IJAIR- Volume 5 Issue 8 (August 2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Energy Based Shortest Routing in Multi-Channel Multi- Interface Wireless Mesh Network
A.Mercy Rani, V.Lakshmi Praba

Abstract — With the rising features of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) the research is focused on increasing the capacity and throughput of the network. One way to increase the capacity of the network is by the use of multiple channels and multiple interfaces. Furthermore, the performance of the network can be increased by selecting efficient route for transmitting packets from source to destination. The efficient route selection is a major challenge in multi-channel multi-interface WMN. The existing AODV protocol selects a route for transmitting packets from source to destination based on the minimum-hop count. This route may weak due to less energy and causes route request repeatedly. Hence, in this paper, the existing AODV protocol is enhanced for the selection of maximum energy with minimum hop count route. This route selection not only increases the route lifetime but also increases the network capacity, throughput and packet delivery ratio. For the performance evaluation throughput, packet delivery ratio and number of dropped packets was analyzed using NS-2 simulator under two different scenarios, one by varying energy ranges and the other by varying channel capacity.

2 Real-Time Image Edge Pixels Detection and Various Segmentation Techniques in Target Recognition
R.Sudha, K.Adlin Suji, A.Mani

Abstract — This paper describes techniques to perform efficient and accurate target recognition in different domains. In order to accurately model small, irregularly shaped targets, the target objects and images are represented by their edge maps, with a local orientation associated with each edge pixel and an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for segmenting 2D images as a means in detecting target objects embedded in visual images for Automatic Target Detection/Recognition applications. IT can be defined as a simple comparison between an observed image (image to recognize) and a reference image.

3 Improving Livelihood thorugh Backyard Poultry (Vanaraja Birds) in agency area of east Godavari district
Dr. A. Srinivas, V. Govardhan Rao, P. Venkata Ramana

Abstract —Farmwomen were selected on the basis of their early experience in keeping local poultry along with Vanaraja chicken at backyard system for the purpose of the study. Items of cost included fixed cost e.g. land and building, equipments and variable costs e.g. cost of day-old chick, feed cost, vaccine cost, medicine cost, labour cost, depreciation on poultry shed and miscellaneous cost. Return items included egg, cocks and spent hens. The labour cost accounted for 50.48 percent of the total cost of production of Vanaraja chicken followed by feed cost (13.50 %), chick cost (12.80 %) and depreciation on poultry house (9.70 %) up to 18 months of age. The total cost of production up to 72 weeks of age was found to be higher in Vanaraja (Rs. 8940.00) than its local counterpart (Rs. 6130.00). The maximum amount of income was contributed by selling of eggs (40.00 %) followed by sale of cocks (34.36 %) and sale of spent hens (25.64 %) in case of local chicken. The benefit-cost (B:C) ratio in Vanaraja and local chicken were recorded as 3.10 and 2.10 respectively in the present study. From the study, it can be concluded that small scale Vanaraja rearing is a profitable venture for farmwomen.

4 Performance Evaluation and Service Quality Model in the Hostel Mess
Ganesh Prasad Shukla

Abstract — The purpose of this study is to develop a service quality model in relation to a hostel mess, which describes how the quality of service is perceived by customers (students). The present work seeks to find out the service dimensions of service quality, which lead to higher levels of customer satisfaction. This paper constructs the service quality evaluation system of a hostel mess of Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, India based on customers point of view, and put forward the questionnaire of service quality in mess service in hostel and setup the evaluating overall service quality and performance extent with the help of a fuzzy logic. The result of this study would help management to identify the strength and ill performing areas of service quality and implement an effective strategy to meet the customer‟s expectations.

5 Improving Spectral Efficiency of DOA in 4g Mimo System
R.Tejaswini, K.Vasu Babu

Abstract — In many signal processing applications estimation of signal parameters is a significant problem such as DOA (Direction of Arrival).The subspace methods for estimation of DOA are MUSIC, ESPRIT & Root MUSIC. Among these MUSIC algorithm is commonly used method it decomposes the received signal space into signal subspace& noise subspace using covariance matrix equation. The introduction of smart antennas is used to know about MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna system. MIMO spectral efficiency is better than SISO, increases complexity. Estimation of DOA is influenced by some factors such as number of array elements, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and bit error rate (BER).In MIMO system BER decreases with decreasing DOA. Finally simulate estimation of DOA with different experiments and this may be useful in multipath applications (mobile communication).

6 A Detailed Survey on Web Mining
A.Ashikali, B.Loganathan

Abstract — In this paper the survey is conducted regarding World Wide Web which is a fertile area for data mining and research. The web mining is one of the data mining domains where data mining techniques are used for extracting information from the web servers. Web mining is universal set of web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. This paper summarises various techniques of web mining like feature extraction, transformation and representation of different application domains.

7 Truncated Life Test Plan under Generalized Log- Logistic Distribution
C.Theerthana, Dr.S.Muthulakshmi

Abstract — This paper proposes combined continuous lot by lot acceptance sampling plan for the truncated life test based on generalized log-logistic distribution. For the proposed sampling plan, the minimum sample sizes necessary to ensure the specified average lifetime are obtained at the given consumer’s confidence level. The operating characteristic values are analysed with ratios of various true average lifetime two the specified life time of the product. The minimum ratios of the true population average lifetime to the specified lifetime are also obtained at the specified producer’s risk. Selection and application of combined continuous lot by lot truncated life test sampling plan is illustrated with a numerical example. The advantage of proposed plan is analysed with single sampling truncated life test plan under generalized log-logistic distribution using numerical values.

8 On Vertex Polynomial of Snake Graphs
E. Ebin Raja Merly, A. M. Anto

Abstract — Let be a graph. The vertex polynomial of the graph is defined as Σ , where and is the number of vertices of degree . In this paper we seek to find the vertex polynomial of snake graphs.

9 Strengthening and Widening of Flexible Pavement
Ajay Singh Paikra, Adhir Sarkar

Abstract — Pavement design is a difficult work. Traffic loading is heterogeneous, mix of vehicle, traffic load, axle type, load distribution and over the pavement design life. Pavement material responds to stress influencing, temperature, moisture, loading rate and other factors. A traffic survey is needed for existing roads that are need for up-gradation to pavement strengthening. Traffic surveys conducted in the region from the basis for deciding the number of traffic lanes and Road way width pavement design. Traffic survey is to establish the Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT).Expected outcome of the proposed work are evaluation of sufficient overlay over the existing surface. Widen the road as per traffic requirement. Check out their strength after overlay and free flow of vehicles.

10 Fuzzy Optimization Inventory Model with Allowable Shortage Using Hexagonal Fuzzy Numbers
Dr.S.Rexlin Jeyakumari

Abstract — In this paper, a fuzzy inventory model for allowable shortage is derived. The objective is to find the optimal total cost and optimal order quantity for the given inventory model. Ordering cost, holding cost and shortage cost are taken as hexagonal fuzzy numbers. For defuzzification, signed distance method is used. Numerical example is illustrated for the proposed model.

11 Detecting Link Error and Malicious Packet Dropping Attacks using Homomorphic Linear Authenticator (HLA) in Wireless Ad-hoc Network
Dr. T. Ramaprabha, M.karthika

Abstract — Link error and malicious packet dropping are two sources for packet losses in wireless ad hoc network. While observing a sequence of packet losses in the network, we are interested in determining whether the losses are caused by link errors only, or by the combined effect of link errors and malicious packet drop.. Because the packet dropping rate in this case is comparable to the channel error rate, conventional algorithms that are based on detecting the packet loss rate cannot achieve satisfactory detection accuracy. To improve the detection accuracy, we propose to exploit the correlations between lost packets. In this paper We develop a Homomorphic Linear Authenticator (HLA) based public auditing architecture that allows the detector to verify the truthfulness of the packet loss information reported by nodes. This construction is privacy preserving, collusion proof, and incurs low communication and storage overheads. To reduce the computation overhead of the baseline scheme, a packetblock- based mechanism is also proposed.

12 An Analysis on Multihop Wireless Networks
D.sanjeevkumar, T.Sathiyaseelan, Saravana Kumar P S, Saravana Kumar R

Abstract — The multi-hop wireless networks at all times having security problems; the network traffic causes the attacks in inside attackers and outside attackers, to avoid those attacks by using navel network coding techniques. Coding and mixing operation was encouraged in intermediate nodes. Data splitting and transmitting is done in network coding algorithm. The proposed scheme provides the packet flow intractability and message content confidentiality is ensured by threshold secret sharing algorithm. Traffic analysis presents a serious threat in Multi-hop wireless networks privacy, where attacks such as traffic analysis and flow tracing can be easily launched by a malicious adversary due to the open nature wireless medium. Traditional solutions are mainly based on the mix mechanism, but the main drawback is its low network performance due to mixing and cryptographic operations. In this paper, we propose a novel network coding based privacypreserving scheme against traffic analysis in Multihop wireless networks. With homomorphic encryption on Global Encoding Vectors (GEVs), the proposed scheme offers two significant privacypreserving features, packet flow untraceability and message content confidentiality, for efficiently thwarting the traffic analysis attacks. Moreover, the proposed scheme keeps the random coding feature, and each sink can recover the source packets by inverting the GEVs with a very high probability. Theoretical analysis and simulative evaluation demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

13 Conductivity of Alkali Metal Bromides and Chlorides in Water–Ethanol Mixed Solvent
AAkrokeokia Peter Bagshaw

Abstract — The conductivity of bromide and chloride of sodium and potassium were determined in pure water and ethanolwater mixed solvent media containing 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 volume percent of ethanol at room temperature. The results showed sharp increase in the conductivity with increasing electrolyte concentration and decrease in the conductivity of electrolyte with increase in the amount of ethanol.

14 Influence of Therapeutic Recreation on Cognitive Abilities of Trainable Mentally Challenged Children
Dr. J. Samuel Jesudoss, Dr. C. Kaba Rosario

Abstract — The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of therapeutic recreation on cognitive abilities of trainable mentally challenged children. To achieve this purpose, forty moderate (Trainable) mentally challenged children were randomly selected from Balavighar school, kilpauk, Chennai. The subjects who adolescent boys and girls ranging from 12 to 17 years of age. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. The experimental group consists of 20 moderate mentally challenged children and control group 20 moderate mentally challenged children. The subjects were trained for 12 weeks with therapeutic recreation like yoga, aerobics, calisthenics, and music therapy. The Cognitive Domain (Memory and Attentional focus) selected as a criterion variables were recorded prior, mid and immediately after the training program by test (identification and reading) through the special educators. The Two way repeated measures of ANOVA were applied to find out the significant difference if any in the criterion variables between pre mid and post-tests. The result of the study revealed that there was significant differences on Cognitive Domain (Memory and Attentional focus) after a training period of 12 weeks.

15 E-Governance: An Idea to Empower Panchayati Raj Institutions Using Digital Information Technology
Dron Kumar

Abstract — E-Government has rapidly promoted the provision of government. However, current e- Governments cannot enable these service due unavailability of technologies at ground level. The aim of this article is to present a technological demand to the different e-government planning activates which can be used to develop the strategic connections between public sector organizations and their departments, and make a communication between government levels. E-governance is the application of information & communication technologies to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of informational & transactional exchanges with in government, between govt. & govt. agencies of National, State, Municipal & Local levels, citizen & businesses, and to empower citizens through access & use of information. Governments deal with large amount of data. To ensure that such data is put to an effective use in facilitating decision-making, a data warehouse is constructed over the historical data. It permits several types of queries requiring complex analysis on data to be addressed by decision-makers. In this Paper deals with scope and use of data warehousing & Data mining in all the dimensions of e-governance like Government to Citizen (G2C) Citizen to Government (C2G) Government to government (G2G) Government to Business ,Government to NGO (G2N). There are many methodology used to increase the efficiency of Egovernance .Three complimentary trends are Data warehousing, OLAP, Data mining. By using these techniques we find that data warehousing is very helpful in analyzing Current & Historical data finding useful pattern & support decision strategies. OLAP is useful in solving complex queries & views, interactive online analysis of data .Using Data mining technique & algorithm, automatic discovery of pattern & other interesting trends are find out.

16 Blurring and Noise Removal in Digital Images
Supreet Sahni, Dr.Neeraj Shukla

Abstract — Blurring of image is often noticed in Camera Image and Video. Various filters can be used to remove noise in Image. In case of mixed noises filter cannot eliminate noise completely. To remove such noises probability distribution function estimation of noises becomes important. Blurring of images is another degrading factor and when image is corrupted with both blurring and mixed noises de-noising and de-blurring of image is very difficult. In this paper, Gauss-Total Variation model (G-TV model) is discussed and results are presented and it is shown that blurring of image is completely removed using G-TV model, however, image corrupted with blurring and mixed noise can only be recovered using Gaussian Mixture-Total Variation Model (GM-TV) model.

17 Real Time transportation using Inteligent Transportation Management
Amit Kumar Soni, Papiya Dutta

Abstract — The purpose of this document is, to demonstrate the SAP TM Processes and how does the latest Version of a SAP based Transportation Management Solution is able to cover the Split Process from a Forwarding Company and enhancements. This paper, by means of integrating advantages of SAP technology, aims at designing and constituting an intelligent transport management system for discussing issues such as Design and Implementation of Real Time Transportation using SAP.

18 Design And Implementation Of Intelligent Transportation Management Using SAP TM 9.1
Amit Kumar Soni, Papiya Dutta

Abstract — The purpose of this document is, to demonstrate the SAP TM Processes and how does the latest Version of a SAP based Transportation Management Solution is able to cover the Split Process from a Forwarding Company and enhancements. This paper, by means of integrating advantages of SAP technology, aims at designing and constituting an intelligent transport management system for discussing issues such as Design and Implementation of Real Time Transportation using SAP.

19 Revocable Data Access Control for Multi- Authority Cloud Storage
Pilli.Sridevi, Gangalam.Swathi, Shaik.Abdul Nabi

Abstract — Data access control is an effective way to ensure the data security in the cloud. Due to data outsourcing and untrusted cloud servers, the data access control becomes a challenging issue in cloud storage systems. Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-based Encryption (CP-ABE) is regarded as one of the most suitable technologies for data access control in cloud storage, because it gives data owners more direct control on access policies. However, it is difficult to directly apply existing CP-ABE schemes to data access control for cloud storage systems because of the attribute revocation problem. In this paper, we design an expressive, efficient and revocable data access control scheme for multi-authority cloud storage systems, where there are multiple authorities co-exist and each authority is able to issue attributes independently. Specifically, we propose a revocable multi-authority CP-ABE scheme, and apply it as the underlying techniques to design the data access control scheme. Our attribute revocation method can efficiently achieve both forward security and backward security. The analysis and simulation results show that our proposed data access control scheme is secure in the random oracle model and is more efficient than previous works.

20 Group Key Management Based Secure Wireless Mobile Multicast
S.Kavitha, N.Kowsalya

Abstract — Addressing key management in mobile multicast communication is currently a booming topic due to the convergence of wireless and mobile technologies. With the proliferation of multiple group based services that are possible to co-exist within a single network, mobile subscribers could subscribe to these services concurrently while ubiquitous. However, the existing group key management (GKM) protocols intend to secure group communication for just a single group service. The GKM approaches involve inefficient use of keys and huge rekeying overheads, hence unsuitable for multiple multicast group environments. In this paper, we propose a novel GKM protocol for multiple multicast groups, called slot based multiple group key management (SMGKM) scheme. SMGKM supports the movement of single and multiple members across a homogeneous or heterogeneous wireless network while participating in multiple group services with minimized rekeying transmission overheads. Unlike conventional GKM protocols, SMGKM protocol can mitigate one-affect-n phenomenon, single point of failure and investment pressure of signalling load caused by rekeying at the core network. Numerical analysis and simulation results of the proposed protocol show significant resource economy in terms of communication bandwidth overhead, storage overheads at the Domain Key Distributor (DKD), mobile receiver and Area Key Distributors while providing intense security.

21 Distributed Database Query Management And Storage Techniques For Wireless Sensor Networks
M.Surya, S.Muruganandham

Abstract — Addressing sensor networks, the large amount of data generated by sensors greatly influences the lifetime of the network.To manage this amount of sensed data in an energy-efficient way, new methods of storage and data query are needed. In this way, the distributed database approach for sensor networks is proved as one of the most energy-efficient data storage and query techniques. This paper surveys the state of the art of the techniques used to manage data and queries in wireless sensor networks based on the distributed paradigm. A classification of these techniques is also proposed. The goal of this work is not only to present how data and query management techniques have advanced nowadays, but also show their benefits and drawbacks, and to identify open issues providing guidelines for further contributions in this type of distributed architectures.

22 Survey Paper on1-D Discrete Wavelet Transform using 9/7 Filter Coefficient
Rachit Shrivastava, Prof. Rajdeep Shrivastava

Abstract — Conventional distributed arithmetic (DA) is popular in field programmable gate array (FPGA) design, and it features on-chip ROM to achieve high speed and regularity. In this paper, we describe high speed area efficient 1-D discrete wavelet transform (DWT) using 9/7 filter based new efficient distributed arithmetic (NEDA) Technique. Being area efficient architecture free of ROM, multiplication, and subtraction, NEDA can also expose the redundancy existing in the adder array consisting of entries of 0 and 1. This architecture supports any size of image pixel value and any level of decomposition. The parallel structure has 100% hardware utilization efficiency.

23 Survey Paper on Radix DIT & DIF Fast Fourier Transforms using Complex Input
Neetu Gautam, Prof Bharti Chourasia

Abstract — The Fast Fourier change (FFT) is an as often as possible utilized Digital sign preparing (DSP) calculations for the uses of Orthogonal Frequency Division multiplexing (OFDM). The blend of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) signal handling is a clear approach of upgrading the information rates of different correspondence frameworks, for example, Wireless LAN, e Mobile, 4G and so on. Since FFT processor is an intricate module in OFDM, it is exceedingly unavoidable to plan the processor in a productive way. This research work involved the implementation of a low delay and area efficient radix-2, radix-3 and radix-4 decimation in time (DIT) using 8-point, 16-point, 32- point, 64-point, 128-point, 256-point and 512-point algorithm using radix-2 butterfly. In this paper is used unsigned, signed and complex number for radix-2 algorithm.

24 An Energy Efficient Active Firewall Authentication in Cloud Computing
Dr. G.Kesavaraj, N.Jeevitha

Abstract — The firewall is one amongst the central technologies permitting high-level access management to organization cloud knowledge networks. Cloud knowledge matching in firewalls involves matching on several fields from the info header. a minimum of 5 fields (protocol variety, supply and destination information processing addresses, and ports) are concerned within the call that market information measure increasing quickly, terribly economical rule applies to a given cloud knowledge. With on the matching algorithms ought to be deployed in fashionable firewalls to make sure that the firewall doesn't become a bottleneck Since firewalls ought to filter all the traffic crossing the cloud sharing network perimeter, they must be able to sustain a really high outturn, or risk changing into a bottleneck.. During this paper we have a tendency to contemplate a classical rule that we have a tendency to tailored to the firewall domain. we have a tendency to decision the ensuing rule “Geometric economical Matching” (GEM). The GEM rule enjoys a exponent matching time performance.

25 Noise Tolerant Dynamic Logic Design Techniques: A Survey
Deepak Kumar Singh, Shweta Agrawal

Abstract — The limitation of the dynamic logic is the reduced noise immunity compared to the CMOS logic. Moreover, this noise immunity is further degrading with each technology due to scaling of the devices. Hence, technique is required to improve the noise immunity of the dynamic logic so that bulkier CMOS circuits can be replaced by the smaller dynamic circuits. This will result in significant reduction in the cost of device and simultaneously improve the performance of the device. This work explores the existing noise immunity techniques. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, all these techniques are implemented in Tanner and extracted netlist is simulated with 45nm PTM technology node. The simulation results using TSPICE shows merits and demerits of each technique so that they can be effectively utilized in different applications.

26 Conflict Lenient and Conflict Open Packet Forecast for Flooded Sound Localization
V.P.Muthukumar, R.Anupriya

Abstract — This article considers the matter of packet planning for localization in associate underwater acoustic sensing element network wherever sensing element nodes are distributed haphazardly in associate in operation space. Our goal is to attenuate the localization time, and to try and do therefore we have a tendency to think about 2 packet transmission schemes, specifically collision-free, and collision-tolerant. Through analytical results and numerical examples the performances of those schemes are shown to be comparable. In general, for tiny packet length (as is that the case for a localization packet) and huge in operation space (above 3km in a minimum of one dimension), the performances of the collision tolerant protocol is superior to its collision-free counterpart. At identical time, the anchors work severally of every alternative, and this feature simplifies the implementation method. The anchors are roughly synchronized with each other; however, the sensor nodes may not be synchronized with the anchors. This is a reasonable assumption because anchors are usually located on the surface and can be equipped with a GPS. It should be noted that no synchronization is needed when anchors use an ondemand packet transmission protocol, i.e., when an underwater node initiates the localization protocol, and the anchors are notified after reception of the transmitted packet. Anchors and sensor nodes are equipped with half-duplex acoustic modems, meaning they cannot transmit and receive simultaneously.

27 A Fault-Tolerant Technique Using Quadded Logic and Quadded Transistors
P.Srikanth, K.Bala

Abstract — Advances in CMOS technology have made digital circuits and systems very sensitive to manufacturing variations, aging, and/or soft errors. Fault-tolerant techniques using hardware redundancy have been extensively investigated for improving reliability. Quadded logic (QL) is an interwoven redundant logic technique that corrects errors by switching them from critical to subcritical status; however, QL cannot correct errors in the last one or two layers of a circuit. In contrast to QL, quadded transistor (QT) corrects errors while performing the function of a circuit. In this brief, a technique that combines QL with QT is proposed to take advantage of both techniques. The proposed quadded logic with quadded transistor (QLQT) technique is evaluated and compared with other fault-tolerant techniques, such as triple modular redundancy and triple interwoven redundancy, using stochastic computational models. Simulation results show that QLQT has a better reliability than the other fault-tolerant techniques (except in the very restrictive case of small circuits with low gate error rates and very short paths from primary inputs to primary outputs). These results provide a new insight for implementing efficient fault-tolerant techniques in the design of reliable circuits and systems.

28 Effective Assignment of Periodic Feedback Channels in Broadband Wireless Networks
N.Vijayakumar, M.Sathishkumar

Abstract — Advanced wireless technologies such as multiple- input– multiple-output (MIMO) require each mobile station (MS) to send a lot of feedback to the base station. This periodic feedback consumes much of the uplink bandwidth. This expensive bandwidth is very often viewed as a major obstacle to the deployment of MIMO and other advanced closed-loop wireless technologies. This paper is the first to propose a framework for efficient allocation of periodic feedback channels to the nodes of a wireless network. Several relevant optimization problems are defined and efficient algorithms for solving them are presented. A scheme for deciding when the base station (BS) should invoke each algorithm is also proposed and shown through simulations to perform very well.

29 Copyright Protection: A Legal Challenge in the Age of Internet
Dr. Shashi Nath Mandal

Abstract — Copyright is a part of intellectual property, protected globally through national laws with international recognition. Internet, on the other hand, is, nowadays, become indispensible in the present digital age of globalisation. Internet has taken a notable place in everybody’s life. Creating works are taking place at web world, publication which is depending upon the internet only. The belief in cyber anarchy ‘do not touch the internet’ mantra, has fundamentally altered the understanding of copyright laws amongst the present generation. Subsequently an aversion for property rights as understood by well established copyright laws has developed manifesting itself mainly through piracy. The evolution of technology in tandem with the internet has further exacerbated the situation as a whole generation that enjoys entertainment finds it much easier to infringe on a litany of copyright laws. Taking into account the established norms of property, the copyright protection, is it not clear, with growing copyright malcontents and malfeasance that we are simply producing a global generation of copyright criminals. This paper explores the veracity of this question taking into account the nature of the internet, the emergence of digital copying and sharing, alongside the fluid perceptions of copyright protection.