IJAIR- Volume 5 Issue 11 (November 2016)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 A Study on Privacy Conflicts in Social Media
J.Jananipreetha, P. Ponmuthuramalingam

Abstract — Online Social Networks (OSNs) plays an important role in Social media. It has tremendous growth in recent years. Social networks help users to socialize and share content with other users. These OSNs produce a number of security issues and privacy. Online social networks (OSNs) have greatly transformed the online performance and activities of users. Unfortunately such services have also proposed a number of privacy issues. As the use of these services covers across multiple aspects of daily life, users may face many consequences when their personal and professional life can disturb each other via OSNs. . The lack of multi-party privacy management in Social Media makes users unable to control to whom these items are really shared or not. In this survey, focus is on review about privacy conflicts in social media.

2 Cloud Surveillance Using SLAs
Soundaryaa.A, Sibiya.M,Vishnu siddarth.R, Vidya.S

Abstract — Cloud computing which provides distributed resources to the users globally. Cloud computing contain scalable architecture which provides multiple challenges exists in the cloud service. This paper describes the different SLA models proposed in cloud computing, to overcome the challenges exists in SLA. Challenges which is related to security and memory allocation. The main related issues involve:(i) representing the security features so that it is understandable by both customer and provider,(ii) The provisioning of security mechanisms able to grant beside security features ,and (iii)continuously monitoring the services in order to verified the fulfillment of specified security.

3 A Survey on Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
Raghavendra Y M, Asha M

Abstract — Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) refers to a group of spatially dispersed and dedicated sensors for monitoring and recording the physical conditions of the environment and organizing the collected data at a central location. In many WSN applications, the sensor nodes are battery driven and they are often very difficult to recharge or change the batteries. The energy consumption in WSN depends on Sensor nodes, Architecture and Communication Protocols utilized. Energy efficient routing is one of the most effective ways to save energy in WSNs. Energy efficiency is the first and foremost issue in designing a routing protocol. An energy efficient routing protocol is needed to ensure network performance and prolonging network lifetime. A number of energy efficient routing protocols were proposed. Here some of the routing protocols in WSN are discussed. WSN has become an emerging area of research in recent years.

4 Efficient Energy Distribution with Power Loss Detection
Asha M, Raghavendra Y M

Abstract — Global energy crises are increasing every moment. India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. These shortages have a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. Losses could be defined as the difference between the metered units of electricity entering the distribution network and those leaving the network paid for through electricity accounts, whether estimated or metered, in a well defined period of time. Electricity theft is a social evil, so it has to be completely eliminated. The traditional billing systems are discrete, inaccurate, costly, slow, and lack flexibility as well as reliability. Therefore, several attempts were made to automate the billing systems. Even though accurate and fast readings are obtained, bill payment is still performed based on the old billing procedure. They require an individual or agent to physically come and take down the readings and report to house hold/office the amount one has to pay. In this project an attempt is made to develop a system, in which energy meter works as an prepaid energy meter and detect illegal electricity consumption, by GSM based smart energy meter. At this point of technological development the problem of illegal usage of electricity can be solved electronically without any human control. The implementation of this system will save large amount of electricity, and there by electricity will be available for more number of consumer than earlier.

5 Integration of IOT on Smart Irrigation System
Sneha.M, Rubath .G, Thahamina.S.R, Thinotha.T, Karthik.S

Abstract — Internet of Things (IoT) is the internetworking of physical devices embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity. It enables objects to collect and exchange data by controlling it across existing network infrastructure. Agricultural sector makes a major use of water that plays an important role in the development of the country. Wastage of water is a serious issue in irrigation .The main aim of this project is to control the flow of water by monitoring the moisture content and helps in preventing dry run of motor and notifies the user over GSM to periodically provide fertilizers to the crops based on the soil’s moisture content and there by effectively reduces the cost of irrigation.

6 Fuzzy Divisor Cordial Graph
M.Sumathi, Agwin Charles

Abstract — In this paper we introduce a new concept called fuzzy divisor cordial labeling. It is a conversion of crisp graph into fuzzy graph under the new condition namely fuzzy divisor cordial labeling. In divisor cordial labeling it is not possible to label all the crisp graphs due to the condition of its definition. Suppose if we consider a graph of size 5, it will be possible to label all the vertices as in the combination of vertex set {1,2,3,4,5}. So for n vertices, we need to label all the vertices as a combination of all the vertices without repetition, without neglecting any vertex among them. Here discussion about the edge labeling is trivial. So it is clear that all the crisp graphs can’t be divisor cordial graphs. However in fuzzy divisor cordial graph for any vertices we can label any fuzzy membership value from [0,1]. Since the interval consists of infinite number of terms, there is infinite number of chances for labeling a vertex in fuzzy divisor cordial labeling.

7 Globalization and Its Effects on Indian Economy
Dhrub Kumar Dwivedi

Abstract — The term globalization means International Integration. Opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalization of financial markets, growing importance of MNC's, population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas. The word globalization is derived from globalize which refers to the emergence of an international network of an economic system. Globalization was adopted by Government of India during 1990-91 when Indian Economy was in a worst position. It was, however, adopted not as a solution to deteriorating Indian economy but to enable itself to get further foreign exchange loans from World Bank because foreign exchange reserves of India were reduced to mere 3 weeks outflow. To rectify its ailing financial health, Government of India decided to go for privatization & liberalization of its economy. These decisions had immediate positive effect. However, globalization has proved to be a double edged weapon. It helped India temporarily to meet its emergent need of foreign exchange but it has caused some permanent damage to Indian Economic system.

8 Advances in Weighted Guided Image Filtering
K.Peraiah, K. Ravi kumar

Abstract — It is known that local filtering based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper a weighted guide image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge aware weighting in to an existing guided image filter (GIF) to solve the problem. Here in this paper weighted guided image filter is used for single image enhancement, single image haze removal, fusion of differently exposed images, and also for videos enhancement.

9 Security Analysis for Enhancing Software Defined Networking
Kiruthikaa K V

Abstract — Software-defined networking (SDN) is a new approach to programmable networking in which network control is isolated from the hardware infrastructure. It provides a competing architecture that is used for designing and managing networks in an optimized manner. SDN delivers new applications and business services with a high speed and agility. Even though SDN has these remarkable advantages, it also refuge network security. In this paper, the role of SDN in addressing the emerging software security challenges is highy discussed.

10 Analysis On Pressure Vessel Design Parameter’s With Solidworks
Bhupinder Singh, Sandeep Kumar, Mahakdeep Singh

Abstract — In this paper scope of improvement lying in the design of the shell of the pressure vessel as the shell is the main component in a vessel which with stands maximum value and type of pressures so that is why the focus was shifted to wall thickness. With help of solidworks FEA module the various iterations are compared and by reviewing the values of the stresses and by analysis of the distribution tables and figures. The results shows the carried out work in form of analysis in solidworks the effective wall thick is found out to be median which is applicable to vertical pressure vessels. one of the main reason why the standard pate thickness have been chosen to be between 8mm to 17 mm as these are the three standard plate thicknesses available. with material C276 which is a grade of stainless steel. This particular grade with thickness 11mm proves to be best suited for many reasons, mainly that all the stresses are found to be comparatively less at around 18% and at the same time the property of material being less corrosive (as it is used to store corrosive chemicals) and weld ability, gives the encouragement to suggest that the alloy C276 will best meet the purpose. Two other grades are also analyses in comparison. and the analysis has been done on solidworks analyses module.

11 Experimental analysis and Degradation and of CType GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced polymer)
Mahakdeep Singh, Sandeep Kumar

Abstract — Nanotechnology involves the control and manipulation of materials at the nanoscale. As the surface area of a particle increases, creating more sites for bonding, catalysis or reaction with surrounding materials, resulting in improved properties such as increased strength or chemical or heat resistance. In the present work, epoxy modified with nanoclay cloisite 30B (having concentration 0.5 wt %, 2 wt %, 3 wt % and 4 wt % of epoxy) is reinforced with C-glass chopped strand fiber and Eglass unidirectional fiber to manufacture interply laminates. X-ray diffraction conducted on epoxy clay nanocomposites indicates exfoliation of nanoclay at all level of nanoclay loading. The effect of varying the nanoclay concentration is observed by carrying out tensile, 3-point bending strength test and hardness tests. Test result shows that tensile strength increases as the clay concentration varies from 0 wt % to 3 wt %. Tensile strength is maximum at 3 wt % and further increase in clay concentration shows decrease in tensile strength. Flexural strength increases as the clay concentration varies from 0 wt % to 4 wt %. Micro hardness increases as clay concentration varies from 0 wt % to 2 wt % and then decrease at further loading. Further hygrothermal studies on nanocomposites have been performed in water and NaOH baths. During exposure it is observed that the properties degradation in NaOH is more as compared to water.

12 Efficient LUNG Cancer detection and monitoring system using medical image segmentation
Soujanya.A, Vijayamadhavi

Abstract — Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. The use of image processing for medicinal diagnosis and research is extensively growing and thus improving the lives of people. In the proposed technique uses Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Goal of this work is to segmentation of lung parenchyma form MRI scans. Segmentation process used in the proposed technique is Region growing. Region growing methods can provide the clear edges with good segmentation results which is helpful to detect the affected part in lungs. The region growing segmented outputs of MRI are combined to get better results regarding disease. The proposed technique is used to detection and monitoring for better diseases diagnosis. This work will be contributed to technical and medical community.

13 Design and Fabrication of Pneumatic Transplanter
Chethan K.C, Dr. A K Murthy, Dr. A K Murthy

Abstract — Developing countries contribute to about 72% of the total production of vegetables in the world. India, which is one among them, is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world and accounts for about 15% of the production of vegetables in the world. Its production level is over 90Mtons from around 6.2 million hectares. However, the whole cultivation process is done mainly by hand or manually except for the preparation of soil. This manual cultivation involves huge investments in cost, time and labor. In addition to this, hand held transplanters are also used for cultivation purposes. It consists of components like handle, lever, hollow pipe, jaw and jaw operating wire. This implement penetrates into the soil by its self-weight hold with handle, seedling is dropped into the hollow pipe and then the jaw is opened with the lever. The main drawback of the hand held transplanter is that it does not reduce the manpower completely. This gives rise to a need for a transplanter which further reduces manpower. Therefore, this project was focused on the Design, Fabrication, Testing and Evaluation of a Pneumatic Transplanter. This project demonstrates the application of engineering techniques to reduce the labor efforts and time required for transplanting. The designed pneumatic transplanter consists of 2 Pneumatic Cylinders, a compressor, a battery, 2 solenoid valves, a plant feeding pipe, a base plate, a switch board, 3 switches- one for the forward motion, one for the cylinder extension and retraction and one for the opening and closing of valves, tubes- to carry the compressed air, tube fittings, 2 pair of wheels and 4 DC motors. By using pneumatic components, the production process is made more economical since these components are cheap, durable and the cost of repair is significantly lower than other systems.

14 Data Duplication Detection in Publication Paper Using Jaccard Indexing Algorithm
M. Pavithra, P. Shanthi

Abstract — Duplicate Detection is a desperate task in any database of any organization. Duplicates are nothing but the same real time entities or objects presented in the form of different structure and in the different formats. The Jaccard Indexing algorithms find out the duplicates in relational data, in complex data and hierarchical data. There are lots of works already presented in the past for finding the duplicates in the relational data. In this process, one record is compared to all other records. Different data representations, formats, terminologies and data entry mistakes make this task complex. Involvement of heavy volume databases adds more complexity. To address the problem of record comparable in such database scenario present a Jaccard Indexing Algorithm, for a given query the algorithm can effectively identify duplicates from the query result records of multiple datasets. The proposed algorithm checks the duplication in the publication paper based on author, publication year and paper name etc. This Innovative algorithm that assumes detected duplicate in sorted dataset raises the probability of finding more duplicates in neighborhood. Series of consecutive non-duplicates drops the possibility of duplicates in neighborhood. Using this concept, it adapts window both for duplicates and non-duplicates (0 or 1) and avoids unnecessary comparisons without losing effectiveness. It proves that Jaccard Indexing Algorithm is a better alternative in windowing algorithms.

15 Effect Of Mineral and Chemical Admixture on Fiber Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete
Etaveni.Madhavi, S.B.Sankar Rao, G V V S S Prasannam

Abstract — The objective of this work is to investigate the toughness property of the fiber reinforced self compacting concrete (FRSCC) through experimental studies. Fibers are used to arrest the cracks in the concrete, and also improve the toughness property of the concrete. In this work, different (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2%) percent of steel fibers are added by volume of concrete and (0.5% & 1.0%) percent of poly-propylene are added by mass of compendious material. The mix design of self compacting concrete has been done according to the EFNARC guidelines. The limitations stipulated in European guidelines are also achieved according to the European guidelines. By using different types of fibers the toughness property of the FRSCC has been studied. It has been observed that the toughness increased with increase in % of fibers up to 1.5%. While, increase in % fiber content beyond 1.5% resulted in lower toughness for the steel fibers. It gives a conclusion that the only the limitation of steel fiber for SCC is up to 1.5% of volume of concrete. The comparative study also recorded mechanical properties of poly- propylene fiber reinforced self compacting concrete.

16 On Ek – Cordial Graphs
J.Devaraj, M.Teffilia

Abstract — A labeling f of G is said to be Ek- cordial if it is possible to label the edges with the numbers from the set {0,1,2,………,k- 1} in such a way that, at each vertex v, the sum of the labels on the edges incident with v modulo k satisfies the inequalities v(i)  v( j) 1and e(i)  e( j) 1, where v(s) and e(t) are respectively, the number of vertices labeled with s and the number of edges labelled with t. In this paper we prove that the ladder graph, Cn K2, attaching triangle at each vertex of the cycle, attaching k1,3 at each vertex of the cycle , flower graph,LIC2n are Ek- Cordial graphs.

17 EIntrusion Detection using Classification and Feature Selection of NSL-KDD data sets
Roshni Suryawanshi, Prakash Kashyap, Santosh Kushwaha

Abstract — Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a valuable tool for the defense-in-depth of computer networks. However, Intrusion detection systems faces a number of challenges.One of the important challenge is that, the input data to be classified is in a high dimension feature space. In this paper, we effectively proposed PSO-DT(Iterative Particle Swarm Optimization- Decision Tree) intrusion detection system. Where, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used as a feature selection algorithm to maximize the CART (Classification And Regression Trees) Decision Tree classifier detection accuracy and minimize the timing speed. To evaluate the performance of the proposed IPSO-DT IDS several experiments on NSL-KDD benchmark network intrusion detection dataset are conducted. The results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of reducing the number of features from 41 to 11, which leads to increase the detection performance.

18 Control of Adjustable Speed Drives Using Z-Source Inverter

Abstract — This paper proposes a Z-source inverter (ZSI) system and control for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is based on PWM strategy. By controlling the shoot-through duty cycle ratio, the Z-source can produce any desired output ac voltage, even greater than the line voltage. As results, the new ZSI system provides ride-through capability under voltage sags, reduces line harmonics, improves power factor, provides reliable operation and extends output voltage range. The proposed ZSI can effectively reduce the voltage stress across the capacitors in the impedance network. The simulation result verifies the validity of the proposed high-performance ZSI to control the ASD systems.

19 Design and Analysis of Multi Stored Residential Building (G+5) using Staad Pro V8i
N.Subhash Chandra Mouly, S.B.Sankar Rao, Dr.P. Mallesham

Abstract — The principle objective of this project is to analyse and design a High rise building [G +5) using STAAD Pro. The design involves load calculations manually and analyzing the whole structure by STAAD Pro. The design methods used in STAAD-Pro analysis are Limit State Design conforming to Indian Standard Code of Practice. STAAD.Pro features a state-of-theart user interface, visualization tools, powerful analysis and design engines with advanced finite element and dynamic analysis capabilities. From model generation, analysis and design to visualization and result verification, STAAD.Pro is the professional’s choice. STAAD. Pro has a very interactive user interface which allows the users to draw the frame and input the load values and dimensions. Then according to the specified criteria assigned it analyses the structure and designs the members with reinforcement details for RCC frames. Our final work was the proper analysis and design of a G + 5 3-D RCC frame under various load combinations. The structure was subjected to self weight, dead load, live load, seismic loads under the load case details of STAAD.Pro. Seismic load calculations were done following IS 1893-2000. The materials were specified and cross-sections of the beam and column members were assigned. The supports at the base of the structure were also specified as fixed. The codes of practise to be followed were also specified for design purpose with other important details. Then STAAD.Pro was used to analyse the structure and design the members. In the post-processing mode, after completion of the design, we can work on the structure and study the bending moment and shear force values with the generated diagrams. We may also check the deflection of various members under the given loading combinations. The design of the building is dependent upon the minimum requirements as prescribed in the Indian Standard Codes. The minimum requirements pertaining to the structural safety of buildings are being covered by way of laying down minimum design loads which have to be assumed for dead loads, imposed loads, and other external loads, the structure would be required to bear. Strict conformity to loading standards recommended in this code, it is hoped, will ensure the structural safety of the buildings which are being designed. Structure and structural elements were normally designed by Limit State Method.

20 To Study the Influence of Nano Silica on the Strength & Durability of Self Compacting Concrete
S.B.Sankar Rao, Etaveni.Madhavi, M.Srikanth Yadav

Abstract — Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is also considered as a concrete which can be placed and compacted under its own weight with little or no vibration without segregation or bleeding. The use of SCC with its improving productions techniques is increasing every day in concrete production.It is used to facilitate and ensure proper filling and good structural performance of heavily reinforced structural members. Recently, nano particles have been gaining increasing attention and have been applied in many fields to fabricate new materials with novel functions due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Degradation of concrete members exposed to aggressive sulphuric acid environments is a key durability issue that affects the life cycle performance and maintenance costs of vital civil infrastructure. Sulphuric acid in groundwater, chemical waste or generated from the oxidation of sulphur bearing compounds in backfill can attack substructure concrete members. Moreover, concrete structures in industrial zones are susceptible to deterioration due to acid rain of which sulphuric acid is a chief component. In this work 40Mpa selfcompacting concrete is developed using modified Nan- Su method of mix design.Slump flow, J-Ring, V-funnel tests are conducted to justify the fresh properties of SCC and are checked against EFNARC (2005) specifications. Specimens of dimensions 150x150x150mm were cast without nano silica and with twonano silica are added in different percentages(1%, 1.5% and 2% by weight of cement) to SCC. To justify the compressive strength for 7and28days, specimens are tested under axial compression. Durability propertieswere also studied by immersing the specimensin5% HCl and5% H2SO4.

21 Siesmic Strengthening of Residential Building with Open Ground Story using Push over Analysis using Etabs Software
A. Rakesh Reddy, P.Mallesham, D.Rajender Babu

Abstract — During the past Earthquakes, it has been observed that the open bottom storey is one of the most common problems causing server damage in the structural members leading to complete collapse. Open ground storey feature is mostly preferred in urban areas where there is congestion for parking space and hence architect is forced to provide the same inside the building, thus marking building unsafe. Such type of buildings shall be designed carefully following the provision laid out in IS 1893. In this report, a study is carried out to improve the performance of a 6 storey structure with open ground storey. The seismic performance of the same is improved by increasing the moment carrying capacity of ground storey columns, providing wall infill in some portions, Combination of the above two The performance of the structure is determined by using the Non linear Pushover analysis. The main parameters are intense drift and lateral displacement. The study shows that the seismic performances of the structure can be improved significantly by combination of constructing wall infill and higher design moments in columns. In case the damage occurs in wall only, it can be reconstructed and structure can be repaired easily.

22 A Review of Data Security Algorithms in Cloud Computing Environment
Venkatesh H, Dr.G.N.K.Suresh Babu

Abstract — The main goal of this paper is how we can provide secure data in a cloud computing environment. Cloud Computing is an emerging computing paradigm. It aims to share data, calculations, and service transparently over a scalable network of nodes. Today many organizations using the business model with the help of cloud computing technology. But the threat in cloud computing technology is security of data. Data security refers to the security of data on the storage media. So, Security is an important factor in cloud computing for ensuring clients data is placed on the secure mode in the cloud. Data must not be stolen by the third party so authentication of client becomes a mandatory task. In this paper, we discuss a number of existing methodologies through cryptographic algorithms used to provide data security in the field of cloud computing and the proposed solutions for secured data.

23 Tracking of Human Motion Detection using Video Surveillance
K.Gayathri, B.Ganesh Prabu

Abstract — An Automated Video Surveillance system is presented in this paper. The system aims at tracking an object in motion and classifying it as a Human or Non-Human entity, which would help in subsequent human activity analysis. The system employs a novel combination of an Adaptive Background Modeling Algorithm (based on the Gaussian Mixture Model) and a Human Detection for Surveillance (HDS) System. The HDS system incorporates a Histogram of Oriented Gradients based human detector which is well known for its performance in detecting humans in still images. Detailed analysis is carried out on the performance of the system on various test videos.

24 A Method for Power Conditioning with Harmonic Reduction in Micro grids
J.Sharavani, L.Ashok

Abstract — This paper presents a control method of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to reduce the harmonic content of the distribution system to which are connected, such as a Microgrid. By this method the RES is acting as a Power Conditioner and its supplying system consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. A RES or a Distributed Generator (DG) such as a micro turbine is synchronized to the distribution system, which is assumed to be distorted by a high-order voltage harmonic. Utilizing the proposed method, the RES not only exports its output power to the grid, but also reduces the existing harmonic distortion, improving voltage quality at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Simulations in Matlab/Simulink platform have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the suggested approach to reduce harmonic content.

25 Study of Steam Turbine Blade to Improve Its Performance
Ashish kumar patel, Mukesh Kumar Solanki

Abstract — A steam turbine is an engine which is the use of energy of stem is transformed into work. First the steam heat diffused to a nozzle and is converted into kinetic energy. Then, that kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy on rotating blades. The usual steam turbine has 4 main parts. The stater consists of a casing and cylinder within which the rotor turns. The turbine has a base or frame and finally there are a nozzle or flow passage which expands the flow the cylinder casing and frame are often combined. The rotor is the rotating part which carries the blades/ buckets. Other parts necessary for proper operations would include as a control system, piping, lubrication system, and separated condenser. There are many different types of turbine.

26 A Review on Sentiment Analysis of Twitter Dataset Based on Classification Technique
Sonu Patidar, Sanjay Bansal

Abstract — Social networks have revolutionized the way in which people communicate. Information available from social networks is beneficial for analysis of user opinion, looking at the response to policy change or the enjoyment of an ongoing event. Manually sifting through this data is tedious and potentially expensive. Sentiment analysis is a relatively new area, which deals with extracting user opinion automatically. Emotion sensing or sentiment analysis is a complicated task of machine learning technology. That belongs to the Natural language processing branch of artificial intelligence. It is a broad domain of learning and analysis. Among the text classification and their emotional orientation discovery is also part of this domain. In this paper, we proposed decision tree algorithm based text classification model for performing sentiment on twitter based data. Additionally the comparative performance is also measured with the traditional ID3 algorithm and similar variant of the improved ID3 classification algorithm. In order to compare the performance of the algorithms the accuracy, error rate, memory consumption and time consumption is taken as stand parameters.

27 Hierarchal Routing Algorithm on Wireless Sensor Network based on Traffic Records
N.Sivakumar, V.Navamani, V.Yuvaraj

Abstract — This research proposes the determining shortest paths for hops, which are in the middle of the source and destination. The shortest path in this research means the fastest path between the source and destination. In Recent, dynamic routing algorithms are currently used and developed by researchers. This research algorithm suggests that the fastest paths between the source and the destination which is based on using the record of the network traffic history. Main subject on networking is a user, and the pattern of network usage is always corresponding to network history. Users are using the networking and the network traffic is always corresponding to how many users use the networking in specific time. Therefore, network traffic information can be predicted by the network condition which is referring to the history of network traffic record, and then the shortest path can be produced without using RIP too much. It will be helpful to improve the network traffic and contribute efficient packet transferring on network.

28 A Review of Digital Data Encoding and Decoding Techniques for EDAC in Wireless MIMO Systems
Bhavana Kulhare, Dr. Poonam Sinha

Abstract — In the present time, the communication medium is changing to wireless from the existing wired system. 21st century certainly belongs to a new wireless world. Any information whether it is audio, video, image, text or other is communicated using wireless media. This change in the present requirements has forced the system developers and designers to consider the various technological advancements into consideration so that the best performing system can be developed. The performance parameters for an effective system are power, time, data security, noise handling, portability, etc. The advanced high speed technologies have made it possible to interface the hardware and software together to make a system high performance. But there are always some issues that are left unoptimized in any system. In this paper one of such parameter handling feature of wireless system is discussed and reviewed. This parameter is the environmental error handling decoders in wireless systems. The present work presents a review on the various works performed in recent years in the design and implementation of wireless system encoder/decoder for error detection and correction. These encoders and decoders are the hardware component of a wireless communication system that provides high data efficiency and data integrity. In a Multiple-Input- Multiple-Output (MIMO) system the channel encoding is a mandatory component of the system to reduce or eliminate the effects of the channel noise from the data.

29 Struggle for Survival in Manju Kapur’s “Home”
P. Elizabeth Kalpana

Abstract — The family is the chief institution that has survived all the way through the ages in India. Like most other less industrialized, traditional, eastern societies, it is a collective society that emphasizes family integrity, loyalty and unity. In India we also have class and caste; rural and urban; westernized, which means modern, liberal, and so on. And then we have more traditional people, who can either be poor or rich or middle-class. Families reflect societies – social moves, cultural trends, gender relations, class equations – all of them are seen brilliantly in the novel “Home” by Manju Kapur is an engrossing story of family life amid the bustle and commerce of Banwari Lal cloth shop. Home details Nisha’s struggle and search for a home i.e. searches for a place of shelter and security. Unfortunately to women in India, home is not a place of comfort and relaxation and it does not ensure them any emotional security. Nevertheless, it sometimes does not provide them any physical or mental security. The novel unravels the story of an ordinary middle class joint family’s life in Delhi. All these are usually kept under the carpet to defend family’s honour. A lot of issues go behind the curtains while maintaining the outer picture of being a big and blissful family. The author has tried to bring some of those issues to the forefront and due to this, “Home” does not remain a simple story of a Karol Bagh saree seller, but gets a more universal colour and makes an revitalizing family saga. Home reveals a distressing home and a fact that joint families can both destroy and preserve our maturity, individuality and mental progress.

30 Dynamic Load Balancing In Distributed Environment Using Rate Adjustment Policies
Jeganathan J, Jaiganesh M, Muneeshwari P

Abstract — In today’s world of distributed systems has raised a lot concerns about the efficiency. The aim of researchers in this field is to develop new dynamic load balancing techniques that could be applied on the real-time that is more efficient and dynamic than the existing systems. The real time problems of network congestion, centralized point of failure and fault tolerance still remain an open research topic and they are not fully eliminated. My work aims at giving firm solutions for these issues. This work proposes solutions that are more visible because here every implementation is done in real time using several clients and server machines. The clients send the requests to the server based on the number of jobs currently processed by each server and those jobs which are waiting. The decision is taken dynamically to send jobs to the server with least nodes. More dynamism is further incorporated by using parameters like arrival rate and mean service time which are calculated dynamically by the centralized machine using the data received from the server side so that server side over head is avoided. Further, the work portrait’s a peer to peer system. The request is sent from the client to the server. Here our main aim is to provide fault tolerance in an intelligent way. Further an efficient scheduler was designed that avoids starvation of low priority jobs.

31 Ethics and Values in Engineering Profession

Abstract — Ethics and values are very important for a professional to prove their role in their profession and in all societal concern. Ethics teach us to learn and adopt principles, refine our personality, and teach us moral responsibility along with integrity. This paper focus on ethics and values in Engineering profession.

32 A Review on FM0/Manchester Encoder Design and Implementation on FPGA
Minakshi Sharma, Neetesh Raghuwanshi, Manish Jain

Abstract — Now a day’s secure data transmission is becoming the concern area and demand of providing security to data before transmission is become important task in communication system to provide such task some schemes were used called encoding scheme. Various applications use these encoding schemes to protect the data which is not to be disclosed to unauthorized user. Miller, FM0, and Manchester encoding are some names which is basically used to obtain this task. Each technique has its own importance depends on the application and used according to the need. Each of the technique is so robust so that it can provide results without losing any of its parameter. All these encoding techniques generally use finite state machine to provide the output at a high speed. The architecture of Miller, FM0, and Manchester encoders has balanced DC output that is the advantage of using this technique. And that also reduced the requirement of number of transistors. This paper presents a review on number of scholars work.

33 Computer Aided Designing of Steam Turbine Blade to Improve Its Performance
Ashish kumar patel, Mukesh Kumar Solanki

Abstract — In modern power generation, we have required the modern power generation technology to improve the better performance in power generating system. Here mainly purpose of modernization of steam power plant to reduce the fuel cost of plant. In this report to use of latest technology in steam turbines like as advanced shaft sealing, advanced balding technology and condenser optimization in primary mechanism for realizing saving is in the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this article we are provide the advanced shaft sealing technology for reduction of waste, heat recovery losses in power generation plant. This article describes the steam turbine modernization to improve its performance. In engineers most challenges is the design of ultra super critical and advanced ultra super critical steam turbines presenting. Also refurbished old blades of steam turbine with new turbine blades to get additional power to beginnings thermal power plant demand for best design of turbine blades for ideal performance. Here the major design problem in chosen for the design of super critical steam turbine blades for pressure drop in given.

34 Heavy Functioning Address Generator for WIMAX Deinterleaver Using FPGA
R.G.Vidhya, S.Sathyadevi, M.Niranjana Priyadharshini

Abstract — A small downward-difficulty and effort of novel procedure is able to capably execute the address generation circuitry of the 2-D deinterleaver used in the WiMAX transreceiver using the Xilinx field-programmable gate array (FPGA).The make use of an internal multiplier of FPGA and the allocation of resources for quadrature phase-shift keying(QPSK), 16-QAM quadrature-amplitude modulation, 64-QAM, and Pulse width modulations(PWM) all by the side of all the feasible code rates make my approach to be the work of fiction and exceedingly competent after compared with conventional look-up table-based approach. I suggest a bulk logic circuit for the interleaver structure to diminish hardware complication and fault rate in WiMAX structure. And also the Walsh Hadamard generation and bi-orthogonal demodulation is suggested to get better hardware using up resourcefully. The future approach gives you an idea about secret code of major improvement in the utilization of FPGA resources.

35 Noises and their Removal using Various Filters: A Review
Supreet Sahni, Neeraj Shukla

Abstract — The use of image is everywhere, from selfie to medical imaging. The quality of an image not only depends on camera type but also on the way it is captured. In real time applications quality of images, is not of that much important. But, in applications such as medical imaging and biometrics, where some information needs to be extracted from the images, quality of images becomes important. In images blurring and noise are two degrading processes, and they need to be suppressed before meaningful information can be extracted. In this paper, various types of noises are discussed along with various filtering mechanism.

36 An Improved & Modified Method For Channel Estimation In Mobile Wireless Systems Using Ma-Lmmse Algorithm
Ankita Soni, Divyanshu Rao, Ravimohan
Abstract — In this paper an improved channel estimation algorithm for wireless channel is proposed. The importance of the OFDM is the multi-carrier modulation which means each signal/sub-carrier is modulated simultaneously and are overlapped to each other. To increase the performance of the advance wireless system, the channel estimation is an important technology in time-varying channel. For that the different modulation technique is used in OFDM, such as BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM and for the estimation at the receiver the pilot insertion techniques such as LS (Least Square) Method and LMMSE (Linear Minimum Mean Square Error) Method is used. The LS and LMMSE technique is used at receiver the estimation is done by using the Pilot Sequences. On the basis of traditional LMMSE, an improved method named MA-LMMSE is proposed, which is the modified version of conventional LMMSE method. The major advantage of the pilot sequences it allows high accuracy in wireless channel with simplicity. The aim of this paper is to examine the different method of channel estimation for reducing the ICI and ISI phenomena and also eliminate the Doppler effects and increase the performance.

37 Design & Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee System by MSK Modulation
Ashee Jain, Divyanshu Rao, Ravimohan

Abstract — ZigBee/ IEEE 802.15.4 was evolved for replacement of Bluetooth & Wi-Fi technologies, since they were not capable to transmit low data rate information in comparatively large area (10-100 m) [1]. Use of ZigBee transceiver system instead of other technologies were made for special wireless networks where distance & battery life was needs to be improved. In this paper we have implemented ZigBee system by MSK modulation technique, which is implemented using OQPSK, as defined in ZigBee specifications. Bit Error Rate by using OQPSK modulation is implemented & compared with MSK modulation. Results shows BER for MSK is better than OQPSK. All the simulations were performed using MATLAB.

38 Periodic and Quasi Periodic Noises and their Removal using Various Filters: A Review
Shashank Jain, Amit Gupta

Abstract — digital image processing is a major area of research due to the various applications based on images. In online and offline applications images are corrupted with various kind of noises, thus mechanisms are proposed to suppress the noises as they cannot be completely eliminated. The noises are suppressed using the various kinds of filters linear, non-linear and adaptive. However, with periodic and quasi-periodic noises a careful design of filter is desired, thus many algorithms designs are presented. This paper, presents the review of the some of the recently proposed mechanism with their advantages and disadvantages.
39 Quasi Noise Removal using Frequency Dependent Notch Filter
Shashank Jain, Amit Gupta

Abstract — Generally, the nature of noise is random and can be removed using both static and adaptive filters. Quasi-periodic noise may leave some effect on images. This artefact is often caused by electrical interferences during image acquisition or transmission, which makes remote sensing applications especially prone to the phenomenon. Periodic noise gives a bit of sharp spikes in the spectrum of image, which could be removed by means of notch filters. The problem is to automate detection of spike, that is, design of notch filter. Some works suggest, detecting spikes in the Fourier domain as great deviations in terms of a localized median value. However, distinguishing between spikes because of a repetitive structure or a localized texture (general in man-made conditions) and spurious ones caused by periodic noise is still challenging. It has been observed in past that periodic noise is likely to be the only periodic structure present in any patch extracted from the impaired image. The quasi periodic noise changes in structure over the time, thus removal becomes more complex. In this paper, a notch filter design is presented for quasi noise removal.

40 Design and analysis of composite leaf spring
S.Anandakumar, G.Balakrishnan

Abstract — In the current situation, the number of automobiles in the world is increasing at a faster rate. Due to this reason, the automobile manufacturers are looking for a replacement of parts with composite materials in order to improve the strength and reduce the weight of the vehicle. The parts made up of composite materials are now increasing popularity in aircraft and shipbuilding. In automobiles, the weight of the leaf spring accounts to a major proportion. Therefore, the automobile manufacturers are looking for replacement in this part. There are many composite materials used for manufacturing of leaf spring. The composite material which is we use here, Glass-Fiber Reinforced Polymer alone with Isophathalic resin. The leaf spring made of GFRP has better properties than that of a conventional leaf spring made of steel. As this material has a higher strength than that of steel spring, the size and the weight of the spring is reduced, similarly the cost also reduced. The leaf spring is to be here, will be fabricated by hand layup technique and then curing will be done. The testing for the GFRP leaf spring for deflection and maximum load will be done.

41 A Survey on Multiple Movable Sink for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network
Neha Soni, Sampada Satav

Abstract — Dynamic Wireless sensor network (DWSN) is a group of two or more dynamic nodes with infrastructure and networking ability that communicate with each other using sink node. Sink node is capable to move in predefine path in a certain sensor networks. Due to the movable capabilities in the networks path it is known as a Dynamic wireless sensor network. In present scenario Dynamic wireless sensor network is the fantastic machinery for wireless sensor network. In past few years, the sensor node doing many works likes sensing, data gathering and forwarding. In wireless sensor network, sensor nodes lost their Energy very quickly and get disjointed from the network. To avoid this type of problem, movable sink introduced which is helpful for improving network life cycle. We are going to implementing multiple movable sink for wireless sensor network.