IJAIR- Volume 5 Issue 5 (May 2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Force Based Sound Generator by Interfacing Force Sensor with Arduino Microcontroller
Sowbakkiyam.S, Monisha.N, Monica.R, Maheswari.T, Sathishkumar.V.S

Abstract — Stress has become a part of daily routine for millions of people, and if not dealt with correctly, it can cause serious health problems. Stress produces the fight-or-flight response. When it becomes hard to find your way out of the descending twisting caused by irresistible stress and anxiety, try turning to music. Music has the ability to quickly shift our attitude, affecting our subconscious awareness where pesky negative thoughts feed on our fears and fuel the fires of stress. Researchers now know that playing a musical instrument can switch off the stress response, improving physical and emotional health. Playing music is a relatively inexpensive, quick-acting solution that’s almost always available, and it could just save your life. Playing music is like a mega-vitamin, engaging more areas of the human brain than any other activity. Music is a greathealing tool to aid you get through difficult times. A morning walk or run, or even yoga or stretching, waiting in traffic, overtime office hours, late hour exam studies can become easier and more enjoyable if you have music as your personal coach and companion. Drum pants that helps you de-stress, release tension, or lift your spirits. Drum pants can be used to reduce stress, Eases anxiety, Decreases depression, Promotes relaxation, Increase focus, Increases immune system, Reduces blood pressure, Elevates mood, Alleviates pain. The drum pant is flexible wearable that can be attached to any type of pant, The drum pant has number of sensors which when tapped produces the corresponding music in the android mobile to which the sensors are interfaced via the Bluetooth.

2 Analysis of Passenger Car Unit (PCU), at Signalized Intersection on Sinhgad Road, Pune
M.N. Bajad, Yogeshwari Ghule

Abstract—Now days the traffic problem become complicated and tedious. We all familiar with a thing, that the India is developing country and densely populated. In India traffic is a measure problem, we have been going through. From last 30 years it has been observed that, the traffic is detrimental to people, all over the world. Among the million plus cities in Maharashtra, Pune has the maximum ratio of vehicles per thousand persons. There are some basic issues of measure cities like Pune needs awareness and solution as soon as possible so as to maintain proper growth in terms of basic development. The problem concern with traffic in Pune city is increasing with every passing day. In this paper an attempt is made to find passenger car unit (PCU) value for sinhgad road intersection. Passenger car unit (PCU) value of each type of vehicle is very essential for any miscellaneous traffic flow. These may be regarding traffic flow parameters, capacity, signal design, parking lots etc. The work holds into account the influence of mixing of traffic, speed and headway. These PCU values (devised in developed countries)are not suitable for Indian miscellaneous traffic conditions, where traffic is more diverse in nature, and driver do not follow lane discipline. This paper existing basic methods and their suitability for Indian traffic system. This paper also establishes the gaps in research areas which needs further research in Indian traffic condition. In a mixed traffic condition, where different types of vehicles share the same roadway space without any physical separation, the amount of collaboration is expected to change with the mix characteristics. The interaction among the vehicles is greatest during peak period on urban roads. The common practice to analyze mixed traffic flow is to transform all vehicles into equivalent numbers of passenger car units (PCUs). A mathematical equation relating PCU for a vehicle type to the influencing variables is suggested in this paper.

3 Gray Hole Attack on Manet: A Survey
Rohit Katoch, Anuj Gupta

Abstract— In recent years mobile ad hoc networks have become very popular and lots of research is being done on different aspects of MANET. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET)-a system of mobile nodes (laptops, sensors, etc.) interfacing without the assistance of infrastructure (access points, bridges, etc.). There are different aspects which are taken for research like routing, synchronization, power consumption, bandwidth considerations etc. This paper concentrates on routing techniques which is the most challenging issue due to the dynamic topology of ad hoc networks. There are different routing protocols proposed for MANETs which makes it quite difficult to determine which protocol is suitable for different network conditions .This paper provides an overview of different attack on routing protocols proposed in literature and also provides a comparison between them.
4 A Review on Manet with Various Attacks on Routing Protocol
Vipin Verma, Saurabh Sharma

Abstract—In recent years, a vast research has been seen going on in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Due to limited resources in MANETs, to design an efficient and reliable routing strategy is still a challenge. An intelligent routing strategy is required to efficiently use the limited resources. Also the algorithms designed for traditional wired networks such as linkstate or distance vector, does not scale well in wireless environment. Routing in MANETs is a challenging task and has received a tremendous amount of attention from researchers around the world. To overcome this problem a number of routing protocols have been developed and the number is still increasing day by day. It is quite difficult to determine which protocols may perform well under a number of different network scenarios such as network size and topology etc. There are many attack in manet network which also decrease the performance of the network Main objective of writing this paper is to develop a system which having very less effect on attacks & having high network performance.

5 A Medium Voltage Bidirectional Dual Active Bridge Resonant DC-DC Converter
K Palanivelrajan, K Karthika

Abstract— The DC-DC converter which is capable of transferring the power in both the directions is proposed. The existing system has the DC-DC converter based on immittance network is proposed which is acting as filter and to achieve unity power factor. This immittance network is helpful to attain the resonant condition. It is making the system complex and the efficiency of the system is decreased. To overcome this proposed system has the resonant and dual active bridge converter. It produces the resonant condition by the system configuration. It works in normal as well as over current operation. In the normal operation, the converter carries out the resonant condition by the soft switching techniques such as ZVS and ZCS, attained by frequency control. In the over current operation, the diode conducts the electric current in only one direction and prevents exceeding the reference value and across the capacitor. This is used to protect the circuit from over current. It is functioning partly as resonant converter and partly as dual active bridge converter with the constant switching frequency. Thus over current protection is afforded by the diode clamping and the power flow analysis is done by the boost and buck modes using the simulation software PLEXIM.

6 Assessment of Fluoride and Heavy Metals Concentrations in Toothpastes Marketed in Port Harcourt Nigeria
Tubonimi J. K. Ideriah, Charles C. Obunwo, Tamuno-opubo D. Eretoru

Abstract—The concentrations of fluoride and heavy metals in toothpastes marketed in Port Harcourt were measured using Ion-Selective Electrode method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer respectively. The results of fluoride concentrations were 497-1453ppm in adult toothpastes, 498ppm in pediatric toothpaste; 1408 -1452ppm in Local toothpastes and 498-1453ppm in foreign toothpastes. The results of heavy metals concentrations were <0.006ppm Cr in all toothpastes, <0.05 to 12.2ppm Mn in local toothpastes, <0.05 to 10.8ppm Mn in foreign toothpastes, 0.23 to 1.62ppm Fe in local toothpastes and <0.03 to 0.45ppm Fe in foreign toothpastes. All the adult toothpastes and local toothpastes analyzed exceeded their permissible limits. Statistical analysis using t-test showed significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean fluoride concentrations in Local and Foreign toothpastes and no significant difference (P>0.05) between Claimed and Measured mean fluoride concentrations. This study showed that some toothpaste contains fluoride and heavy metals at concentrations higher than permissible limits. Furthermore that most manufacturers’ claims are not reliable and some toothpaste have questionable anti-caries efficacy due to high fluoride concentration. It was recommended that adequate fluoride concentration not exceeding permissible limit should be added in toothpastes and Government should sensitize and create awareness in people on fluoride concentration limit and effects.

7 Psychosocial wellbeing of children among families with parental conflict: the case of selected Kebeles in Jimma, Implication for family and marriage counselors
Bonsa Shume, Getachew Abeshu

Abstract— Parental conflict has hindered the growth and progress of many homes and children in Ethiopia. Many factors could be indicative for this disappointing situation. The study, therefore, focused on identifying psychosocial wellbeing of children among parents with marital conflict in selected kebeles of Jimma town. A descriptive research method was adopted for the study. A total number of seventy six (76) respondents were selected from Ginjo Guduru and Awetu Mendera Kebeles’ of Jimma town using purposive sampling technique with the use of Focus Group discussion and interview guide to collect information from respondents who participated in the study. The data collected were carefully analyzed using narration. The finding of this study has revealed that there are six major factors for parental conflict. i.e. Money, Value conflict, Unsolved past conflict, Power struggle between husband and wife, Drug use /Bad Habit by one or both of the couple and Announcement of laws permitting marital dissolution. It was also discovered that children of parents with extreme conflict were prone to difficulties to form relation with others, poor academic achievements, lack self-confidence. It is, recommended that family counseling need to be emphasized by the stakeholders (government, religious leaders, and counselors to minimize the level of parental conflict in the family and effort should be intensified to discourage conflict that might intrude with family wellbeing.

8 Optimization of Parameters by using of Grey-Taguchi Approach in the Context of Fused Deposition Modeling
Vinay Singh

Abstract—Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology, which enables fabrication of physical objects directly from CAD data sources. Out of all commercially available RP processes, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) uses heated thermoplastic filament which are extruded from the tip of nozzle in a prescribed manner in a temperature controlled environment for building the part through a layer by layer deposition method. Simplicity of operation together with the ability to fabricate parts with locally controlled properties resulted in its wide spread application not only for prototyping but also for making functional parts. However, FDM process has its own demerits related with accuracy, surface finish, strength etc. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to understand the shortcomings of the process and identify the controllable factors for improvement of part quality. For improving dimensional accuracy of the part, Taguchi’s experimental design is adopted and it is found that measured dimension is oversized along the thickness direction and undersized along the length, width and diameter of the hole. It is observed that different factors and interactions control the part dimensions along different directions. The Grey-Taguchi approach has used for recommending optimal factors setting for predicting and improving overall dimension of the considered part.

9 Designing of High Speed, Low Cost 32-bit Modified SQRT Carry Select Adder in 45nm Technology Gyanesh Savita, Vijay Kumar Chauhan, Tarkeshwar Dhote

Abstract—Digital logic circuits have became the indispensible part for all electronics gadgets based on arithmetic and logical operations, the complexity of designs are increasing with each generation due to increasing need of number of task, since all the arithmetic operation are dominated by addition, therefore increasing the performance of the adder will increase the performance of the whole design. In this work, A comparison between Carry Select Adder and Square root Carry Select Adder has been done as they provide tradeoffs between area, power, delay (latency). By providing schematic changes in regular design, a significant improvement has been done in area, power, and delay. In this work a modified basic circuit that is the core digital circuit in design has been used, beside this a significant schematic change has been done in half adder and Ex-OR Gate circuit design, Entire work has been completed in 45nm CMOS process Technology using TANNER TOOL.

10 An Efficient and Secure DIT Technique for Image Encoding and Compression
Sambangi Jithendra Kumar, Dr Ch. Ramesh, D.Prakasa Rao

Abstract—In addition to provide the security for data through image, we are using the concepts of cryptography and image processing. In this paper we are using both functionality for security of data and image. Before transferring data we can encrypt it by using cryptographic technique. In this paper we are using triple DES algorithm for data encryption and decryption. After encryption of data the cipher data can be stored into image using LSB technique. After storing data the image can be encrypt by using DIT (Data Inverse technique). The completion of encryption of image the image can be compressed by using Arithmetic compression and decompression technique. The above architecture provides data confidentiality and improves the performance. Now days transferring data and image through network without losing data integrity are a complex task to provide security of data and image, we can use the cryptography techniques, image encryption, and decryption and compression techniques. In this paper we are using an efficient technique for provide more security.

11 A Novel Parallel Compression with Discrete Cosine Transform
Patnala Prathyusha, Dr. Ch. Ramesh, M.Swetha Harini

Abstract—Compression of an image is always an interesting research issue in the field of image processing. Parallel image compression is a good solution to improve image compression rate. In this paper we propose a secure and parallel image compression technique over images. Initially image can be segmented and performs parallel image compression with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT).Our proposed model gives more efficient results than traditional approaches.

12 Seismic Analysis of Multi-storied RCC Building with Soft-storey: A Critical review
Vedant Mishra

Abstract—It’s the todays need to have a multi-storeyed building which can give a parking and other type of services like shops, marriage hall, commercial spaces etc. But these buildings with open ground and other floors at different levels are fundamentally vulnerable to breakdown due to earthquake. The main reason behind the collapse of this type of building consisting soft storey is drift created during earthquake. Thus this paper is to review its behaviour during earthquake and to establish detail concepts of building with soft-storey. According to past records soft-storey buildings have regularly shown bad performance during past earthquakes across the world for example during Kobe -1995, Chi-Chi Earthquakes -1999, Turkey -1999, Taiwan -1999, Bhuj- Gujrat earthquake -2001, Algeria -2003, and Nepal earthquake - 2003. As we know that main cause of failure of soft-storey is sway mechanism during earthquake causing localized failure at the soft-storey level and ultimately resulting complete building failure. This is mostly due to the abrupt change in stiffness of a soft-storey with respect to upper stiffed storey. Thus the analysis of soft-storey is the todays need to control the failure particularly in higher seismic zone IV and V mostly Northern and Eastern part of India where Earthquake frequency is too much.

13 Quad-copter using The Flight Controller
Prof. R. H. Nangare, Prof.S.M.Herur, Sonal Patil, Kartika Devar, Akash Kamble

Abstract—This is the research paper which represents remotely operated Quad-copter system. The multi-rotor helicopter also known as a quad rotor or quad copter is designed with four rotors to create lift. Quod-copter is controlled through a flight controller and RF transmitter and receiver. There are two modes for operating the quad-copter which are X-mode and + mode. The X-mode gives good stability and balancing of the quad-copter. And, the developed system is able to cope with load disturbance up to 250 g during the hover position. We are using Mode 2 transmitter which have 6 channels. We are using 2200 mAh Lipo battery. Maximum battery time of Quad-copter is ten minutes in indoor and 8 minutes in outdoor.

14 On -Separation axioms in Topological Spaces
V. Kokilavani, P.R. Kavitha

Abstract—In the present paper, we introduce, study and investigate the following separation axioms: - spaces (for i=0,1,2). Moreover, some of special results and properties, which belong to them, are studied.

15 Performance Evaluation and Improvement in Academic Abilities Using Prediction Analysis
Ravi Kumar V G, Vinay M G

Abstract—The education performance is a turning point for all the students in academics. The data stored in educational database contain hidden information for evaluation and improvement of students’ performance. The ability to predict a students’ performance is very important in educational environments. A very promising tool to achieve this prediction is Data Mining. The academic performance of a student is based upon diverse factors like personal, social, psychological and other environmental variables. The University/Institution will have the ability to predict the students’ performance, so that, they can manage and prepare necessary resources for the new students. This helps the teacher to improve the student’s performance and decides on those students who need special attention. This helps in identifying the slow learners and to take actions at the right time. Bayesian classification method is used on student database to predict the present student’s performance.

16 Short Term Load Forecasting using Artificial Neural Network
Pragya Sharma, Sulochana Wadhawani

Abstract— Development of artificial neural network for short term load forecasting is presented in this paper. Load forecasting is the process for prediction of electric load. Accurate load forecasting affects the economic operation and reliability of system up to great extent. If the generation is not adequate to accomplish the demand, it will lead the problem of unbalanced supply and in case of surplus generation the generating company will have to bear loss .For the optimal power system operation and planning appropriate evaluation of present and future electric load is needed. Many electrical utilities are routinely forecasting load power based on conventional methods. However, since the relationship between load power and factors influencing load power is non-linear, it is difficult to identify its non- linearity by using conventional methods. To overcome these problems load forecasting method using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with adaptive learning rate is being used in this paper. The ANN model was trained by Levenberg Marquardt. The data used for training is collected from Gwalior region of MPSEB. The model for short term load forecasting was design and implemented with MATLAB. The result was calculated by Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 3.329 for the forecasted day.

17 Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using Impedance and artificial neural network
Chetan. P Patil, Ajit. P Chaudhari, Rajesh.C Patil

Abstract—Transmission lines, among the other electrical power system components, suffer from unexpected failures due to various random causes. These failures interrupt the reliability of the operation of the power system. When unpredicted faults occur protective systems are required to prevent the propagation of these faults and safeguard the system against the abnormal operation resulting from them. The functions of these protective systems are to detect and classify faults as well as to determine the location of the faulty line as in the voltage and/or current line magnitudes then after the protective relay sends a trip signal to a circuit breaker(s) in order to disconnect (isolate) the faulty line. This paper presents the use of back-propagation (BP) neural network architecture as an alternative method for fault detection, classification and isolation in a transmission line system. The main goal is the implementation of complete scheme for distance protection of a transmission line system. In order to perform this, the distance protection task is subdivided into different neural networks for fault detection, fault identification (classification) as well as fault location in different zones. Three common faults were discussed; single phase to ground faults, double phase faults and Double phase to ground faults. The result provides a reliable and an attractive alternative approach for the development of a protection relaying system for the power transmission systems.

18 Design IIR digital filter Using Neural Network
Yogesh Babu Indoriya1, Prof. Karuna Markam

Abstract—The paper presents the design of IIR filter using FDA tool and compare different filter that is Chebyshev type 1,chebyshev type 2 and Elliptic the using algorithm that is feed-forward back propagation using neural network. As the bsimulation results shows, the proposed neural based method is capable of archiving a better performance for filter design.

19 Performance Evaluation and Improvement in Academic Abilities Using Prediction Analysis
Ravi Kumar V G, Vinay M G

Abstract—The education performance is a turning point for all the students in academics. The data stored in educational database contain hidden information for evaluation and improvement of students’ performance. The ability to predict a students’ performance is very important in educational environments. A very promising tool to achieve this prediction is Data Mining. The academic performance of a student is based upon diverse factors like personal, social, psychological and other environmental variables. The University/Institution will have the ability to predict the students’ performance, so that, they can manage and prepare necessary resources for the new students. This helps the teacher to improve the student’s performance and decides on those students who need special attention. This helps in identifying the slow learners and to take actions at the right time. Bayesian classification method is used on student database to predict the present student’s performance.

20 Performance and Emission Characteristics of 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Vegetable Bio Diesel Blends With Diesel
Mahesh babu C, Nagendra prasad S, Shwetha C, Chaithra M C, Balasubramaniam N S

Abstract—In current scenario, there are continuously increasing the number of automobiles and correspondingly increasing the fuel consumption as well as fuel prices. Many researches are looking forward to find an alternative source of renewable energy. One such alternative to diesel fuel is bio diesel .Bio diesel can be defined as fuel comprising of mano alkyl ester of long chain of fatty acid derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. The paper will discuss the use of diesel with VEGETABLE bio diesel blends in four stroke diesel engine. This alternative fuel contains, VEGETABLE bio diesel is blended with diesel. The scope of the project is to investigate the effect of injection pressures on a blend of 25%, 50%, 80% of vegetable bio diesel with DIESEL and compare with pure DIESEL on the study of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. Four tested fuels were used during experiment like 100% diesel and a blend of 25%, 50%, 80% VEGETABLE biodiesel mixing in the diesel. For those mixtures the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), mechanical efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, mean effective pressure are calculated. The gas emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), carbon-di-oxide (CO2), carbon-mono –oxide (CO), hydro carbons (HC) are being measured by the use of AVL smoke meter. The performance test was conducted at constant speed with variable load. The experimental work is conducted on four stroke single cylinder water cooled diesel engine.

21 Congestion Control Using a Tri-level Marking Algorithm in Multi-Hop Wireless Environment
N. Monisha, S.Sowbakkiyam

Abstract—With the growth of multi-hop wireless network, an excessive demand for the limited network resources results in more congestion. Gateway congestion control under existing standard active queue management (AQM) experiences performance degradations due to multiple packet losses, high queuing delay and low link utilization, in addition to that AQM’s require tuning of more parameters. In this paper, a new proactive queue management algorithm is proposed that supports end-to-end transmission control protocol (TCP) congestion control through triple packet marking. From the simulation results we have proved that MLM has zero packet loss due to queue overflow and improves the queuing delay by 0.1% with that of existing standard AQM’s such as RED, DT, REM, and BLUE.

22 An Overview of Data Warehousing and Design Methodology
Manisha D. Rakhonde, Namrata R. Borkar

Abstract—A data warehouse is a “subject-oriented, integrated, time varying, non-volatile collection of data that is used primarily in organizational decision making and reporting with computing”. Data warehouses are central repositories of integrated data from one or more disparate sources. They store current and historical data and are used for creating analytical reports for knowledge workers throughout the enterprise. Examples of reports could range from annual and quarterly comparisons and trends to detailed daily sales analysis. The data stored in the warehouse is uploaded from the operational systems (such as marketing, sales, etc.). The data may pass through an operational data store for additional operations before it is used in the Data Warehouse for reporting. This paper presents a roadmap of data warehousing technologies, focusing on the special requirements that data warehouses place on database management systems (DBMSs) also type design methodologies.

23 Prediction and Visualization of Shopping Trends in E-commerce using Data Mining Techniques
Ashwini S

Abstract—Data Mining is the process of discovering interesting patterns from large datasets. Prediction of the current shopping trends can be done using frequent pattern mining technique. The algorithm such as Aproiri and FP-tree has no visualization of the frequent patterns and also consumes more time for analyzing large datasets. Works reported until now have reduced the time consumption for analyzation but does not visualize the generated patterns. This paper presents the visual exploration of frequent patterns for prediction of shopping trends using Boyer-Moore and Aproiri algorithm. The generated frequent patterns are visualized into different graphs- Month Wise, Support vs Patterns, Confidence vs Patterns and Profit vs Patterns.

24 Kinetics of Oxidation of 2-Pentanone by Nicotinium Dichromate
Rajesh Kumar Sharma, H.P. Dwivedi, Deeksha Shrivastav, Shikha Mishra

Abstract—Now-a-days Nicotinium dichromate (NDC) has drawn the attention to several laboratories and is of academic interest due to its vast and wide application in allyl alcohols, kinetic and Non-kinetics oxidations of compounds. Nicotinium dichromate (NDC) is nonhazardous and easy to handle. The most important advantageous feature of this oxidant is that the potential of this industrial oxidants is about + 1.101 V being a moderate strong oxidant, it consumes little time, gives maximum products yields. The advantage to employ NDC in oxidation kinetics, its easy preparation and stable nature has leaded us to choose for the present investigation as an oxidant. Owing to possessing of reactive carbonyl group and tautomer phenomenon ketones are the subject of the interest. The relevant literature pertaining to the undertaken 2-butanone reveal that oxidations carried out by an NDC is very rare and scanty and none of the researcher acclaimed the use of NDC in probing the oxidation kinetics of 2- pentanone with it, thus the author has chosen NDC as an oxidant for kinetics study of ketones. The tautomer equimolecular ketoenol dynamic equilibrium creates complication and interesting mechanism due to structural change such as methyl etc. in presence of electron releasing and electron attracting groups with the enol from of the substrate. In this equilibrium shifting of α-halogen atom takes place to carbonyl oxygen to produce reacting enol and lengthening of the straight chain will enable me to take above text of task for study in view of explaining the kinetics of 2- pentanone.

25 Modeling and Simulation of Routing Packet Using Dijkstra Algorithm to Achieve the Shortest Routing Path
Ilo S.F, Igbajar Abraham, Paul Kingsley Okah

Abstract—For a large number of interconnected autonomous systems consisting of a distinct domain to communicate to different nodes to forward information, routing is a means of doing that, but in order to determine the shortest routing part we need to examine and simulate with Djikstra algorithm. Though there are other algorithm but the advantages of Dijkstra algorithm is that router computes routes independently using the same original status data; they do not depend on the computation of intermediate machines. Because link status messages propagated unchanged, it is easy to debug problems. Because routers perform the route computation locally, it is guaranteed to converge. Finally, because link status messages only carry information about the direct connections from a single router, the size does not depend on the number of networks in the networks in the internet. Thus, Dijkstra algorithms scale better than distance vector algorithms.

26 Experimental Investigations and Production of Methyl Ester Using Mahua Oil and their Performance in CI Engine
Lohith A.G, S.S.Prabhakara , Santhosh B

Abstract—This paper is mainly concerned with an experimental investigations carried out on performance of biodiesel obtained from Mahua oil and its blends with diesel from 15%, 25%, 35% & 45% by volume for running a diesel engine. The properties of these blends were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to the American standards. Engine performance, ( brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, total energy consumption& total fuel consumption ) Exhaust Gas Temperature emissions & emissions (CO, HC, NOx & CO2 ) were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel at injection pressures 200 bar & CR 17.5:1. The increase in power output, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption were observed. Injection pressure and compression ratios were found to have significant effects on engine performance parameters. The power output decreased with increase in the concentration of Mahua methyl ester in diesel. The reductions in exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption together with increase brake power, brake thermal efficiency made the blend of biodiesel in between MB15 to MB25 is found suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution.

27 Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of KOME in CI Engine
Santhosh B, S.S.Prabhakara , Lohith A.G

Abstract—This paper is mainly concerned with an experimental investigation to study the performance and emission characteristics using non edible - karanja oil methyl ester (KOME). Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester which is renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification process. In the present investigation, karanja oil based methyl ester (biodiesel) is produced by using calcinated calcium oxide, a heterogeneous base catalyst by transesterification process. The produced KOME is blended with diesel were tested for their use as a substitute fuel for diesel engine. Experiments were conducted for Injection pressures of 200bar and 225bar, keeping compression ratio of 24:1 as constant, to study the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using blends of karanja methyl esters with diesel on a 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% volume basis, respectively. The properties of these blends were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to the American standards. Engine performance, (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, total energy consumption& total fuel consumption) Exhaust Gas Temperature emissions & emissions (CO, HC, NOx & CO2) were measured to evaluate and compute the behavior of the diesel engine.

28 Evolution of Channel Profile with Seepage
Harish Patel, Bimlesh Kumar

Abstract—Most of the stable channel predictors are empirical or semi-empirical in nature except Lane’s (1953). Lane (1953) has derived the stable channel parameters analytically by solving various forces those can act on the sediment-water flow. It has been noticed that existing stable channel predictors or Lane’s (1953) theory do not account seepage as independent parameters. Seepage flow from the alluvial channel modifies the channel hydrodynamics, which may result in new equilibrium state other than Lane’s geometric profile. Experimentation shows that channel based on Lane’s geometric profile remains stable in case of no movement of water from channel in downward direction. In case of downward movement of water, channel attains a new equilibrium state, which is very much different from the Lane’s geometric Profile.

29 A Survey on Challenges and Security Aspects of Mobile Cloud Computing
G.N.K.Suresh Babu, M.Kumarasamy

Abstract—Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) integrates mobile computing and cloud computing and it becomes one of the frequently used term in software industries. Mobile cloud computing becomes part of mobile users daily life transactions. Mobile devices with Internet capabilities have increased the use of mobile clouding computing. Due to hardware limitations in mobile devices, these devices can't install and run applications require heavy CPU processing or extensive memory. Cloud computing allows mobile users to synchronize their data with remote storage and utilize applications require heavy CPU processing or extensive memory such as Microsoft Office or Adobe Photoshop, as they run in a desktop computer. Further, Mobile cloud computing refers to the incorporation of the elements of mobile networks and cloud computing that offers optimal services for mobile users. It offers on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The more and more information is placed into the cloud by individuals and enterprises, security issues begins to grow and raised. In this paper the author discusses the different security issues that arise about how safe the mobile cloud computing environment is.

30 An Efficient Technique to Recognize License Plate Using Morphological Edge Detection and Optical Character Recognition
Saranya .S

Abstract—Basically video surveillance system is used for security purpose as well as monitoring systems. But Detection of moving object is a challenging part of video surveillance. Video surveillance system is used for Home security, Military applications, Banking /ATM security, Traffic monitoring etc. Now a day’s due to decreasing costs of high quality video surveillance systems, human activity detection and tracking has become increasingly in practical. Accordingly, automated systems have been designed for numerous detection tasks, but the task of detecting illegally parked vehicles has been left largely to the human operators of surveillance systems. The detection of Indian vehicles by their number plates is the most interesting and challenging research topic from past few years. It is observed that the number plates of vehicles are in different shape and size and also have different colour in various countries. This work proposes a method for the detection and identification of vehicle number plate that will help in the detection of number plates of authorized and unauthorized vehicles.This paper presents an approach based on simple but efficient morphological operation and Sobel edge detection method. This approach is simplified to segmented all the letters and numbers used in the number plate by using bounding box method. After segmentation of numbers and characters present on number plate, template matching approach is used to recognition of numbers and characters. The concentrate is given to locate the number plate region properly to segment all the number and letters to identify each number separately.

31 Surface Roughness Analysis In Machining Of Aluminium Alloys(6061 & 6063)
S.Ramesh, P.Elangovan

Abstract—Surface is one of the most significant requirements in metal machining operations. In order to attain enhanced surface quality, the appropriate setting of machine parameters is important before the cutting operation take place. The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of machining parameters on the surface quality of aluminum alloy in CNC milling operation with HSS tool. A multiple regression model developed with spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut as the independent variable and surface roughness parameter ‘Ra’ as the dependent variable. The prediction ability of the model has been tested and analyzed using ‘Mini Tap’ and it has been observed that there is no significant different between the mean of ‘Ra’ values of theoretical and experimental data at 5% level of significance. In addition to that, they are going to use Box-Behnken designs method which analyze the surface roughness and it designs when performing nonsequential experiments. That is, performing the experiment once. These designs allow efficient estimation of the first and second-order coefficients. Because box-behnken designs have fewer design points, they are less expensive to run than central composite designs with the same number of factors.
32 Infected Fruit Identification Using Watershed And Support Vector Machine Technique

Abstract—Nowadays, overseas commerce has increased drastically in many countries. Plenty fruits are imported from the other nations such as oranges, apples etc. Manual identification of defected fruit is very time consuming. This work presents a novel defect segmentation of fruits based on color features with Watersheld segmentation algorithm. We used color images of fruits for defect segmentation. Defect segmentation is carried out into two stages. At first, the pixels are clustered based on their color and spatial features, where the clustering process is accomplished. Then the clustered blocks are merged to a specific number of regions. Using this two step procedure, it is possible to increase the computational efficiency avoiding feature extraction for every pixel in the image of fruits. Although the color is not commonly used for defect segmentation, it produces a high discriminative power for different regions of image. This approach thus provides a feasible robust solution for defect segmentation of fruits. We have taken apple as a case study and evaluated the proposed approach using defected apples. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of proposed approach to improve the defect segmentation quality in aspects of precision and computational time. The simulation results reveal that the proposed approach is promising.

33 Reactive Power Compensation of Hybrid Renewable Energy System Using Pq Theory
L. Surya, P. Umamaheshwari

Abstract—The purpose of studied industry nowadays. The intensive use of power converters and nonlinear loads has contributed for the deterioration of power quality, and this affects critical processes, resulting in substantial economic losses. Therefore, the development of equipment that can mitigate the problems that affect electrical installations is of great interest. One such equipment is obtained by the combination of a series active filter and a shunt passive filter called as a Hybrid Filter. This paper proposes a new hybrid filter to improve the quality of power. It presents new technique based on the instantaneous power theory which represents instantaneous powers in time domain. MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used to simulate the proposed system. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method yields better solution for improving power quality.

34 An Advanced Approach to Power Quality Issues by Using Unified Power Quality Conditioner
Habeeb Mohammed K.K, S.Ramkumar

Abstract—In this paper presents an advanced approach to power quality issues by using unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) connected to three phase four wire system (3P4W). In the fourth wire for the 3P4W system uses the neutral of series transformer and it will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. A four-leg voltage source inverter topology is used for shunt part to compensate the neutral current flow toward transformer neutral point. By connecting nonlinear load to 3P4W system with Unified Power Quality conditioner there exist many power quality problems, mainly unbalanced voltage and current. We can compensate the current unbalance present in the load currents by expanding the concept of single phase P-Q theory. This theory applied for balanced three phase system and for each phase of unbalanced system independently. Based on unit vector template generation a new control strategy is proposed to the control algorithm for series APF. The functionality of the UPQC is provided the MATLAB/Simulink based simulations.

35 Energy efficient modified partial Product generator for redundant binary multipliers

Abstract—Due to its high modularity and carry-free addition, a redundant binary (RB) representation can be used when designing high performance multipliers. The conventional RB multiplier requires an additional RB partial product (RBPP) row, because an error-correcting word (ECW) is generated by both the radix-4 Modified Booth encoding (MBE) and the RB encoding. This incurs in an additional RBPP accumulation stage for the MBE multiplier. In this paper, a new RB modified partial product generator (RBMPPG) is proposed; it removes the extra ECW and hence, it saves one RBPP accumulation stage. Therefore, the proposed RBMPPG generates fewer partial product rows than a conventional RB MBE multiplier. Simulation results show that the proposed RBMPPG based designs significantly improve the area and power consumption when the word length of each operand in the multiplier is at least 32 bits; these reductions over previous NB multiplier designs incur in a modest delay increase (approximately 5%). The powerdelay product can be reduced by up to 59% using the proposed RB multipliers when compared with existing RB multipliers.

36 Monitoring and Controlling Of Distribution Transformer via Wireless Sensor Networks for Power Transformer Asset Management
R.Dheivanai, P.Akshara

Abstract—Distribution transformers are one of the most important equipment in power network. Because of, the large number of transformers distributed over a wide area in power electric systems, the data acquisition and condition monitoring is a important issue. Here transformers are damaged due to the oil damage. Oil damage is depends on different parameters and environmental conditions. Now in this system we are concentrating on temperature of transformer and oil tank level. In this system temperature and oil level monitoring and control action is performed based on the AVR microcontroller. After interfacing the required components user has to develop one application program in embedded-c. Here controller is continuously reading the temperature and oil level, and display on the LCD and PC via ZigBee transceiver along with the set point. Hence the chance of damage can be prevented. This will result in high efficiency and long life of transformer, more than that the safety and reliability of the electrical power system will ensure.

37 Buckling Analysis of Woven Glass fiber/epoxy Laminated Composite Plate

Abstract—The ‘composites’ concept is not a human invention. Wood is a natural composite material consisting of one species of polymer — cellulose fibres with good strength and stiffness — in a resinous matrix of another polymer, the polysaccharide lignin. Nature makes a much better job of design and manufacture than we do, although Man was able to recognize that the way of overcoming two major disadvantages of natural wood — that of size (a tree has a limited transverse dimension), and that of anisotropy (properties are markedly different in the axial and radial directions) — was to make the composite material that we call plywood. Bone, teeth and mollusc shells are other natural composites, combining hard ceramic reinforcing phases in natural organic polymer matrices. Man was aware, even from the earliest times, of the concept that combining materials could be advantageous, and the down-to-earth procedures of wattle-and-daub (mud and straw) and ‘pide’ (heather incorporated in hard-rammed earth) building construction, still in use today, pre-date the use of reinforced concrete by the Romans which foreshadowed the pre-tensioned and post-tensioned reinforced concretes of our own era. But it is only in the last half century that the science and technology of composite materials have developed to provide the engineer with a novel class of materials and the necessary tools to enable him to use them advantageously. In this study, the influence of cut-out shape, length/thickness ratio, and ply orientation and aspect ratio on the buckling of woven glass epoxy laminated composite plate is examined experimentally. Clamped –free -Clampedfree boundary condition is considered for all case. Experiments have been carried out on laminated composites with circular, square and rectangular cutouts. The thickness of the plate was changed by increasing the number of layers. After the buckling experiments micro electroscopic scanning was performed for the failed specimens. Comparisons are made between the test results, by using two different approaches. The results shows effect of various cut-out shapes, orientation of fiber, aspect ratio and length to thickness ratio on the buckling load.

38 Design of Modified Variable Latency Han-Carlson Adder and Its Applications
Sasireka.S, Dr.Marimuthu C.N

Abstract—The variable latency adder, the exact arithmetic function is replaced with an approximated one called as speculation, that is faster and gives the correct result most of the time. A novel variable latency speculative adder based on Han-Carlson parallel- prefix topology is proposed in this work that is more effective than Kogge-Stone topology and its used in FIR filters.

39 An Improved enhancement method for colorful image
Sharanpreet Kaur, Manit, Naveen Dhillon

Abstract—Digital image processing (DIP) entails the change of electronic information regarding improving the particular image characteristics with the support of computer system. The completing helps with maximizing quality, sharpness and details of characteristics associated with interest towards data removal and extra analysis. Contrast is an important factor in just about any subjective evaluation of picture quality. Recently much work is performed in the field of images enhancement. In this paper, modification is done by using fuzzy fusion as well as ant colony optimization based image enhancement further by utilizing the edge preserving smoothing hypothesis.

40 Brain Signal Detection Methodology for Driver Alert System Using Brain Wave Sensor
D.Biruntha, R.Mohan Raj

Abstract—Drowsiness and lack of attention leads to accidents. These accidents can be avoided by monitoring the driver attention level and blinking status. So, in our proposed project work we are analyzing the mental activities of the brain using EEG signals from the Brain- Computer Interface (BCI) technology. This methodology consists of BCI which is the interface between the human brain and the level analyser unit. EEG electrode converts the muscular action into electrical signals and which is sensed by a brainwave sensor and wireless device i.e., BLUETOOTH which transmits the raw data to the MATLAB for level analyzer unit (LAU) which analyse the entire status of the driver.

41 Real Time Embedded System for ATM Authentication using Wireless Module
V.Gowri, S.Hemalatha

Abstract—In this project, a real time finger vein system for a security in ATM machine is proposed. In ATM user or bank sector, there is no enough security for users, so provide more security to user finger vein method is used. The finger-vein is a biometric authentication for personal identification in terms of its own security. Everyone has unique finger vein, and it cannot be stolen by anyone because finger vein is inside the body it varies for everyone. Initially, the finger of the users is stored in the database. User finer vein is compared with a database; if it matches the database allow the user to the further process. And generate the OTP password for mobile devices. If it does not match with the database, it display not authentication person and alert by using buzzers.

42 Bypassing Technique Based Braun Multiplier for Low Power Consumption with Improved Speed
Kusum Sahu, Rahul Sinha

Abstract—A multiplier is one of the key hardware blocks in most digital and high performance systems such as FIR filters, digital signal processors and microprocessors etc. If the power consumption of the multiplier block reduced, then reduction of the power consumption of various digital signal processing chips and communication systems could be possible. In this paper 4/8/16 bit Braun multiplier has been designed using bypassing technique and a comparative study of all bypassing techniques on the basis of their power consumption is done. At the last stage of the multiplier KSA (Kogge Stone Adder) and RCA (Ripple Carry Adder) is used for high speed and the low power consumption. The implementation of Braun multipliers and its bypassing techniques is done using Verilog HDL Xilinx 14.4 ISE and it is verified using the Spartan6, device xc6slx45. After comparing, it is concluded that mixed bypass multiplier is best suited for situations where both delay and power are low. The number of slices & LUT used is also less when compared to other techniques. For 16 bit Row and Column Bypassing Technique using KSA the delay and power found to be 28.118 ns and 0.184 Watt From other two methods (Row Bypass and Column Bypass) it is found to be (28.679ns & 0.190 Watt) and (28.518 ns and 0.184 Watt) respectively.

43 Design and Implementation of Serializer for SERDES Transceivers
Lochan Varshney, Dr.Vishal Ramola

Abstract—Serial interconnects are the backbone of the modern communication, so the choice of SerDes architecture can have a good impact on system cost and performance. With the help of serializer and deserializer in the communication system, the power consumption and number of interconnects in the circuit can be reduced with respect to parallel communication. This paper reports a design of serializer architecture with the help of multiplexer and double edge trigger flip flop. Concept used behind designing the block of serializer is of CMOS Transmission Gate i.e. Pass Gate. The advantage of this technique in which input is sampled with clock which is half of the original clock and is distributed for the same functional throughput, which results in power saving in clock distribution network. This proposed Serializer architecture is designed using GDPK- 180 CMOS Technology and simulation is done using Cadence Virtuoso with a supply voltage of 1.8V.

44 Effect of IBA Concentration and Time of Plum Cutting and Air Layering
S. N. Mozumder, M. I. Haque, Monira, S. Ahmad, S. Akter

Abstract—Experiments were conducted at the Regional Spices Research Center, BARI, Gazipur during January 2013 to August 2014 to evaluate effect of IBA concentration and time of cutting and air layering in plums. Cutting were placed with six levels of IBA treatments Viz 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm and dusting. Profuse shoot growth was observed but no root was emerged in cuttings and all cuttings were died after a few (25-30) days. Air layering was done in four time (Mid-June, Mid-July, Mid-August and Mid- September) with five levels of IBA Significant variations on death of layers, rooting and leaf production due to layering time with six IBA concentrations (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm and dusting). Layering time and IBA concentration showed significant effect on rooting and success rate of layers. The number of successful layer was significantly higher in June (14.3, 57.33%) and July (13.3, 53.33%) layering with 2000 ppm IBA application and the success was nil (0.0) in September layering without or lowest (500 ppm) concentration of IBA.

45 On Total Domination Polynomial in Graphs
J.Devaraj, S.Sowmya

Abstract—In this paper we find out the total domination polynomial of Herschel graph, Bull graph , Wagners graph and for some connected graphs such as H(n) , KS(n), ̂ , ( ) ( ) (( ) ( ) ( )

46 Improved Software Project Scheduling by Event Based Optimization
J.Amala, S.Kavitha

Abstract—recent days Software development companies are facing one of most important problem is project scheduling for different projects. Scheduling is important that play vital role in software project management. When the efficient project planning is reduce the cost and time for the project management. Some software modelling gives resource allocation and human resource allocation even though the project managers facing problems uncertainties in requirements, human resources. Still there is no efficient approach yet proposed to solve uncertainty events project scheduling. This research mainly focused about resource plan and unexpected joining and leaving the staffing. Some systems gives very good solutions for project scheduling like ACO is effective approach that provide project scheduling problems. But it is not satisfactory model to solve uncertainties events project scheduling. This research presents improved ACO based project scheduling algorithm to face uncertainty events in project.

47 Recognition of Malignant Nodes in Wireless Ad-hoc Network based on Auto-Correlation function
Ambika V, Rummana Firdaus

Abstract—Preserving privacy of data and securing access to data from unauthorized nodes in wireless ad hoc network have attracted a lot of research and development effort in past few years. In a multi-hop wireless network, nodes cooperate in relaying traffic. An adversary can exploit this cooperative nature to launch attacks. Malicious nodes that are part of the route exploit their knowledge of the communication context to selectively drop a small amount of packets critical to the network performance. The data can be replicated by the malignant nodes in network. The data is error prone if certainty is not assured while packets are dropped. The common reason for packet dropping in wireless ad hoc network is considered as the channel error. The packet loss may also be due to malicious nodes. Identifying if the packet loss is intentional or unintentional is needed before computing packet loss rate. The Auto-Correlation function based on position of packet loss is taken to account to detect attacker. The truthfulness of detection is verified by auditing mechanism based on Homomorphic Linear Authenticator(HLA) cryptographic primitive. So the privacy of data is maintained while auditing and ensures low transmission, storage overheads and reduces resource contention. To keep computation simple, packet-block based detection mechanism is considered. Thus the implementation is useful to avoid packet dropping attack in Wireless Ad hoc Network.

48 Congestion Aware Routing Algorithm for NOC
Anshu Dhariwal, D.S.Gangwar

Abstract—Network on chip is a communication subsystem on an integrated circuit. Network on chip has become a promising solution for multi-core architecture now a days as NOCs are able to scale communication links with the increasing number of cores in the system. In this paper we use adaptive routing algorithm for network on chip so that congestion in the network can be reduced considerably. Adaptive routing is used as it reduces the time for travelling the data between source and destination and circuit will respond accordingly faster. Furthermore, adaptivity requires a comprehensive, hardly intrusive, runtime, observability infrastructure, i.e., monitoring components, in order to gather data on the system.

49 Multiple Cell Upset Correction using Decimal Matrix Code for Enhanced Memory Reliability–A Review
Meenakshi, Atush Jain

Abstract—An important issue in the field of data storage is the transient multiple cells upsets (MCUs) when the consideration is reliability of memories exposed to the radiation environment. There are many enhanced packaging techniques are offered which defend the memory data from radiations and transients. On the other hand, a particular packaging provides safety from a limited variation of radiations. Owing the increasing demand in the application in wireless communication field the devices are exposed to surrounding switch is having a very wide range of radiations. Subsequently, some additional data protection techniques like Error correction codes (ECCs) are always chosen for authenticating the data before it is processed. These protection techniques use encoded data to be stored in memories. An error correction code uses redundant bits to minimized delay overhead in data correction are be stored in the memory. A review on memory data error detection and correction code is presented in this paper.

50 Health Seekers Understanding Medical Terminology from the Health Care Experts
R.Nithya, I.Anette Regina

Abstract—Recent year’s health service websites are dramatically developed. In such health services Medical term and technical verbal’s play vital role between the health seekers and health care expert’s knowledge has caught up data access. To viaduct this gap, this approach presents a scheme to label question answer (QA) pairs by together utilizing local mining and global learning approaches. Local mining attempts to the persons query can be processed and replayed with healthcare experts that can be no of experts. In local mining map all the user queries and no more same kind of reply from experts have it in local mining. However, it may suffer from data loss and inferior precision, which are caused by the nonappearance of key medical concepts and occurrence of unrelated medical terms. Information technologies are transforming the ways healthcare services are delivered, from patient’s passively embracing their doctor’s orders to patient’s actively seeking online information that concerns their health. Some time that medical terminology not able to understandable normal health seekers. This research presents the new approach that provides the health seekers may convert medical terminologies into their local languages and they can easily understand the Information.

51 Impact of soccer training on leg strength among coastal and Non costal soccer players
S.Tubin, M.Senthilkumar, Dr.R.Mohanakrishnan, Dr.M.Rajashekaran

Abstract—The study was designed to investigate the Impact of Soccer Training on Leg Strength among Coastal and Non Costal Soccer Players. To achieve the purpose of the study forty male soccer players were selected as subjects and their ages ranged from 18 to 23 yrs. The coastal area soccer players were selected (n = 20) from St.Jude’s college of Arts and Science, Thoothoor and non-costal area soccer players were selected (n = 20) from Nesamani Memorial college of Arts and Science, Marthandam, Kanniyakumarai district, Tamilnadu State. The duration of the training period was restricted to twelve weeks and the number of sessions per week was confined to three, which was considered adequate enough to cause changes in fitness abilities and striking skill performances of the soccer players. Leg Strength performances were assessed before and after the experimental period by using Leg lift with Dynamometer test. Two factor ANOVA was used to analyze the collected data. The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between coastal and Non Coastal soccer players on leg strength.

52 VLSI Implementation of Energy Efficient Gaussian Filter: A Survey
Shalini Upadhyaya, Shweta Agrawal

Abstract—In the modern VLSI design for the portable gadgets, the prime concern is the power and performance. Filter is the most commonly used processing block to filter out the noise entered in the image/video at different level of processing. The Gaussian filter is commonly used to remove noise while maintains the structure of the object in the scene. The high computation complexity is the challenge to the VLSI designers. In this paper, an exhaustive literature review is done and then the performance of the existing designs is evaluated and compared. These existing designs are implemented and simulated with benchmark input to compute the efficacy over the existing architectures. The designs are modeled on MATLAB and Tanner, simulated with benchmark inputs and then quality and design metrics are evaluated where the results show that filters provide images of acceptable quality with different amount of error.

53 Wireless Notice Board Using GSM for Multiusers
Shyamala C, Asha M

Abstract—Notice boards play a vital role mostly in educational institutions. The events, occasions or any news, which has to be passed to the students, will be written on the notice boards present in every floor in the colleges or schools. The present system is like, a person will be told the news and the user has to update this news on all the notice boards present in the college or school. This will be seen mostly during the examination seasons. At present, when information has to be updated in a notice board, it has to be done manually. In present electronic systems, no matter how many displays are present, only a single notice can be sent to all of the notice boards irrespective of their places. To overcome this disadvantage, multiple displays along with a decoder are used to select a particular display. The information is sent through ATMEGA controllers by using GSM technology.

54 Use of Aloe Vera Juice for the Treatment of Water
Tejaswinee Anil Pawar, Sagar M Gawande

Abstract—Alum is the mostly used coagulant in the treatment of water. But it has some carcinogenic effects. Therefore many scientists suggested that to use natural coagulants. Natural coagulants are the coagulants which obtained from natural plants and animals. In this paper Aloe Vera juice has been used to treat the water by the process of coagulation ad flocculation. Sample collected for the treatment from Mutha River at the station of Vitthalwadi.

55 Image Error Reduction by Fusion Using Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform
Pragya Nema, Rajendra Patel, Anand Vardhan Bhalla

Abstract—This paper is related to an image fusion system based on Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform. This system reduces error in the fused image. The various error parameters analyzed are Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Normalized Absolute Error (NAE), Maximum Difference (MD).

56 Segmentation Based Wavelet Compression Using Biorthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform
Pratishtha Jain, Megha Soni, Anand Vardhan Bhalla

Abstract—Image compression is currently a prominent topic for both military and commercial researchers. Due to rapid growth of digital media and the subsequent need for reduced storage and to transmit the image in an effective manner image compression is needed. Image compression attempts to reduce the number of bits required to digitally represent an image while maintaining its perceived visual quality. This work concentrates on the compression of image based on segmentation using biorthogonal discrete wavelet transform. The performance of this method is compared with the available DWT compression technique. The proposed system improves the Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Time of execution is also reduced in the proposed system.

57 Effect of Geometric Twist on Wind Turbine Blade
S.Sharmila, S.Anand

Abstract—Increasing need for fundamental research in rotor aerodynamics and practical aspects, constraints were imposed on the design. An important part of this work is to conduct a study of the design trade-offs to determine the effect of the geometric twist on the wind turbine and its energy capture of the rotor. Another objective was to determine the necessary modifications to the blade geometry and twist in aerofoil for a three-bladed rotor configuration. This project aims to describe the approach and process used to design a tapered/twisted blade, and to provide performance predictions for the conventional wind turbine blade and the updated model with geometric twist. The aerodynamic performance of the blade with and without geometric twist is analysed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics and to increase the lift of the blade and to prevent over speed of the rotor. Additionally, twisted blades tested for its stall delaying characteristics.

58 A Survey on various Security Mechanisms used in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
Dr. A.Ranichitra, Dr. V.Lakshmi Praba

Abstract—Recent developments in wireless communication technologies led to the evolution of Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The main goal of VANET is to afford communication between vehicles without negotiating security. Adding security to VANET environment is challenging due to the unique features of the network, such as Dynamic topology, Mobility modelling and prediction of the vehicles. Though security in VANET is a significant challenge to face, identification and isolation of malicious vehicles are very important. It is obvious that any malicious vehicle altering or generating replay attack of the critical messages could be ruinous to the other trusted vehicles. Security Mechanism is a process designed to detect, prevent or recover the communicating entities from various security attacks. This paper discusses the various asymmetric cryptography security mechanisms and its applicability in various secure routing protocols of VANET.

59 Context Aware Venue Suggestions System For Cloud Based Architecture
Pratiksha Nagare, Nitin Shivale

Abstract—Nowadays, recommendation systems have been significant evolution in the field of knowledge engineering. There are many existing recommendation systems that are based on collaborative filtering approaches that make them easy to implement. Performance of the existing collaborative filteringbased recommendation system suffers due to cold start, data sparseness, and scalability. Recommendation problem is characterized by the presence of many conflicting objectives or decision variables, such as user preferences and venue closeness. This paper includes Context Aware Venue Suggestions System for cloud based architecture in mobile depending on their moods. The MobiContext utilizes multi-objective optimization techniques to generate personalized recommendations. This system mainly depends upon the status updated by user. Status helps to find location and with the help of location we can trace places. In this system user can update his status, according to that status system can find the location of that user and system can also trace the places nearby that location.

60 Characterization of Ternary (Bi-Trivalent) Polymetaphosphate Derivatives with Molecular Weight Determination
Vishnu Kumar Khandelwal

Abstract—Ternary (bi-trivalent) polymetaphosphate derivatives having the composition [NaxMIII 1-x/2aMII 1-x/2aPO3]n (where MII = Mg(II), Ba(II), Ca(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Sr(II), Zn(II), MIII = Fe(III), La(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), x = 2/3,3/4, a = Valency of metal ion) have been synthesized by fusion technique. Number average molecular weights (Mn) of these derivatives have been determined by end-group titration technique and weight average molecular weights have been determined by intrinsic viscosity measurement in 0.035N NaCl solution. Weight average molecular weights (Mw) obtained by viscosity studies are higher than number average molecular weights (Mn) values indicate their polymeric nature.