IJEA - Volume 4 Issue 11 (November 2015)

 


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 A Home Energy Management System in a Nonintrusive Load Monitoring With Automated Power Scheduling
Loganayagee P, Sujatha

Abstract-This paper describes more efficient home energy management system to reduce power consumption in home area. A typical automatic standby power cut-off outlet has a waiting time before cutting off the electric power. It consumes standby power during that time. To eliminate the waiting time, we turn off the home device and the power outlet simultaneously with an IR remote control through the ZigBee hub. This method actively reduces the standby power. The proposed HEMS provide easy way to add, delete, and move home devices to other power outlets. When a home device is moved to the different outlet, the energy information of the home device is kept consistently and seamlessly regardless of location change. The proposed architecture gives more efficient energy-saving HEMS. By effectively scheduling major household appliances in response to demand response (DR) schemes, residents can save their electricity bills. In this paper, an advanced HEMS facilitated by a nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM) technique with an automated non dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II)-based multi objective inhome power scheduling mechanism is proposed. Data identified by the NILM are very useful for DR implementation. For DR implementation, the NSGAII- based multi objective in-home power scheduling mechanism autonomously and meta-heuristically schedules monitored and enrolled major household appliances without user intervention. It is based on an analysis of the NILM with historical data with past trends. The experimental results reported in this paper reveal that the proposed advanced HEMS with the NILM assessed in a real-house environment with uncertainties is workable and feasible.

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2 Development of an Innovative Internet of Things Using Smart Surveillance Monitoring System
Prem kumar A, Sujatha

Abstract-The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has become the most popular term through the widespread of its applications such as greenhouse and telemedicine monitoring. Actually, building IoT systems requires an accurate infrastructure planning. Furthermore, management and security of these systems are considered as the most important challenges facing system developers. As security will be a fundamental enabling factor of most IoT applications, mechanisms must also be designed to protect communications enabled by such technologies. This survey analyses existing protocols and mechanisms to secure communications in the IoT, as well as open research issues. We analyse how existing approaches ensure fundamental security requirements and protect communications on the IoT, together with the open challenges and strategies for future research work in the area. This is, as far as our knowledge goes, the first survey with such goals. In this paper, the traditional techniques are studied and evaluated. Accordingly, analysis and design of innovative general purpose system, which protect the IoT resources such as devices and data against hacking or stealing, are proposed. The idea of proposed system is based on adaptation of the traditional algorithms to be compatible with the nature of IoT infrastructure, in addition to combining new techniques with the adapted ones to handle the research problem. Furthermore, an environment to simulate and test the proposed system is constructed.

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3 Information on Attacks and Vampire Attacks in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks
D.Madhavi

Abstract-A great research has been done on attacks in WASN. Vampire attacks are one of the attacks among the many and drawing interest among the researchers. It places its own way in attacking the WASN and not a protocol specific, but operate on Data Link Layer and Network Layers of OSI/ISO reference Model. DoS is commonly performed attack in WASN, but Vampire attack is different from DoS. A vampire attack are not specific to any type of attack but depends on properties of many routing protocols such as link-state, distance vector, source routing, geographic and beacon routing protocols. Vampires cause disability of networks by quickly draining nodes battery power. They are operated and mainly effects on routing. This paper discuss about the vampire attacks clearly about what they are, how they are operated on DLL and NL, its effects, properties, advantages and limitations.

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4 An Advanced Industrial Monitoring System Using Raspberry-Pi Controller in IoT
R.Bala Bhaskar, K.Sreenivasa Ravi

Abstract-The proposal of system is to develop a sensor interface device is essential for sensor data collection of industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in Internet of Things (IoT) environment. It is planned to style a reconfigurable sensible device interface for industrial WSN in IoT atmosphere, during which Raspberry-Pi is adopted as the core controller. Thus, it will scan information in parallel and in real time with high speed on multiple completely different device information. Intelligent device interface specification is adopted for this style. The device is combined with the most recent ARM programmable technology and intelligent device specification. By detecting the values of sensors it can easily find out the Temperature, Vibration, Gas present in the industrial environment. So that critical situation can be avoided and preventive measures are successfully implemented.

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5 Efficient Integer DCT Architectures for HEVC for 4- bit Error Compensation
Edpuganti Anusha, G.Suseelamma, P.Bala Murali Krishna

Abstract-In this paper, we present area- and powerefficient architectures for the implementation of integer discrete cosine transform (DCT) of different lengths to be used in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC).We show that an efficient constant matrix multiplication scheme can be used to derive parallel architectures for 1-D integer DCT of different lengths. We also show that the proposed structure could be reusable for DCT of lengths 4, 8, 16, and 32 with a throughput of 32 DCT coefficients per cycle irrespective of the transform size. In this paper mainly we focus on the error compensation by using a adder tree. Previously for this error compensation high-throughput DCT designs have been adopted to fit the requirements of real-time application. Operating the shifting and addition in parallel, an error-compensated adder-tree (ECAT) is proposed to deal with the truncation errors and to achieve low-error and high-speed discrete cosine transforms (DCT) design. Instead of the 9 bits used in previous works, 4-bit Distributed Arithmetic was proposed. DA based DCT design with an errorcompensated adder-tree (ECAT) is the proposed architecture in which, ECAT operates shifting and addition in parallel by unrolling all the words required to be computed. Furthermore, the Error-Compensated Circuit alleviates the truncation error for high accuracy design. Based on low-error ECAT, the DA-precision in this work is chosen to be 4 bits instead of the traditional 9 bits. Therefore, the hardware size and cost is reduced, and the speed is improved using the proposed ECAT.Also we reduces the time delay than previous method.

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6 Compressed Image Storage in Private Cloud using BCIF Lossless Image Compression Technique
Govinda. K, Viraat Sarin, Karan Shah

Abstract-Private cloud is an area where the access is pertained to one particular workgroup area has a limited storage space.To use this storage space efficiently; we need to use several compression and encryption techniques. Image compression algorithms are used to compress the images to reduce their size so as to store and transfer them conveniently over the cloud. Encryption techniques are useful to protect the image from unauthorized access.In this paper, we are going to use the BCIF lossless image compression algorithm to compress the image and the DES (Data Encryption Standards) algorithm for the encryption purpose. After applying these techniques, the resultant data is compressed and encrypted and stored in the cloud. This technique will be used in telemedicine as the compressed image can be easily shared between the medical experts in various locations.

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7 Secure Key Sharing among Group Members in Private Cloud using Star Graph
Govinda. K, Viraat Sarin, Karan Shah

Abstract-Cloud is a style of computing where scalable and elastic IT-related capabilities are provided as a service to customers using Internet technologies. We often hears that security and privacy concerns are the main inhibitors to cloud adoption but what are the true threats, Is the cloud really more dangerous than your on-site data center. I would say that virtualization and cloud computing aren’t inherently more dangerous, but they have unique infrastructure that must be addressed when creating a security foundation. There are similar attacks across physical, virtual, and cloud infrastructures - data stealing malware, web threats, spam, phishing, bots, etc. So many companies are tempted to deploy their security for dedicated physical servers and endpoints on their virtual machines in their data centres and in the cloud. But although the types of attacks may be the same, how they exploit virtualization and cloud infrastructure can be different from conventional physical security will not provide sufficient protection for these environments. To address this issue in this paper we proposed a secure key exchange and data storage over private cloud using star graphs.

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8 Comparative Analysis of UPFC and UPQC Subjected to Mitigate Power Quality and Optimization of Harmonics Distortion of Sensitive Load against Main Drive Non-Linear Load
Suyash Pathak, S.S.Hadpe

Abstract-This paper discusses design and simulation of dynamic voltage restorer and UPFC for improve power quality & reduce the harmonics distortion of sensitive load. Electronics devices are very sensitive load against harmonics. DVR proposed not only to improve PQ but also to reduce HD due to the presence of nonlinear load. The DVR consists of injection transformer, filter, and ESS, VSI and control system. The basic function of injection transformer is to connect the DVR to the distribution network via the HV- wdg. In DVR LC filter can be achieved by eliminating the unwanted harmonics. The ESS can be suitable capacity. The ESS such as battery is responsible to supply energy in DC form. A VSI is a power electronics system consist of switching device which can generate a sinusoidal voltage. The disturbance is carried out with the help of d-q-0method. Simulation results carried out by MATLAB verify the performance of the given method.

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9 In Retrospect of UML based Software Size Metrics
Amita Sharma, Preety Verma Dhaka, Dr S.S.Sarangdevot

Abstract-Size is important in the management of software development because it is a reliable predictor of project effort, duration, and cost. UML based Software Size metrics helps in determining not only the size of software at design level but also helps in understanding the behaviour and complexity of design. Many researchers have proposed numerous software size metrics for UML diagram like class diagram, sequence diagram, activity diagram etc. They illustrated metrics with examples and discussed the utility of each. This paper discusses the concept and significance of software size metrics in software development and a brief review of UML based software metrics. The goal of this paper is to describe the reasons behind the origin of the software size metrics.

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10 Performance Evaluation of Low Power Arithmetic and Logical unit (ALU) using Novel Full Adder and Pass Transistor logic based Multiplexer
Nidhi Dubey, Rashika Gupta

Abstract-An optimized compensation strategy for two-stage CMOS OTA has been proposed for a high frequency OPAMP design. Here, the slew rate and bandwidth has been increased by employing thin and long transistors into the design at output stage and wide transistors in input stage. These two techniques are able to increase the gain up to a great extent by increasing the output resistance and input transconductance respectively. There is a slight increase in static power dissipation of proposed architecture, but, the overall advantage of increased slew rate and gain bandwidth product which is very important parameter of communication so it compensates for this limitation.

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11 Enhancement of steady-state performance in Single- Phase Rectifier for High Power Application by using active power decoupling method
G.Venkateswarlu, D. Mohan Rao

Abstract-Active power decoupling that uses an active kind of circuitry for directing pulsating power to another type of energy storage element which further reduces dc-link capacitor. In our proposed circuit employs a third leg, smoothing inductor and energy storage capacitor, all these topology provides high storage efficiency and low control bandwidth. When deriving power decoupling scheme pulsating power from ac source and reactive power of smoothing inductors are taken into account. Also here capacitor voltage reference is changed drastically in a closed loop to achieve steady-state performance. A good estimate of the active and reactive powers. However, there are several applications where energy flow can be reversed during the operation. Examples are: locomotives, downhill conveyors, cranes, etc. In all these applications, the line side converter must be able to deliver energy back to the power supply. Various active powers filter (APF) [2], are then proposed to overcome the shortcomings of passive power decoupling.

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12 PWM Control Of Grid Connected Single Phase Seven Level Inverter for PV System
K.Nagaraju, Netaji Gandhi, V.K.R.Mohan Rao, Rambabu.Yerra

Abstract-In this a single-phase seven-level inverter for gridconnected photovoltaic systems, with a novel pulse widthmodulated (PWM) control scheme. Three reference signals that are identical to each other with an offset that is equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate the PWM signals. The inverter is capable of producing seven levels of output-voltage levels (Vdc, 2Vdc/3, Vdc/3, 0, −Vdc, −2Vdc/3, −Vdc/3) from the dc supply voltage. The proposed system was verified through simulation and implemented in a prototype.

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13 CSI Fed Medium Voltage Variable Speed Drive for Long Transmission Feeder
D.Rajesh kumar, V.K.R.Mohan Rao, Netaji Gandhi, Rambabu.Yerra

Abstract-Direct measurement of motor voltages and currents are impractical for long feeder drives due to feeder length and safety of environmental precautions. Hence the motor voltages and currents are drawn from the inverter out. In this paper the flux estimation needed for MRAS speed estimation is proposed to observe the performance of the induction motor with sudden change of loads under steady state. This model is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK.

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14 Improvement of Power Quality by Using Loop Control Method in a Three Phase Four Wire System
N.Rajini, T.Santosh Kumar, Netaji Gandhi, V.K.R.Mohan Rao

Abstract-In this paper, a cascaded current–voltagecontrol strategy is proposed for inverters to simultaneously improve the power quality of the inverter local load voltage and the current exchanged with the grid. It also enables seamless transfer of the operation mode from stand-alone to grid-connected or vice versa. The control scheme includes an inner voltage loop and an outer current loop, with both controllers designed using the H∞ repetitive control strategy. This leads to a very low total harmonic distortion in both the inverter local load voltage and the current exchanged with the grid at the same time. The proposed control strategy can be used to single-phase inverters and three-phase four-wire inverters. It enables grid connected inverters to inject balanced clean currents to the grid even when the local loads (if any) are unbalanced and/or nonlinear. Simulation under different scenarios, with comparisons made to the current repetitive controller replaced with a current proportional–resonant controller, is presented to demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed strategy.

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15 Elimination of Harmonics in a Grid Connected Single Phase Photo Voltaic Inverter
S.Sneha, Rambabu.Yerra, Netaji Gandhi, V.K.R.Mohan Rao

Abstract-Single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter topology consisting of a boost converter section, a low voltage single-phase inverter with an inductive filter, and a step-up transformer interconnected to the grid. this topology will not inject any lower order harmonics into the grid due to high-frequency pulse width modulation operation. However, the non ideal factors in the system such as core saturationinduced distorted magnetizing current of the transformer and the dead time of the inverter, etc., contribute to a significant amount of lower order harmonics in the grid current. An adaptive harmonic compensation technique and its design are proposed for the lower order harmonic compensation. In addition, a proportional-resonant-integral (PRI) controller used. This controller mitigates the dc component in the control system, which introduces even harmonics in the grid current. The dynamics of the system due to the interaction between the PRI controller and the adaptive compensation method is also analyzed. The complete results have been analyzed with MATLAB/SIMULINK.

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16 Implementation of multi distributed energy resources to regulate voltage by using adaptive voltage control technique
V.Venkatesham, P.V.S.Aditya, Netaji Gandhi , V.K.R.Mohan Rao, Rambabu.Yerra

Abstract-An adaptive voltage control method has been proposed to dynamically modify the control parameters of a single Distributed energy (DE) to respond to system changes such that the ideal response can be achieved. Theoretical analysis shows that a corresponding formulation of the dynamic control parameters exists; hence, the adaptive control method is theoretically solid. Then, control methods have been discussed in the case of multiple Distributed energy resources regulating voltages considering the availability of communications among all the Distributed energy resources. When communications are readily available, a method is proposed to directly calculate the needed adaptive change of the Distributed energy resource control parameters in order to achieve the ideal response. When there is no communication available, an approach to adaptively and incrementally adjust the control parameters based on the local voltage changes is proposed.

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17 Analytical Study of Wall Injector in SCRAMJET Engine
Temre Chhtrpal, Mudaiya D.K.

Abstract-From this study we can conclude that wall type of injector may solve the recent problem of scramjet combustor in use and the analysis shows solution for stabilized flow. From tangential velocity contours we can see the stability of flow which is the major problem with planer strut injector as which provide limitation in Mach no of engine but may give continuous flow and combustion through the flight.

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18 Improvement in Design Reliability of Traction Motor Fan Using Fem
Vardan Singh Nayak, G.L. Gupta, Ankit Goyal

Abstract-In the present paper , we have found one problem occurs in the binding fans used for cooling of the heat generated in traction motor are getting failure in the body near the joining junction of blades lower plate and hub. The fans were imported from Sweden but when manufactured in India with same design considerations failure occurred during operation. To understand the causes of failure we took the geometry of the component and tried to optimize the components by application of FEM. We are finding the results on the basis of model analysis and improving design reliability by selecting best suited and alternate aluminium alloys and optimizing it by FEM. We are also finding results of fatigue analysis to determine the life of component when our suggested material is considered for manufacturing the fan. To know the causes of and reduce failure we are doing optimization in material by selecting four different aluminium alloys (considered as four cases in the study) since no geometric changes could be done, as it may change the flow and thermal aspect of the fan. After analysis we are comparing the results with the original component material (aluminium 6061) and found aluminium 7075 as suitable material to manufacture the fan having 48.4% reduced deformation than the original material.

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19 Analysis of Geometrical Parameters on Heat Transfer Coefficient in Helical Tube Exchangers
Pandey Vijaykant, Koli K. Dinesh

Abstract-Flow and heat transfer modelling solution for industry Continuous and rapid technological advances in industrial processing require that design and operation problems be resolved as quickly as possible in order to keep companies competitive, particularly in terms of energy efficiency and low costs. For many years, experiments and empirical analysis have been the preferred solution tools for industrial analysis. Despite the robust and reliable nature of experimental methodology, certain factors limit its applicability scope. For example, flows in process installations are usually very complex; the use of experimental methodology in related analysis may demand significant simplification or a vast number of experiments to achieve an acceptable solution, indicating both cost and time constraints. Thus it has become a necessity to use advanced modelling and simulation tools in industry, and the number of industries benefitting from these products continues to expand. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a computer simulation technique used for fluid flow and heat transfer modelling. Based on increasingly powerful computer resources, CFD can be applied to solve industrial flow and complex phenomenon problems. However, there still exists a lack of data for CFD applications in different industrial areas enabling the development of general guidelines in specific numerical heat and flow studies.

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20 An Analytical Study of Alternative Fuels for Industrial Furnace
Khare Vikas, Shrivastava Pavan

Abstract-In this study we investigated the potentials for replacing conventional fuels in various applications. Such investigations require systems-level approaches able to handle multiple criteria, uncertainty, and the views of multiple stakeholders. Use of Conventional fossil fuels are widely increasing however there are growing concerns about the security of their supply, volatility in their prices and the environmental impacts of their extraction and use. In the present work, numerical simulations were carried out, using the finite volume method, with the purpose of analyzing and comparing the combustion process inside a furnace when operating with three types of fuel: Methanol, Ethanol and Natural Gas all are reacting with air with different mass flow rate and air velocity. The results will be showing the temperature distribution, droplet profiles and mass friction.

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21 A Review Paper on Analysis of Rehabilitation for RCC Structures Using Various fibres
Mayank Gupta, Rakesh Patel

Abstract-In this paper presents an analysis of concrete illnesses, curing treatments, and problems leading to unsatisfactory performance of repaired concrete structures. In this we describe the types of surface preparations that are commonly adopted in Indian conditions and their limitations. An attempt has been made in this paper to discuss the properties and types of grouts, the application techniques. This study highlights the problem of corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures and attempts to provide the measures available in design to mitigate the effects of corrosion. The various types of coatings available and the precautions to be taken in the selection of coating systems in view of these limitations are also discussed.

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22 A Review Paper on Comparative Study of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Ramnaresh Patel, Dharmendra Yadav

Abstract-Enlarging the transformation of heat by the use of Shell And Tube heat exchanger has been studied and researched by many researchers, because the dynamics of fluid inside the pipes of a Shell And Tube heat exchanger offer certain advantages over the shell and tube type, straight tubes heat exchanger, in terms of better transformation of heat and mass transfer coefficients. Various configurations of configuration are possible, and the structure in which there is a series of vertically unstructured Shell And Tube is the most common type. The one end of the tubes act as the inlet and other end act as outlet manifolds, which serve the purpose for the entry and exit of hot as well as cold fluid. This configuration offers a high compact configuration and a high overall heat transfer coefficient; hence Shell And Tube heat exchangers are extensively used in industrial applications such as power sector like nuclear power generation plants, power plants, heat recovery systems, refrigeration and air conditioning industries, food processing plants, food industry, industrial HVACs etc.

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23 Grid-Connected Single-Phase Seven-Level Inverter for Photovoltaic System
M.Jaswanthi, G.Abhilasha Reddy

Abstract-In this a single-phase seven-level inverter for gridconnected photovoltaic systems, with a novel pulse widthmodulated (PWM) control scheme. Three reference signals that are identical to each other with an offset that is equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate the PWM signals. The inverter is capable of producing seven levels of output-voltage levels (Vdc, 2Vdc/3, Vdc/3, 0, −Vdc, −2Vdc/3, −Vdc/3) from the dc supply voltage. The proposed system was verified through simulation and implemented in a prototype.

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24 Design of Cascaded Current-Voltage Controller to Improve Power Quality for Solar Input
N. Ramakrishna Reddy, M. Narendar Reddy

Abstract-In this paper, a cascaded current–voltage control strategy is proposed for inverters to simultaneously improve the power quality of the inverter local load voltage and the current exchanged with the grid. It also enables seamless transfer of the operation mode from stand-alone to grid-connected or vice versa. The control scheme includes an inner voltage loop and an outer current loop, with both controllers designed using the H∞ repetitive control strategy. This leads to a very low total harmonic distortion in both the inverter local load voltage and the current exchanged with the grid at the same time. The proposed control strategy can be used to single-phase inverters and three-phase four-wire inverters. It enables grid connected inverters to inject balanced clean currents to the grid even when the local loads (if any) are unbalanced and/or nonlinear. Simulation under different scenarios, with comparisons made to the current repetitive controller replaced with a current proportional–resonant controller, is presented to demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed strategy.

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25 Improvement of Power Quality in Distribution System with Reduced DSTATCOM Voltage Rating
B. Rakesh, G. Laxmi narayana

Abstract-In power distribution network, DSTATCOM is used for improving power quality. This paper investigates the application of DSTATCOM with non-stiff source connected to distribution network to enhance power quality. The model discussed in this paper is designed to have reduced DC-link voltage rating without compromising compensation capability when non-linear loads are connected to distribution network. This model uses a series capacitor along with interfacing inductor and a shunt filter capacitor.

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26 Harmonics Elimination in a Grid-Connected Single- Phase PV System
K.Swetha, M. Narendar Reddy

Abstract-Single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverter topology consisting of a boost converter section, a low voltage single-phase inverter with an inductive filter, and a step-up transformer interconnected to the grid. This topology will not inject any lower order harmonics into the grid due to highfrequency pulse width modulation operation. However, the non ideal factors in the system such as core saturation-induced distorted magnetizing current of the transformer and the dead time of the inverter, etc., contribute to a significant amount of lower order harmonics in the grid current. An adaptive harmonic compensation technique and its design are proposed for the lower order harmonic compensation. In addition, a proportionalresonant- integral (PRI) controller used. This controller mitigates the dc component in the control system, which introduces even harmonics in the grid current. The dynamics of the system due to the interaction between the PRI controller and the adaptive compensation method is also analyzed. The complete results have been analyzed with MATLAB/SIMULINK.

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27 Power Quality Improvement in DFIG Wind Turbine System Based on Three Single Phase Grid Side Control system
B.Manga, G.Abhilasha Reddy

Abstract-In this project doubly fed induction generators' grid side converter control strategy is proposed. The focus is made on the performance characteristics of DFIG under grid voltage fluctuation. The control strategy is made to satisfy grid codes such as grid stability, fault ride through, power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc . DFIG system uses back-to-back converters in the rotor circuits to meet the necessary requirements. Doubly-fed Induction Generator is the most common rotator machine which is used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system for the fulfillment of the system requirement such as grid stability, fault ride through, power quality improvement, and grid synchronization and power control etc. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary. The machine uses two back-to-back converters. The grid side converter is modeled to control the active and reactive power independently along with dc-link voltage. This scheme allows wind turbines to remain synchronized to the grid during faults or during voltage sags and swings. The proposed control strategy is confirmed with simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK.

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