JCT - Volume 4 Issue 4 (April 2015)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Cultural and Ecological Significance of Sacred Groves in Manipur
Yanglem Nungshitombi Devi

Abstract-Sacred groves of Manipur are repository of rare and endemic species of flora and fauna which are used in various cultural and religious activities performed by the Manipuri people. All forms of vegetation including trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers, etc. which have tremendous medicinal and ecological values are available abundantly in the sacred groves of Manipur. In these sacred groves, grazing and hunting are prohibited and only the removal of dead wood is permitted. During the course of transition from hunter-gatherer lifestyle to the agrarian settlement the customary use of nature was governed by traditional systems of resource use and conservation involved in a mix of religion, folklore and traditions regulating both quantum and form of exploitation. Nonetheless, the local people who reside in and around the sacred groves have the sense of responsibility to conserve and protect the flora and fauna available in the sacred groves through their cultural traditions and religious activities. Thus, there is a close inter-link with the people and thereby protecting the cultural heritage and keeping the ecological balance in the State of Manipur. The present study aims at to make an assessment of the current status of sacred groves in Manipur and its cultural and ecological significance.

2 The DNS Security Extension Using Quantifying Trusted Off- Axis Corroboration
S. Divya Priya, Mr. B. Dojohn Loyd

Abstract— In the world wide network, there are several websites, in which each and every system has to be protected securely. The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) makes DNS the first core Internet system to be protected using public key cryptography. The DNSSEC not only protects the DNS, but has created interest in using this secured global database .There are several websites which are protected using different security schemes and are made less prone to the intruder .To save the data from misused, the admin control are also needs to be protected from viewing the public data. And to enforce these techniques, we need to fully encrypt the data and the database from viewing the actual data and transform into unusual data .Therefore, the data has been hided and protected from general view. In this paper, I propose to achieve a new theoretical model, called Public Data, which is robust and free from verification deployments as Communities of Trust (CoTs) by which it makes them secure . A reasonable DNSSEC deployment model and a typical choice of a CoT, has been properly implemented to protect the full data access for the general view of the user. Our limited deployment of Vantages has outperformed the verifiability of DNSSEC and has properly validated .Then the various adversary would be able to Man-in-middle attacks on arbitrary traffic into autonomous systems. Then the whole database and the backend process are encrypted and are in non-viewable formats.

3 Segmentation and Classification of Abnormalities in Gallbladder
N.Shanmuga sundari, M.Swathi

Abstract—Automatic segmentation of ultrasound images is an important component of many applications domains, especially in the field of medical. Gallstone is a high incidence of gallbladder disease, Segmentation and extraction of gallstone from an ultrasound image is requirement for taking decision regarding treatment. Because of the presence of speckle noise, low contrast and luminous inhomogeneity in ultrasound images the available segmentation algorithms are general techniques. We proposed new method for the segmentation of ultrasonic images of gallstones. Segmentation, classification and level set method as presented. A validation is required for proper identification of gallstone.

4 Prediction of Poultry Egg Freshness Using Machine Vision
R.Nithya, S.Vasantharathna

Abstract— This paper presents application of image analysis and machine vision system in quality evaluation of poultry eggs.The image processing steps in machine vision applications for determining the quality of poultry eggs include image acquisition, image preprocessing, image segmentation, and defect classification. However, Poultry egg grading by humans are inefficient, labor intensive and prone to errors. Automated grading system not only speeds up the time of the process but also minimizes error. Therefore, there is a need for an efficient grading method to be developed. In this study, we proposed and implement methodologies and algorithms that utilize digital image processing and statistical analysis to determine the grade as well as the shelf life of poultry eggs. Thermal Imager (TI) is used to capture the image of the food product as it is found to be one of the emerging and non-invasive techniques suitable for quality evaluation of food products.

5 On Location of Zeros of Polynomials
M. H. Gulzar

Abstract— According to a well-known theorem of Enestrom and Kakeya all the zeros of P(z) lie in z 1. In this paper we shall present a corrected proof of a generalization of this result given by Pukhta.

6 Client Server System Development Model
Siddharth Srivastava, Vibhakar Singh, Sri Nidhi

Abstract—As we know that client server architecture is the most basic form or the most basic architecture using which websites and other remote method invocation based projects are developed. This architecture basically works on the concept of request and reply. No matter whether this architecture is simply following two tier approaches or three tiers approach the basic fundamental remains same that 1 system sends the request to the other system which computes the request and return the reply back to the requesting system. Here the requesting system is known as client and processing system is known as the server. When we want to develop any software then we use software engineering as the basic tool in order to engineer the desired software. Software engineering basically contains several models using which we can develop any type of software in easy and effective way. Here in this journal entitled “Client server system development model” , we are going to present new model which is known as client server system development model or CSS development model using which website based, or RMI based or request reply based projects can easily and effectively be developed. In this journal we are going to explain this model with help of examples so reader can easily understand that how this model is more effective with respect to traditional software engineering models for developing client server based projects. Although software engineering models are sufficient for developing nearly any kind of project but using this model specific type of project which is client server based project can more easily and effectively be developed.

7 Small Scale Client Server System Development Model
Siddharth Srivastava, Richa Srivastava, Anuj Batham

Abstract—This journal entitled small scale client server system development model is basically miniaturized version of client server system development model. This model is basically used to design or develop client server systems which are developed on small scale. In this case costing of project is to be low moreover we assume that single team or very few members are designing the project. Basically in real world scenario software development is spreading out with rapid rate moreover several organizations want to develop their project by giving minimum cost to developers. In such real world scenarios software developers can use this model to design client server based projects using minimum resources. Using this model developer can develop efficient client server system based projects in very low time and using minimum system as well as human resources. The basic foundation of this model is based on CSS development model [1] basically CSS development model works using two parallel paths very each path is to be developed by using a separate team, but in scarcity of resources this model merges the parallel paths using some intermediate phases hence giving CSS development model a capability to develop client server system based project using minimum resources.

8 Study on Sun Tracking System Using Motion Estimation
Kirti Chaurasiya, Satish Kumar

Abstract—The solar tracking is a center of interest in solar lighting systems. In this context the sun trackers are such devices for efficiency improvement. It is search that the power consumption by tracking device is 2–3% of the increased energy. A simple tracking system based on light dependent resistors was locally constructed, tested and optimized. Renewable energy results are becoming increasingly popular especially Photovoltaic (solar) systems. In order to increase efficiency of PV system, output power should be maximized which desires to keep the parabolic reflector aligned with the sun. Different methods are applied to increase the efficiency of the solar cell to reduce the cost. Solar tracking system is the most assign technology to enhance the efficiency of the solar cells by tracking the sun. A study on solar tracker based on different mechanisms is presented in this paper. The most efficient and popular suntracking device was found to be in the form of polaraxis and azimuth/elevation types. An innovative prototype based on web camera operation for solar tracking system is also proposed here. These results are useful for the design and construction of new sun trackers.

9 Video Compression Using MATLAB
Chandana Pandey, N. R. Kidwai, Deependra Pandey

Abstract—With the limited storage and bandwidth capacity, raw video data must be compressed to a transportable size. Hence, video compression is essential for multi-media communication as it provides fast video transmission over the wire and wireless transmission medium. This paper discusses the basics of the MPEG compression standard in detail. We have also implemented an algorithm for the generation of Intra-frame (I-frame), Bidirectional predicted frame (B-frame), forward predicted frame (P-frame) and image compression (DCT Quantization & Coding) as part of video compression flow of MPEG-2 standard. The pixels of digital images are sampled spatially in two dimensions i.e. horizontal and vertical at finite discrete coordinate positions. We transformed the pixel information from spatial domain to the frequency domain by using Discrete Cosine Transform and then quantization operation is performed on them. The quantized values are scanned and run length encoding is done.

10 Performance of Red blush grape fruit Budded on Different Citrus rootstocks under Shambat Conditions
Fatima Abd-Elrouf Ahmed, Dawoud Hussien Dawoud

Abstract—An experiment of Red blush grape fruit on several citrus rootstocks (Rough lemon, sour orange, Volca Mariana, Cleopatra mandarin, Carrizo citrange and Troyer citrange) were carried out since 2000 at Shambat germ plasm experimental orchard. A randomized complete block design with five replications and two trees per plot were used. According to the collected data of Fruit quality and cumulative yields of the last three seasons (2008- 2011), of Red blush grape fruit on six citrus rootstocks indicated that: the most highly recommended rootstocks for Red blush grape fruit was: Firstly: Carrizo citrange, Troyer citrange, Cleopatra mandarin. Secondly: Sour orange, (If there is no hazard of the Tristezta virus,) thirdly: Rough lemon and Volca Mariana.

11 Comparison of LEACH and Multi-hop LEACH with Proposed Amendments in Multi-hop LEACH
Tanu Monga, Raninder Kaur Dhillon

Abstract—Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging field of interest now days. It is attracting researchers in areas of internet, remote information exchanges, communication, etc. The energy efficiency is the one of the key parameters. LEACH is the basic protocol, developed to optimize the energy consumption of sensor nodes. The various advances of LEACH have been developed to achieve energy efficiency. This paper is a review between the simple LEACH and one of its advances Multi-hop LEACH.

12 Extended Version of Client Server System Development Model
Siddharth Srivastava, Priya Vig, Akanksha Srivastava

Abstract—This model entitled “Extended Version of Client Server System Development” is basically extended version of client server system development model. We have design this model in order to accomplish big and complex Client server based projects in easy and effective way. This model is basically the enhanced version of Client Server System Development model. When Client Server based projects contains some complex elements in it then this model is very fruitful in order to fabricate such projects. Unlike Client Server System Development model this model works on the concept of partial prototyping like we use in Prototype model but here two prototyping phases are executed in parallel hence giving it a unique way of dealing with prototypes. In this model frontend development team coordinates with backend development teams and both of the teams develop partial frontend and backend prototypes respectively and these prototypes are linked or merged to make a big partial prototype which contains partially designed frontend which operates upon partially designed backend. Due to above mentioned specialty we can quickly develop very complex projects in small amount of time and in extremely efficient way. In this model we construct the software step by step and we don’t use the concept of through-away prototype rather we use concept of fix prototype in which the partially built prototype is tested and if it is found correct then this prototype is fixed and based on next requirements it is upgraded.

14 Implementing Vinculum Subtraction Algorithm Using Software Virtual Hardware
Siddharth Srivastava, Shikha Srivastava, Richa Verma

Abstract—This journal entitled “Implementing Vinculum Subtraction Algorithm Using Software Virtual Hardware” basically presents a new way of testing hardware’s using our home made software entitled “VIRTUAL HARDWARE”. Here we are going to give details of Vedic algorithm entitled “Vinculum Subtraction” then we will show its implementation in form of hardware or more correctly in form of virtual hardware. For doing this we are going to use our software entitled “Virtual Hardware” which generates feasibility study report of Vinculum Subtraction hardware. This software checks whether the fabrication of any hardware is feasible or not but we know in advance that doing so is Vedically possible, since Vedic algorithms are universal and can be implemented anywhere and in any condition that too easily and efficiently. This software uses in-built basic hardware in order to simulate new logical hardware’s and generate the execution report of new logical hardware. Due to this we can easily figure out whether the given logical hardware under consideration is feasible or not. VIRTUAL HARDWARE is basically the software works on the concept of RTL (Register Transfer Language) and hardware implementation in order to fabricate feasibility study report. Based on this report hardware developers can easily find whether the hardware is feasible or not. This software basically virtually simulates the logical hardware under consideration and generates the execution report or feasibility report which shows the feasibility of logical hardware since it is virtually executing the logical hardware hence we have given it the name “virtual hardware”. Using this software logical hardware can easily be tested before their actual implementation starts or more correctly before fabrication of actual hardware starts. In this journal we will implement Vinculum Subtraction Algorithm for its feasibility. We will show how we are going to implement Vinculum Subtraction using our software and how to generate its feasibility study report. This software also presents a unique feature using which we can get feasibility study report in form of operational table.

15 Fundus Image Segmentation Using Region Based Level Set
Raval Jay S., Dave Bhavini N., Dhrumil H. Sheth

Abstract—A method for segmenting fundus images using region based level set is described in this code. The fundus images have active regions such as optic disc, blood vessels, cup and fovea. Extraction of these regions can be help full in the diagnosis of diabetes and glaucoma diseases. The variation of optic disc size and cup may be bio marker for this disease. The region based level set can extract the regions based on the clustering the particular regions. This may use signed distance function or an improved distance or to know function for curve evolution. The region descriptor may be a mean.

16 VBR Model
Siddharth Srivastava, Apoorva Shukla, Anshuman Srivastava, Shikha Srivastava

Abstract—In software engineering there were several models which we use in our daily life for fabricating good software’s. These traditional models are often known as software development life cycle models. Here in this journal we are going to present new software engineering model known as “VBR model” using which software’s which requires complex visualizations can easily be developed. Our aim is to present before the readers and software engineers a new kind of model using which they can develop software’s of enhanced quality with respect to complex visualizations present in the software. Traditional software engineering models handles the visualizations in traditional way and due to this the time of development increases, hence hampering the overall growth of the project.Using VBR model we can develop software’s having complex visualization factor(s) present in them in short time and in efficient way. The software developed using this model will always have an upper edge with respect to software developed using traditional software engineering models. This model works using three main phases namely Visualization Phase, Build Fix Phase and Refinement Phase, hence name VBR is given to it. This model basically focuses on visualization factor(s) which are present in SRS and using them software is developed.

17 Touch Screen Based Home Security System
Rojasara Piyush, Bhaiya Shailesh, Patel Arpit

Abstract—The Touch screen based home security locking system has its main application in security and detecting systems. It can be used in house, shop, offices, and industry, medical. We have provided a DC motor to give a demonstration of door lock opening. User needs to enter password using a Touch screen panel and also can maintain speech reorganization system [24].

18 Analysis of Multi-Channel EEG Signal By Using SPIHT Based and Volumetric Coding Approach
M.Sabarish, S.Kkumar Ganesh

Abstract—Image volumetric coding based multichannel electroencephalogram signals using lossless and nearlossless compression algorithms is used in this paper. The spatial and adjacent channels have most significant correlations in multichannel EEG signals. Cross time correlation is used in multichannel EEG signals. For effective correlation here it is proposed with suitable representations. Matrix and volumetric data are the major forms of representation of EEG signals. Original and reconstructed signals are used to compare the performance of EEG signal based on two problems (i) automatic sleep stage classification (ii) arrhythmia classification. Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is employed based on 2D-wavelet transform is used in the effective compression of EEG signals along with Beat reordering technique. Here the basic principle of the compression algorithm deals with “lossy plus residual coding” in which arithmetic coding is used in residual along with Wavelet based lossy coding. By this it is assured to have changes between the original and reconstructed signal. Varying the sampling rate and resolution three different data sets of EEG signals are obtained by using compression algorithm. Individual channel is separated by using SPIHT algorithm.

19 Predictive Analytics in Business Environment
Kashyap Sodha, Vignesh Pillai, Jay Thakkar

Abstract—Simply speaking K-means clustering is an algorithm used to classify or to group the objects based on certain attributes into K number of clusters, where K is positive integer number. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most widely clustering algorithms. One of the major problems with kmeans algorithm is that it may produce empty clusters depending on the initial centroid values. Due to these empty clusters, the algorithm may lead to performance degradation. This paper presents a modified version of k-means algorithm that eliminates this empty cluster problem. The project is being implemented to predict the sales of mobiles and maximize the profit.

20 Fuzzy Logic in Remote Sensing Data Classification
A L Choodarathnakara

Abstract—Remotely-sensed imagery classification involves the grouping of image data into a finite number of discrete classes. Statistical methods have been applied to image classification. Conventionally, statistical Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) method, based on normal distribution assumption, is widely used in remote sensing image.

21 Optimization of Energy Consumption and Improved Data Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract—Wireless Sensor Networks is of ubiquitous importance in the present day wireless communication. While applying in distributed architecture enjoys a more robust and fault-tolerant wireless sensor network (WSN), such architecture constitute a number of security challenges while applied in mission-critical. Sensing data are stored and maintained by individual sensors and unattended sensors are easily subject to strong attacks such as physical compromise, it is difficult to ensure data security. A distributed data access control scheme that is able to enforce finegrained access control over sensor data and is resilient against strong attacks such as sensor compromise and user colluding. Novel security mechanism provides clustering among the sensor nodes. Cluster Head and Distributed Servers will be designed using the Simulation Environment. The proposed scheme exploits a novel Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC), which improvises, adapts and stabilizes the WSNs with respect to both performance and security requirements.

22 Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network Using Mobile Sink
Sahil kapoor, Anil Sagar, Mohit Marwaha

Abstract—In this paper congestion avoidance mechanism by using mobile sinks to improve energy efficiency of the wireless sensor network has been implemented. The Mobile sink used to collect the data from all the nodes within its range and then send it towards the base station. The number of mobile sinks taken has been based on the density of the sensor nodes. The evaluation and comparison revealed that mobile sink mechanism utilizes less power and attain better network lifetime compared to multi-hop mechanism with congestion.

23 Implementing Vinculum Subtraction Algorithm on Base N Number System
Siddharth Srivastava, Richa Verma

Abstract—Vinculum subtraction algorithm is basically a Vedic mathematic algorithm discovered by Jagadguru Param Pujya Sant Sri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj when he was mediating. This algorithm can subtract numbers given in any bases easily without neutralizing the number as required when we subtract numbers in base N number system using western world subtraction algorithms like N complement algorithm and (N-1) Complement algorithm. The simplicity and attraction of this algorithm is that much that my (Siddharth Srivastava) small sister named “Yashaswi Srivastava”, who was studying in sixth standard got the concept of subtraction in one go using this algorithm. This algorithm works for every number which is written in any base. In order to subtract numbers using this algorithm we must understand the basics of Vedic mathematics, which are first described in this journal and then we will show how this algorithm works for base N number system. This algorithm is one of the most refined algorithm using which we can compute very large calculations in very short time and in efficient way. Using its applications we can solve many base related problems which occurs’ in field of mathematics, computer science and other subjects. This algorithm can easily be used for performing daily calculations and it gives a unique way of understanding life and knowledge. This algorithm is the outcome of meditation and inner knowledge of Bhagwan Sri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj, so complete explanation of this algorithm is beyond materialistic human mind. With the feel of spirituality we can feel its comfort and real instinct. We suggest readers to feel the power of spiritual Indian tradition while going through this discovery.