNC 3- axis vacuum gripper Material Handling Equipment
Anjana.S.Balehosur, A.K Murthy

Abstract — Increment in the fast development of Technologyfundamentally expanded the use and usage of CNC frameworks in businesses however at impressive costly. The CNC (Computer Numerical Control) is an innovation which expects to produce, parse and execute consecutive activities in Material Handling by reducing manufacturing cycle time, delays, damages and promote safety and improve working conditions. The taught on creation of ease CNC Material Handling equipment to decrease the expense by using elements of standard PC interface with open source Arduino uno frame work. The paper talks about 3-axis Handling operation done easily by simple G-Code parser on the small scale controller from a USB. Programing created in Gbrl controller and set up a correspondence between machine and the PC. The Handling of materials done with help of Air compressor which creates vacuum and suction cup helps in picking and placing.

18 A New Approach to Detection of Blood Vessels and Optic Disc from Digital Fundus Images
P.P.Muralikrishna, B.Manikanth

Abstract — Retinal image analysis is the most important for detecting diagnosis in modern ophthalmology. In this paper, we present a novel method to detect blood vessels and optic disc from fundus retinal images. The early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy are damages the retina, is crucial to the protection of the vision of diabetes sufferers. This method is useful to detect the diagnosis in the fundus retinal images like diabetic retinopathy, hypertension and glaucoma. In this histogram equalization technique is used for detection of blood vessels from digital fundus retinal images and histogram matching method is used for detecting optic disc.

19 Secure Communication Based on SVD and 3DWT (SVD3DWT) Watermarking
Ruchi Pachori, Amit Mishra

Abstract — Watermarking is an approach to hide the data (image in our case) efficiently into any covering object (image in our case) and it should be done in such a manner that any intruder cannot interpret it by any means. As per IEEE standard stegno image cannot be interpreted easily by any intruder. The proposed method is been developed in such a way that our generated stegno image follows the same standard. So, the total SNR observed for any scenario where the data image and cover image has the ratio of 1:8 or less & more than 82.9. In the proposed work we have achieved minimum SNR is 85.93 for data image and cover image and it has ratio of 1:25 and maximum SNR is 98.3 data image and cover image and it has ration of 1:62 .It has a good result in terms of the ratio as compared with the previous work in the same area.

20 Huffman Coding Based Lossless Image Compression Method with High SNR
Purn Chandra Jha, Amit Mishra

Abstract — Compression is used about everywhere. Images are very important documents nowadays; to work with them in some applications they need to be compressed, more or less depending on the purpose of the application. There are various algorithms that performs this compression in different ways; some are lossless and keep the same information as the original image, some others loss information when compressing the image. In this paper I have been working with Huffman lossless compression algorithms for different grayscale images. I have seen how well the different format work for each of the images. The compression ratio (CR) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) are obtained for different images.

21 Pre-processing of Accelerometer Data for the Analysis of Adequate Footwork during Dancing using ANFIS
Prof. Elina Das

Abstract — In this article, an elementary and effective noise cancellation technique for the analysis of proper footwork during a dance performance is proposed. An experiment was conducted on the analysis of the vibration occurred on a dance floor by obtaining data from accelerometer. The spectral pattern for respective foot movements may be helpful to analyze the dance performance. The major issue in this methodology is the impact of noise occurred due to the presence of surrounding music systems in a closed dance hall. In this proposed noise cancellation technique, we have used ANFIS to recognize the nonlinear relationship between noise occurred due to surrounding music and the interference occurred. Though interference is not directly available, we can take the measured signal from the accelerometer as a "adulterated" version of interference for training. Finally, the impact of noise on the measured signal is efficiently cancelled and the filtered signal is used for the analysis of foot movement during dance performance.

22 Duplication Based Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Multiprocessor Task Scheduling : An Overview
Madhuri Yadav, Sunita Dhingra

Abstract — Parallel processing of a program refers to the process of dividing the program code and running them to multiple processors. Multiprocessor task scheduling is about distributing the program code to the multiple processors. The problem of task being optimally distributed among processor is Hard in nature. As the problem is NP-Hard, finding an optimal solution is difficult with traditional strategies, so it is decided to use hybrid approach making the system to take advantage of both heuristic and Meta heuristic approach resulting better possible solution.

23 A Design & Simulation of Domestic Grid Connected PV System
Ashutosh Gour, Dr. A.K.Sharma

Abstract — A boost dc-ac inverter is extremely used in solar power conversion system. An efficient controller for single stage boost inverter will be useful in solar power generation system. The boost dc-ac inverter has distinguished features like boosting and inverting the low input dc voltage into high ac voltage in a single power conversion stage. Also the overall solar power generation system is improved due to the minimum number of power switching components. The conventional controllers namely double loop controller, sliding mode controller and averaged current controller for the boost dc-ac inverter have some disadvantages such as incapability to give instant response during abrupt load changes, complex theory, the variable switching frequency, the lack of an inductance averaged-current control the constraints to the controller parameter selection and complex implementation.

24 A Review of MPPT Techniques for Grid Connected PV Systems
Ashutosh Gour, Dr. A.K.Sharma

Abstract — In this paper evaluation of the most commonly used MPPT techniques and finds which MPPT technique is most suitable for grid connected systems. This paper presents the modelling of a Photovoltaic cell, dc to dc converter, and simulation study of a grid connected PV system. In this paper various design strategies for grid connected PV systems with MPPT has been surveyed and a design for new grid connected PV systems with MPPT is proposed.

25 Experimental study on strength of concrete by using Metakaolin & OP
Shashikant Dewangan, Nidhi Gupta

Abstract — Concrete is that pourable mix of cement, water, sand, and gravel that hardens into a superstrong building material. Supplementary cementing materials (SCM) have become an integral part of concrete mix design. These may be naturally occurring materials, industrial wastes or, by products or the ones requiring less energy to manufacture. Some of the commonly used SCM are fly ash; silica fume (SF), GGBS, rice husk ash and metakaolin (MK), etc. metakaolin is obtained by the calcination of kaolinite. it is being used very commonly as pozzolanic material and has exhibited considerable influence in enhancing the mechanical and durability properties of concrete. In this paper, experimental study was carried out on M 20 grade of concrete. In this concrete cement was replaced by metakolin. In various percentages such as 5%, 10%, 15% concrete specimens containing metakaolin were studied for their compressive strength.

26 Performance on compressive strengths of concrete with partial replacement of cement by ground granulated blast furnace and sand by quarry dust
Yogesh Soni, nidhi gupta

Abstract — Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil engineering industry because of its high structural strength and stability. Cement and sand is a major constituent material of the concrete which produced by natural raw material like lime and silica and natural sand respectively. Once situation may occurs there will be no lime on earth production of cement also natural sand. This situation leads to think all people working in construction industry to do research work on cement replacing material and natural sand for use of it. The construction industry is constantly looking for supplementary cement and natural sand material with the objective of reducing the solid waste disposal problem. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), quarry sand are the solid wastes generated by Industry. To overcome from this crisis, partial replacement of Cement with GGBS, natural sand with quarry sand (QS) can be an economic Alternative. The cubes are tested for compressive strengths. Ordinary Portland cement was partially replaced by GGBS of 0%, 30%, 40%,50% and natural sand replacement by QS 0%, 40%, 50%, 60%.

27 A Review on Multiple Cell Upset Data Correction using Decimal Matrix Code for Enhanced Memory Reliability
Heena Saravgi

Abstract — The data stored in memory needs to be considered for the reliability for its content stored when the memory is exposed to the radiation environment in case of transient multiple cells upsets (MCUs). In order to protect the data from the radiation and transients there are many advanced packaging techniques are suggested. The particular packaging technique provides safety from a limited variation of radiations. The devices used for the present wireless communication field are subject to the exposed radiations of the surrounding environment. In such conditions of radiations few data protection techniques are preferred to use for authenticating the data before using it for further process. One of the techniques used for this is Error correction code. The encoded data is then stored in memory place by utilizing the protection technique. The redundant bits used for minimizing delay overhead in data correction are to be stored in memory location utilizes in error correction code. A review on memory data error detection and correction code is presented in this paper.

28 Analysis of Parameters Influencing the Performance of PEM Fuel Cell by ANSYS
V.Nandhakumar, M.Muthukumar, A.P.Senthil Kumar

Abstract — Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising power generation sources for mobile and stationary applications. However, there are several technical problems to be solved in order to achieve practicability and popularization. Especially, water management inside a PEMFC is essential for high performance operation. “Water flooding” and “dry out” is a critical barrier for high efficiency and high power density. To alleviate these issues, it is necessary to analysis the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for different gas flow parameters and serpentine model is chosen with the area of 25 cm2 by varying the temperature and pressure are analyses and the optimum temperature and pressure are chosen from ANSYS 14.5 software.

29 Oversegmentation Avoidance in Face Matching for Color Images Using Mean Shift
Shiv S Pandey, Yogesh Rai, Santosh Kushwaha

Abstract — We proposed a novel method for face matching from face image database. In our method we have taken set of face images so recognition decisions need to be based on comparisons of face image database. This paper presents an approach to region based face matching. The low level image segmentation method mean shift is used to divide the image into many small regions. As a popular segmentation scheme for color image, watershed has over segmentation as compared to mean-shift and also meanshift preserves well the edge information of the object. The proposed method automatically merges the regions that are initially segmented by mean shift segmentation, effectively extracts the object contour and then, matches the obtained mask with test database image sets on the basis of color and texture. Extensive experiments are performed and the results show that the proposed scheme can reliably form the mask from the face image and effectively matches the mask with face image sets.

30 Design and Surface Modification of Wind Turbine Blade Using Analytical as Well as Virtual Method
S.M.Choudhary, Navin Bambode

Abstract — Designing horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blades to achieve satisfactory levels of performance starts with knowledge of the aerodynamic forces acting on the blades. In this paper, HAWT blade design is studied from the aspect of aerodynamic view and the basic principles of the aerodynamic behaviours of HAWTs are investigated. Firstly, blade designs procedure for an optimum rotor according to CFD analysis as well as analytical calculations. Then designed blade shape is modified such that modified blade will be lightly loaded regarding the highly loaded of the designed blade and power prediction of modified blade is analysed. When the designed blade shape is modified, it is seen that the power extracted from the wind is reduced about 10% and the length of modified blade is increased about 5% for the same required power.

31 Improvement for Compressive Strength of Composite of concrete with different material by analytical and FEA method
Sonul D. Bodhane, Swapnil M. Choudhry

Abstract — There are some resources like natural fiber like human hair, coconut fiber are destroyed as a waste material. But after knowing better sides of these fibers, they are getting a proper attention over the years. With the aim of utilizing abundant waste material, a human hair, coconut fiber and polypropylene composite has been developed using it as reinforcing constituent and cement as matrix constituents. This paper presents testing of this material combination with concrete and uses these properties of human hair, coconut fiber and polypropylene fiber reinforced combine with cement, it forms composite. Composites with various compositions of human hair, coconut fiber and polypropylene were fabricated. The fabricated specimen composed of various % of human hair, coconut fiber and polypropylene fibers in cement concrete is tested for properties improvement and came out as an eye opener. The best result we achieved with Composite 2 which is having 0.25% human hair which testes experimentally and virtually as well. So in this paper, analytical approach is made for getting exact solution for the composite and compare with the results obtained from FEA method. And holds the value 31.5 MPa as compressive strength by experiment and analysis by ANSYS software is 29.96 MPa.

32 “Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater Quality” A Study in Central India
Samiksha Jain, Prof R.K. Bhatia

Abstract — Sanitary landfill is a process in the solid waste management system. It can be defined as „„a method of disposing of refuse on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, by utilizing the principles of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area, to reduce it to the smallest practical volume, and to cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each day‟s operation or at such more frequent intervals as may be necessary.‟‟ This paper presents the results of the analyses of ground water pollution due to the solid waste landfill located at Kathonda landfill, Jabalpur, M.P. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, groundwater quality near the landfills were analysed. The results of physicochemical analyses of groundwater confirmed that its characteristics were variable with severe contamination. These parameters included conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, chlorides, pH, Turbidity, Total hardness, Total alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen. The results suggested the need for continuous monitoring of the groundwater treatment processes.

33 “Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater Quality” A Review Study in Central India
Samiksha Jain, Prof R.K. Bhatia

Abstract — It is worthy of note that, once groundwater becomes contaminated, full restoration of its quality is very difficult and even impossible in some cases. In the course of this research Study, emphasis is given to the review about the previous study on threatening effects of a particular source of groundwater contamination that are represented by solid waste disposal (SWD) site, particularly Kathonda located in Jabalpur city (M.P.) At the SWD sites, precipitation that infiltrates the waste materials mixes with the organic and moisture contents of the waste to leach toxic compounds. The leachate formed contains dissolved organic and inorganic solutes, which potentially percolate through the soil to alter the physicochemical characteristics of the groundwater aquifer. The extent of leachate transport processes varies widely depending on many factors, such as hydrogeology, physiographic and other environmental settings of the affected area.

34 Loss Minimization by Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution System Using ETAP Software
Priyanka Shrivastav, R. P. Bhatele

Abstract — Electrical power system provides a essential service to the people. For well operation of electrical power generation, transmission and distribution, it is essential that system should be balanced. Power flow analysis stands out as the organization of power system initial investigate as well as design. They are really essential for planning, operation, economic development and interchange of power among utilities. In this paper power flow study of 132/33kV substation using ETAP is carried out to overcome the low power factor and under voltage problem. There can be the improvement in power factor when applying the capacitor bank of 12 Mvar. The existing substation can be applied with a capacitor bank to improve the power factor about 6-9% and there can also be voltage improvement with the reduction in current.

35 Review on “Loss Minimization by Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution System Using ETAP Software"
Priyanka Shrivastav, Dr. R. P. Bhatele

Abstract — Electrical power system provides an imperative service to the humanity. For well operation of electrical power generation, transmission and distribution, it is important that system should be balanced. Power flow analysis stands out as the organization of power system initial research as well as design. They are really necessary for planning, operation, economic scheduling and interchange of power between utilities. The load flow study in a power system comprises a study of tremendously important implication. The analysis uncovers the electrical performance and power flows (real and reactive) for stipulated conditions whenever the system is functioning under the consistent state. This paper gives an overview of various techniques useful for load flow study under distinctive stipulated conditions The main objectives of this survey are to collect the information from the previous literatures.

36 Extent of Exclusion in Education: A District Level Study in Odisha
Ratna Binodini Amiya Priyadarsini Das

Abstract — Economist who are basically concerned about development they say development is the word basically refers the quality of life in the economy which might be seen in accordance with the availability of so many variables such as: the level of nutrition, the expansion and the reach of health care facilities and hospitals, safe drinking water, the level of education there might be many more variables on which the quality of life depends on. So, economic development is both quantitative and qualitative progress in an economy .But in India in order to provide inclusive growth and development it has become a challenge for planners and policy makers at the outset of the eleventh five year plan .The eleventh five year plan planned to provide inclusive growth. This plan lays importance on the benefit of growth was a trickledown effect to the poor .That if the growth and development is not for the poor then that development is meaningless. So the plan has given importance to inclusive growth .Where all the poor peoples ,marginalised and backward peoples will be included in the development process more and more and no one should excluded from the development process. Exclusion is the denial of access about something. In this paper exclusion basically means the social exclusion when a group of people excluded from the development process, excluded from the opportunities. In broader sense the exclusion means where the individuals wholly or partially excluded from the full participation in the society in which they live. This paper basically shows how some sections of people excluded from the education. Education is a basic need of all people, even if government do so many things for the improvement of education for the importance in the level of literacy but actually there are so many people who are excluded from the education .The drop outs more among the marginalised people. So there is a need to improvise our system our structure of society, our education system, objectives and mission so that the poor excluded and marginalised people will be included in the development process and education system. The objectives of this paper is to study the rate of the exclusion in odisha is various districts and groups .The secondary data was collected from various statistical hand books ,survey books, and from OPEPA .Data was analysed by using various statistical techniques. Educational development index was prepared to rank the districts to show the extent of exclusion.

37 Analysis & Design of Multi-storeyed Residential Apartments
Vaddamani Vamsi Krishna, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — The basic need of person is to provide with proper food, clothing and shelter. The first two aspects are very essential to each and every person and people who are sufficient with the food and clothing, they will have thought of a shelterOn emplacing requirements of modernization this project has been chose to ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF MULTISTORIED RESIDENTIAL APARTMENTS, which provides shelter to 30 families in ground and five floors. The proposed project having 5 blocks and each block consists of 6 flats i.e. G+5 floors. Each flat consists of one master bed room, bed room, living room; dining, kitchen, two balconies and toilet.All external walls are of 230mm thick, internal walls are of 115mm thick. Height of each floor is 3m. The designs have been done by using LIMIT STATE METHOD and the frame analysis done by using KANI’S METHOD.

38 Foundation and Footing for a Commercial Complex
Jatoth Bajan Sing, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — We have chosen the project “FOUNDATION AND FOOTINGS FOR COMMERCIAL COMPLEX” as this project describes briefly about the laying of foundation and footing. It includes the different types of foundations and footings towards the loads acting on it. It deals with the different types of foundations accordance with the soil present in the site location. Due to the growth of population it is important of construction of efficient buildings. As the Foundation is the primary element for the construction it has to give great importance, care and maintenance. Foundation enables strength, rigidity and durability for the construction. The criteria for lying of good foundation depend upon the concrete and reinforcement provided in it. Factors such as Soil bearing capacity, load intensity and earth pressures are also considered in foundation construction. Our protect work was done from the basics of clearing of site ,excavation for foundations, laying of P.C.C, marking and laying of footings and columns, preparation of reinforcement for footing, column as per design, erection of reinforcement as per plan and design, shuttering of footing, footing concreting, column marking.

39 Construction Project Planning of High-Rise RCC Building
Mohammed Minhaj Uddin Ahmed, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Any work in this world can be classified into either a project or an operation. The sector of construction is no exception. The project is defined as a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service or result. From the software perspective the project is viewed as a list of related activities or tasks. Every task or activity has a definitive starting point of time and definitive ending point of time. The allocation of resources to these activities is done once the list of resources is prepared. These can be manpower like project managers, site engineers, workers, equipment like crane, material like cables, drums, bricks etc. The usage of these resources is to be mentioned in terms of percentage utility. Calendar is of highest importance and study of the default calendars is essential. The baseline is set and then the tracking of the project begins. Though there is much software available in the market for project planning, the most popular are Microsoft project. The version used in this project is Microsoft office project standard 2010. Planning is the first function of management. It is an intellectual process and high end thinking is required for this. All the details required for a thorough planning thus paving way to a smooth execution of construction of a project is ensured with the help of this software tool.

40 Experimental and Analytical Study on Torsional Behaviour of RC Flanged Beams Strengthened with Glass FRP
Bethi Rajkumar, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Environmental degradation, increased service loads, reduced capacity due to aging, degradation owing to poor construction materials and workmanships and conditional need for seismic retrofitting have demanded the necessity for repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. Fibre reinforced polymers has been used successfully in many such applications for reasons like low weight, high strength and durability. Many previous research works on torsional strengthening were focused on solid rectangular RC beams with different strip layouts and different types of fibres. Various analytical models were developed to predict torsional behaviour of strengthened rectangular beams and successfully used for validation of the experimental works. But literature on torsional strengthening of RC T- beam is limited. In the present work experimental study was conducted in order to have a better understanding the behavior of torsional strengthening of solid RC flanged T-beams. An RC T-beam is analyzed and designed for torsion like an RC rectangular beam; the effect of concrete on flange is neglected by codes. In the present study effect of flange part in resisting torsion is studied by changing flange width of controlled beams. The other parameters studied are strengthening configurations and fiber orientations. The objective of present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of epoxy-bonded GFRP fabrics as external transverse reinforced to reinforced concrete beams with flanged cross sections (T-beam) subjected to torsion. Torsional results from strengthened beams are compared with the experimental result of the control beams without FRP application. The study shows remarkable improvement in torsional behavior of all the GFRP strengthens beams. The experimentally obtained results are validated with analytical model presented by A.Deifalla and A. Ghobarah and found in good agreement.

41 Strengthening of reinforced concrete Beams using glass fibre reinforced Polymer composites
D Sai Bhargavi, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Worldwide, a great deal of research is currently being conducted concerning the use of fiber reinforced plastic wraps, laminates and sheets in the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete members. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) application is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. FRP repair systems provide an economically viable alternative to traditional repair systems and materials. Experimental investigations on the flexural and shear behaviour of RC beams strengthened using continuous glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets are carried out. Externally reinforced concrete beams with epoxy-bonded GFRP sheets were tested to failure using a symmetrical two point concentrated static loading system. Two sets of beams were casted for this experimental test program. In SET I three beams weak in flexure were casted, out of which one is controlled beam and other two beams were strengthened using continuous glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets in flexure. In SET II three beams weak in shear were casted, out of which one is the controlled beam and other two beams were strengthened using continuous glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets in shear. The strengthening of the beams is done with different amount and configuration of GFRP sheets. Experimental data on load, deflection and failure modes of each of the beams were obtained. The detail procedure and application of GFRP sheets for strengthening of RC beams is also included. The effect of number of GFRP layers and its orientation on ultimate load carrying capacity and failure mode of the beams are investigated.

42 Effect of Pozzolanas on Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Mohammed Moizuddin Zain, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — High-performance concrete is defined as concrete that meets special combinations of performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely using conventional constituents and normal mixing, placing, and curing practices. Ever since the term high-performance concrete was introduced into the industry, it had widely used in largescale concrete construction that demands high strength, high flow ability, and high durability. A high-strength concrete is always a high-performance concrete, but a high-performance concrete is not always a high-strength concrete. Durable concrete Specifying a high-strength concrete does not ensure that a durable concrete will be achieved. It is very difficult to get a product which simultaneously fulfils all of the properties. So the different pozzolanic materials like Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), silica fume, Rice husk ash, Fly ash, High Reactive Metakaolin, are some of the pozzolanic materials which can be used in concrete as partial replacement of cement, which are very essential ingredients to produce high performance concrete. So we have performed XRD tests of these above mentioned materials to know the variation of different constituent within it. Also it is very important to maintain the water cement ratio within the minimal range, for that we have to use the water reducing admixture i.e. super plasticizer, which plays an important role for the production of high performance concrete. So we herein the project has tested on different materials like rice husk ash, Ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume to obtain the desired needs. Also X-ray diffraction test was conducted on different pozzolanic material used to analyse their content ingredients. We used synthetic fiber (i.e Recron fibe) in different percentage i.e 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% to that of total weight of concrete and casting was done. Finally we used different percentage of silica fume with the replacement of cement keeping constant fiber content and concrete was casted. In our study it was used two types of cement, Portland slag cement and ordinary Portland cement. We prepared mortar, cubes, cylinder, prism and finally compressive test, splitting test, flexural test are conducted. Finally porosity and permeability test conducted. Also to obtain such performances that cannot be obtained from conventional concrete and by the current method, a large number of trial mixes are required to select the desired combination of materials that meets special performance.

43 Mix Design and Environmental Benefits of Geopolymer Concrete
Prudvi.Hari chandra prasad, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — In this study we carry out a detailed environmental evaluation of geopolymer concrete production using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The literature shows that the production of most standard types of geopolymer concrete has a slightly lower impact on global warming than standard Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete. Whilst our results confirm this they also show that the production of geopolymer concrete has a higher environmental impact regarding other impact categories than global warming. This is due to the heavy effects of the production of the sodium silicate solution. Geopolymer concrete made from fly ashes or granulated blast furnace slags based require less of the sodium silicate solution in order to be activated. They therefore have a lower environmental impact than geopolymer concrete made from pure metakaolin. However, when the production of fly ashes and granulated blast furnace slags is taken into account during the life cycle assessment (using either an economic or a mass allocation procedure), it appears that geopolymer concrete has a similar impact on global warming than standard concrete. This study highlights that future research and development in the field of geopolymer concrete technology should focus on two potential solutions. First of all the use of industrial waste that is not recyclable within other industries and secondly on the production of geopolymer concrete using a mix of blast furnace slag and activated clays. Furthermore geopolymer concrete production would gain from using waste material with a suitable Si/Al molar ratio in order to minimise the amount of sodium silicate solution used. Finally, by taking into account mix-design technology, which has already been developed for OPC concrete, the amount of binder required to produce a geopolymer concrete could be reduced.

44 Non Linear Static Analysis of RC Framed Buildings with Setback
Renukuntla Sai Kumar, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Analysis of the structure shall be conducted to determine the distribution of forces and deformations induced in the structure by the design ground shaking and other seismic hazards corresponding with rehabilitation objectives. The analysis shall address the seismic demands and the capacity to resist these demands for all the elements in the structure that either are essential to the lateral stability of the structure (primary element) or to the vertical load carry in integrity of the building Major structural collapses occur when the building is under the action of dynamic loads which includes earthquake loads. In these modern days most of the structures are involved with architectural importance and hence many structures in the present scenario have irregular configurations both in plan and elevation. This in future may subject to devastating earthquakes. Hence, it is necessary to identify the performance of the structures to withstand against disaster for both new and existing one.This study aims at evaluating and comparing the response of G+10, G+15, G+20 systems with vertical irregularities as described by the ATC-40 and the FEMA273 using nonlinear static procedures, with described acceptance criteria. The methodologies are applied to G+10, G+15, G+20 systems with vertical irregularity with bracings and with masonry struts. The non linear response of structure with vertical irregularity has been done using SAP2000 16 with Intent to evaluate importance of several factors in the non linear static analysis which includes time period, displacement, base shear etc. Performance may relate the strength level achieved in certain members to the lateral displacement at the top of the structure, or bending moment may be plotted against plastic rotation. Results provide insight into the ductile capacity of the structural system, and indicate the mechanism, load level, and deflection at which failure occurs.

45 Seismic Pounding Analysis between Adjacent Buildings to Achieve More Safety towards Earthquakes
Bottu.Shiva Kumar, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Insufficient separation distance between adjacent buildings during strong earthquakes would probably result into striking of the buildings and subsequently create an excessive dynamic force called pounding. It produces undesirable forces resulting in large displacements, local damage and possible failure of the entire structure. Among the possible structural damages, seismic induced pounding has been commonly observed in several earthquakes. This project aims at studying seismic pounding effect between adjacent buildings by linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis using ETABS (Non Linear) computer program. A detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of various parameters on the structural pounding by Response Spectrum (Linear Dynamic) Analysis for medium soil at zone Vand Time History (Non-Linear Dynamic) Analysis for Bhuj earthquake recorded excitation on different models with varying separation distances. Pounding produces acceleration and shear at various storey levels that are greater than those obtained from the no pounding case, while the peak drift depends on the input excitation characteristics. Also, increasing gap width is likely to be effective when the separation is sufficiently wide practically to eliminate contact. Finally the resultsare observed to study the effect of structural displacementsand pounding forces between two adjacent buildings.

46 Experimental Study of Strengthening of RC Continuous Beam using FRP Composites
C.Uma Maheswar Reddy, Vallepu Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract — Strengthening structures via external bonding of advanced fiber reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite is becoming very popular worldwide during the past decade because it provides a more economical and technically superior alternative to the traditional techniques in many situations as it offers high strength, low weight, corrosion resistance, high fatigue resistance, easy and rapid installation and minimal change in structural geometry. Although many in situ RC beams are continuous in construction, there has been very limited research work in the area of FRP strengthening of continuous beams. In the present study an experimental investigation is carried out to study the behavior of continuous RC beams under static loading. The beams are strengthened with externally bonded glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets. Different scheme of strengthening have been employed. The program consists of fourteen continuous (two-span) beams with overall dimensions equal to(152×305×2300) mm. The beams are grouped into two series labeled S1 and S2 and each series have different percentage of steel reinforcement. One beam from each series (S1 and S2) was not strengthened and was considered as a control beam, whereas all other beams from both the series were strengthened in various patterns with externally bonded GFRP sheets. The present study examines the responses of RC continuous beams, in terms of failure modes, enhancement of load capacity and load deflection analysis. The results indicate that the flexural strength of RC beams can be significantly increased by gluing GFRP sheets to the tension face. In addition, the epoxy bonded sheets improved the cracking behavior of the beams by delaying the formation of visible cracks and reducing crack widths at higher load levels. The experimental results were validated by using finite element method.

47 A Survey on Various Techniques used for Enhancing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Lifetime
K.Nithyadevi, S.RadhaPriya

Abstract — Improving lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network is the most critical problem. The major cause of this problem is the limited energy resources. In WSN, sensor nodes are randomly located with battery power. These sensor nodes transmit the information through the network by monitoring, detecting and analyzing the physical phenomenon. While transmitting the information, the energy give up by each node gets increases. So it is required to minimize the energy consumption of nodes which probably maximizes the network lifetime. There were various techniques developed for extending the network lifetime. This paper provides detailed information about those techniques.

48 Lossless Image Compression using Discrete Cosine Transform Algorithm
Pooja Jain, Divyanshu Rao, Ravimohan

Abstract — Cameras are nowadays being provided with more and more megapixels to improve the quality of captured images. With improvement in image quality, size of the image file also increases. Due to speed limitation of the Internet, it takes more time to upload good-quality images that are of bigger sizes. A user needs to compress the image without degrading its quality. Mobile manufacturers need algorithms in their cameras that enable storing the images in reduced sizes without degrading their quality.

49 A Novel Energy Aware Clustering for Multilevel Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
Pawan k Malviya, Santosh Kushwaha, Yogesh Rai

Abstract — In Wireless Sensor Network, the energy efficiency is the key issue for designing the protocol because sensor nodes have one time battery backup. There are many modern protocols which extend the lifetime of the wireless sensor network by efficiently using battery power of the sensor node. In this paper, we propose a Novel Energy Aware Clustering for Multilevel Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network. We analyze and compare the performance and results of modern protocols like LEACH, SEP, ESEP, TEEN and EDDEEC with proposed work. The simulation result shows that performance and throughput of our proposed work gives the effective and significant energy efficiency as well as more network lifetime compared to other protocols.

50 Implementation and Design of FIR Filter by Window Technique
Anand Prakash Gupta, Dr.G.D Gidwani, Aastha hajari

Abstract — The digital signal processing has become an extremely important subject. A fundamental aspect of digital signal processing is filtering. The input signal has a great influence on the performance of the system in digital control system. Processing of input signal is important to get useful signal. In the processing of digital signal Finite impulse response (FIR) filter plays an important role. Using Matlab the FIR filter is designed and simulated. Different methods like frequency sampling, window function and convex optimization technique are processed using Matlab in the design of FIR filter. By comparing the signal’s amplitudefrequency diagrams which have been generated the filtering effect of different digital filters are analyzed by using FIR digital filters which are designed to process the input signal based on the Matlab function. This paper shows the experimental results show the FIR filters designed.

51 Analysis on HDL Simulation & MatLab for DWT
Shailendra Chouhan, Devesh Kishore, Aastha Hajari

Abstract — The discrete wavelet transform (dwt) technique commonly used for data and image compression. This paper shown an approach for the comparison between hdl simulation and matlab tool which are used in the image compression field. dwt algorithm is designed in hdl simulation which is verilog hdl language using the filter method for the image compression. daubechies (db2) tap filter is used in this design and the coefficients of daubechies filters for the dwt technique are fixed. results of hdl simulation and matlab tool are compared and it is found that the intensity of the compressed image using matlab tool is higher than that of hdl simulation.

52 Implementation of Multi Level Converter Based DSTATCOM For Reactive Power Compensation and Harmonics Reduction
T.Poornima, S.B.S.Viswanadh

Abstract — Modern power systems are of complex networks, where hundreds of generating stations and thousands of load centres are interconnected through long power transmission and distribution networks. Even though the power generation is fairly reliable, the quality of power is not always so reliable. Power distribution system should provide with an uninterrupted flow of energy at smooth sinusoidal voltage at the contracted magnitude level and frequency to their customers. Power system especially distribution systems, have numerous nonlinear loads, which significantly affect the quality of power. Shunt compensation for medium voltage distribution systems requires higher rating for voltage source converters (VSCs). Ratings of the semiconductor devices in a VSC are always limited; therefore, for higher rated converters it is desirable to distribute the stress among the number of devices using multilevel topology. Cascaded multilevel configuration of the inverter has the advantage of its simplicity and modularity over the configurations of the diode-clamped and flying capacitor multilevel inverters. Application of cascaded multilevel converters for shunt compensation of distribution systems has been described in Literature. This paper presents an investigation of five-Level Cascaded H – bridge (CHB) Inverter as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) in Power System (PS) for compensation of reactive power and harmonics. The advantages of CHB inverter are low harmonic distortion, reduced number of switches and suppression of switching losses. A CHB Inverter is considered for shunt compensation of a 11 kV distribution system. Finally a phase shifted PWM (PSPWM) technique is adopted to investigate the performance of CHB Inverter. The results are obtained through Matlab/Simulink software package. The proposed DSTATCOM is simulated for nonlinear loads.