IJAIR- Volume 4 Issue 8 (August 2015)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 A Novel method of spectrum sensing and allocation in CR based on spectrum trading
Jyoti Shivshankar Swami , Sangita Nikumbh

Abstract —According to survey of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002, it has been found that spectrum access is more significant problem than physical scarcity of spectrum. With many technological advances in the field of wireless communication and 3G and 4G technology already being employed Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services (MBMS) demand has tremendously increased and with the standardization of MBMS it has gained significant interest in the market. Multimedia content requires more bandwidth, storage capacity and few applications pose tight delay constraints, so the need to optimize the utilization of spectrum is felt all the more. With the diversification of wireless communication services and the proliferation of different wireless network technologies, the demand for radio spectrum is increasing dramatically. However, spectrum measurements indicate that the allocated spectrum is not fully utilized, that is, there exists unused spectrum. We develop a truthful and efficient combinatorial auction scheme under a novel spectrum allocation model. Once the spectrum is sensed next important step for cognitive radio is allocation of available spectrum (The available spectrum holes, i.e., frequency bands assigned to a primary user but that are vacant in a given place at a given time, can be estimated with spectrum sensing). There are different spectrum allocation mechanism are available such as auction mechanism, first come first serve etc. We use auction mechanism in our project. According to the usage of secondary user in term of time and frequency and available spectrum primary operator (PO) allocate this spectrum on the basis of one time bidding of secondary users. The algorithm approach will be developed using Matlab environment.

2 Optimal capacitor placement using Plant growth simulation algorithm
Rajvinder Kaur, Amarjeet kaur

Abstract—A distribution system is the interconnection between the consumers and bulk power stations. Among all distribution systems radial distribution systems are the most popular as these systems are cheap and simple in design. Around 13% of energy is wasted in the form of losses at the time of distribution. This wastage of energy is due to insufficient amount of reactive power. So, shunt capacitors are used to provide the sufficient amount of reactive power. The work is carried out to identify the optimal location and size of capacitors to minimize the losses and cost of power loss in radial distribution system. The solution methodology has two parts. In first part load flow analysis is used, to identify the candidate location for capacitor placement. In second part Plant Growth Simulation Algorithm (PGSA) is used to identify the size of capacitors. Proposed method is applied to 14 and 57 bus system. All the techniques have been implemented in MATLAB R2013b environment.

3 Evaluate the Emission Characteristics of 4-Stroke 4-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine Diesel Fuel Blended with Coconut Oil
Prashant Tripathi, Ajit Prakash Rastogi

Abstract—The objective of the present study is to reveal the effects of pure diesel fuel and coconut oil diesel fuel blends with indirectly heating of coconut-oil at 60°C before combination with diesel on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. Operation of the test engine with pure diesel fuel and coconut oil-diesel fuel blends for a wide range of engine speed such as 800,1000,1200,1400 And 1500 Rpm and Full load (18 Kg) conditions will be shown to be successful even without engine modification.

4 Design and Experimental Investigation of Internally Mixed Pressure Swirl Atomizer
Pankaj Dwivedi, Ajit Prakash Rastogi

Abstract—Pressure-swirl atomizers are far and wide used in airbreathing gas turbine engines as they have good atomization characteristics and are relatively simple and cost-effective to manufacture. To reduce emissions, it is critical to design fuel atomizers that can produce spray with a droplet size and drop distribution at the desired combustor location. The present work is an attempt to design and experimentally inspect the internally mixed pressure swirl atomizer for Micro Gas Turbine application. In the beginning it gives the introduction to atomizer & atomization processes. The design philosophy for the design of internally mixed pressure swirl atomizer and manufacturing of designed atomizer are done for investigation of the different consideration like spray cone angle, spray penetration length, and drop diameter and drop distribution.

5 Surface Modification and Optimization of Yam Leaf Biosorbentfor Lead (11) Removal
Mohd Lias Kamal, Mohamad FirdausJamaludin, SyarifahNursyimiAzlina Syed Ismail, Non Daina Masdar

Abstract-A study on modified yam leaves with Polyethylenimine (PEI) were shown to be an effective low-cost biosorbent for removal of Pb2+ ion in the samples. The SEM analysis revealed that the modified yam leaf structure become more porous thus increases its surface area. The adsorption performance in removing Pb2+ was evaluated in 3 different variables i.e. initial concentration of metal ions, biosorbent dosage and pH of solution. The results indicate that the optimum dosage of this biosorbent was 5.0g with 10 mgL-1 initial Pb2+concentration and optimum pH is 5.The percent removal of Pb2+ is much higher when using modified biosorbent compared to unmodified biosorbent were 99.95% and 96.26% respectively.

6 Secret Image Sharing Using Shadow Image
Sivasakthivel T, Jebathangam J

Abstract -There are also a number of works on data hiding in the encrypted domain. The reversible data hiding in encrypted image is investigated in. Most of the work on reversible data hiding focuses on the data embedding/extracting on the plain spatial domain.This method by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error. Thus the data hider can benefit from the extra space Emptied out in previous stage to make data hiding process effortless. The proposed method can take advantage of all traditional RDH techniques for plain images and achieve excellent performance without loss of perfect secrecy. Furthermore, this novel method can achieve real reversibility, separate data extraction and greatly improvement on the quality of marked decrypted Images.

7 Experimental and Analytical Studies on Mechanical Properties of Nitinol Based Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Application
Santhosh N, Venkataramana Reddy, Aswatha, K N Seetharamu, Samal SureshKumar, Anand Manchalakar, Uday kumar L

Abstract-Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are a group of metallic materials that demonstrate the ability to return to some previously defined shape or size when subjected to an appropriate thermal or mechanical procedure. In this work, the values of the mechanical properties of the NiTi SMA are found out experimentally using Extensometer and validated analytically using ABAQUS software. Also, a finite element analysis is carried out for deployment of a Balloon Expanding (BX) stent with Nitinol and NiTiCu alloys and results are compared. The results of the FEA of the stent shows that the stent using NiTiCu alloy develops less stress for the same 1.0 MPa pressure load as compared to Nitinol stent. Maximum stress is observed in the inner bend regions of the stent. For both stents, the displacement is greater than 1mm, indicating that the stent can move the block in the artery.

8 Avoid Baby from Home Accidents
PrajaktaKhambe, S.R Chougule

Abstract-This paper will protect baby from home accidents like falling from stairs or bed. Paper presents activity recognition approach using two accelerometer and one temperature sensor. Sensor worn on babies’ body. It is based on ARM7microcontroller.Accelerometer measure the movement of babies in X, Y,Z direction and temperature sensor measures temperatures of room. Cooperative fusion model is used for that purpose.99% accuracy obtained using smart sensor.

9 An analysis of Scheduling Algorithms in Cloud Environment
K.Thamaraiselvi, K.Dineshkumar, G.T.Rajaganapathy, A.Mummoorthy

Abstract-Effective scheduling strategies to improve response times, throughput and utilization are an important consideration in large super computing environments. An essential requirement in cloud computing environment is scheduling the current jobs to be executed with the given constraints. The scheduler should order the jobs in a way where balance between improving the quality of services and utilization of resources is maintained at the same time.

10 Gray Hole Attack on GRP Routing Protocol in MANET
JasleenKaur, Farminder Singh, Ankur Thakur

Abstract─ The research over these years shows that the geographic routing protocols like Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) obtains much better performance compared to all other previous routing protocols. The aim of this research paper is to survey and analyse the performance of various geographic routing protocols in highly mobile ad hoc networks and to perform a comparative analysis using their advantages and disadvantages.

11 Design of highly throughput FSM based BCD multiplication technique
Parag shrivastav, Devyansh Rao

Abstract -Decimal multiplication is one of the most frequent operations used by many financial, business and user-oriented applications but current implementations in FPGAs are very inefficient in terms of both area and latency when compared to binary multipliers. In this paper we present a new method for implementing BCD multiplication more efficiently than previous proposals in current FPGA devices with 6-input LUTs. In particular, a combinational implementation maps quite well into the slice structure of the Xilinx Virtex-5/Virtex-6 families and it is highly pipeline-able. The synthesis results for a Virtex-6 device indicate that our proposal outperforms the area and latency figures of previous implementations in FPGAs.

12 High Resolution Approximation method Image Interpolation
Sabhayta,budrani, Rashika Gupta

Abstract- The proposed work proposes a unique edgeadaptive image interpolation method using an edge-directed smoothness filter. Many image interpolation techniques are already been developed and designed we are proposing a new method is been used for edge-adaptive image interpolation which uses Newton forward difference. This difference provides very good grouping of pixels ones we consider target pixel for interpolation Proposed approach estimates the enlarged image from the original image based on an observation model.

13 A new Adaptive Selective Encrypting Method for Highly Secure data
Akshat Urmaliya, Santosh Chouhan

Abstract— With the development of network multimedia system, systems will make continuous media streaming. It is very important to secure networked continuous media data from potential threats such as hackers, eavesdroppers etc. The applications for streaming are endless such as video conferencing, interactive web site etc. Some applications are Internet broadcasting (corporate communication), education (viewing lecture and distance learning) web based channel (IP-TV, internet radio) and video on demand (VOD). In all the streaming applications, high volume of data is transmitted over the network. Since traditional encryption algorithms often fail due to the extra high volume and latency sensitiveness of media data, security becomes a challenging task [1][2]. Sending a video stream (such as Video conferencing, VOD) over a network in real time requires that the transmitted frames are sent in a limited delay. Moreover, video frames needs to be display at a certain interval. The quality of video is directly proportional to the frame rate. So, if we want to achieve good quality video transmission it is required that a number of frames will transmitted over the network in a fixed time frame; therefore, sending and receiving encrypted packets must be sent in a certain amount of time in order to achieve quality video transmission over the network.

14 A high speed and noise free Image Interpolation
Nitin Namdeo, Amit Mishra , Richa Shrivastva

Abstract— The proposed work proposes a unique edgeadaptive image interpolation method using an edge-directed smoothness filter. Many image interpolation techniques are already been developed and designed we are proposing a new method is been used for edge-adaptive image interpolation which uses Newton forward difference. This difference provides very good grouping of pixels ones we consider target pixel for interpolation Proposed approach estimates the enlarged image from the original image based on an observation model. The estimated image is constrained to have many edge-directed smooth pixels which are measured by using the edge-directed smoothness filter. Simulation results for the work is developed using MATLAB and produces images with higher visual quality, higher PSNRs and faster computational times than the conventional methods.

15 Design of Proof mass of micro-fabricated MEMS capacitive accelerometer with different perforation and comparison of stress and displacement distribution
Kamran Akhtar, Nudrat Fatima

Abstract— This work represents a study of perforated proof mass of a micro fabricated accelerometer with different perforation shapes, by application of load on different perforation shapes, stress and displacement is measured and comparison is done to know the deflection and flexibility of the proof mass. Previous research has proved that this step is very significant in deciding the suitable shape of perforation for desire application. Perforation shapes of proof mass of capacitive accelerometer affects the sensitivity and other performance parameters of accelerometer. In this work it is also shown that sensitivity of proof mass depends on the dimension and applied load. Eigen frequency analysis is done to know the stress and displacement distribution on vibrating proof mass which are used to measure and compare the sensitivity and mechanical strength of proof mass. As a result of this study it has been found that the proof mass with perforation shape of nozzle/diffuser is the most efficient perforation shape to get better performance from an capacitive micro fabricated accelerometers.

16 Generic Model of an Agent Belief for Job Shop Scheduling and Control of a Manufacturing System
Tochukwu Chiagunye, Eze Aru Okereke, Ilo Somtoochukw

Abstract— This work explores the well known n x m static Job Scheduling Problem (JSP) [1] in which n jobs must be processed exactly once on each of m machines. Each job i (1  i  n) is routed through each of the m machines in a predefined order i where i(j) denotes the jth machine (1  ʲ  m) in the routing order. The processing of job i on machine i(ʲ) is denoted Oij and is called an operation. An operation Oij must be processed on machine i(ʲ) for an integral duration Tij . The scheduling objective is makespan minimization. The existing deterministic shop floor schedulers do not possess the capability that allow the dispatch of Oij to react to disturbances on the factory floor, such as break down of i(ʲ), arrival of new job i, all which require frequent re-planning that introduces complexities (making the JSP N-P hard). Given the fact that agent-based modeling (ABM) is proven to be an effective way of modeling complex systems that are not easy to characterize analytically, this research is focused on addressing the JSP by developing an agent-based model in which the stochastic impact on the dynamics of the schedule is formulated as a markov chain..

17 Design and Analysis of Microstip Leaky Wave Antenna with Adding Monopole Antenna
Marshal David Singh, Vandana Vikas Thakare

Abstract-A monopole antenna is a class of radio antenna consisting of a straight rod-shaped conductor, often mounted perpendicularly over some type of conductive surface, called a ground plane. The driving signal from the transmitter is applied, or for receiving antennas the output signal to the receiver is taken, between the lower end of the monopole and the ground plane. One side of the antenna feed line is attached to the lower end of the monopole, and the other side is attached to the ground plane, which is often the Earth. This contrasts with a dipole antenna which consists of two identical rod conductors, with the signal from the transmitter applied between the two halves of the antenna.

18 Analysis of Damping Improvement in Transmission Lines Using FACTS Devices
Amandeep Kaur, Amarjeet Kaur

Abstract— This paper considered the rate of dissipation of transient energy as a measure of system damping. The concept is then applied to determine the additional damping provided by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). Analytical expressions for additional damping provided by these devices are carefully derived and compared for classical model of a simple power system. The proposed technique of evaluating system damping is then tested on a single-machine infinite bus system. The results obtained in both the systems are then systematically described.

19 Steganography: A Historical perspective and A Review Article
Swati Gill, Rajkumar, Kamaldeep, Rahul Hooda

Abstract-Steganography is a technique of hiding message inside some medium. Various mediums are available such as image file, audio file, video file or text file but images are used more often to hide the data inside them because of their high storage capacity and frequency on the internet. With increase in use of technology there is subsequent requirement for more robust techniques to send the data securely. In this paper we are going to discuss the various techniques of steganography. Each technique has some advantages and disadvantages going side by side.

20 Relay based Hand-off technology in Dense MANET
Jaysing P.Haladkar, J.K.Patil

Abstract- As we know that, mobile multimedia in this pervasive environment is densely populated areas of interest (AOI). The increasing availability of wireless devices & heterogeneous wireless technologies opening new market opportunities to provide entertainment & seamless multimedia services for mobile user. Anytime & anywhere access to internet services, while moving across different wireless infrastructures, is a common requirement for many users. Due to common requirement of many user traffic is occur in MANET[2] .To avoid traffic in MANET In this paper ,we proposed simulation scenario of relay based technology to hand-off from old relay node to new relay node. For this purpose we use implementation of ad-hoc mobile nodes with radio channel in mat lab platform by multimedia data i.e.image.We have simulated this scenario against RSSI(Received Signal Strength Indication) & PSNR(Peak to Signal Noise Ratio)by considering more than 100 mobile nodes. Based on RSSI & PSNR values ,we have decided the threshold to hand-off to the new relay node from old relay node by plotting characteristics of no. of nodes verses RSSI, PSNR, Time, packet delivery ratio.

21 Assessment and Preventive Control of Voltage Stability Using Artificial Neural Network
Vikash Kumar

Abstract-The present power system is consisting of several sub-networks such as generation, transmission, and distribution sub-networks. Use of new technologies and the growth in interconnections are continuously increasing the complexity of the system further. These highly complex modern power systems are operating in severely stressed conditions due to economical and environmental considerations rendering them vulnerable to frequent failures [10]. Therefore, ensuring the stability of these systems has become one of the major concerns for the power system engineers, especially the voltage stability. This paper provided a method for improvement of voltage stability in interconnected power systems using a neural network, this paper deals with L-index technique to calculate the stability margins and to furnish the information about the weak areas in the network. Outputs of this technique are use to train and test an ANN. The trained ANN architecture is capable to predict the values of Lindices and control quantities, i.e. generator excitation levels and settings of Static VAR Compensators (SVCs) to keep the system stable.

22 Space Acquaint Information Approach with Knowledge Discovery
Shilpi Namdeo

Abstract-In this paper I proposed, location acquaints information approach with knowledge discovery. In this paper I am used the concept of data mining. As we all know that a data mining is concept of mining the available data, and fond the some knowledgeable information. so in the same domain I am proposed the new location acquaint information approach that suggest the location of place that ask by the user , based on the user query . In this paper I am also include the concept of opinion mining. Opinion Mining sometimes called as Sentiment Classification is defined as mining and analyzing of reviews, views, emotions and opinions automatically from text, big data and speech by means of various methods. This approach to user identifies some useful information from the large search space. In this paper I am introduce the cluster of community and cluster community opinions. Here I am retrieve the knowledgeable information from the more than one community cluster. These the entire community cluster exists in this approach, this community cluster include the huge amount of opinions and expert based information that will help to take the absolutely correct decision. I am used this Data mining concept in location aware information. Recommender systems make use of community opinions to help users identify useful items from a considerably large search space.

23 Fully Automatic Measurement of Intima Media Thickness In Common Carotid Artery using B-Mode Ultrasound Video Sequence
Sushma Hattarki, Sanjay Pawar

Abstract-In the cardiovascular events measurement of Intima media thickness (IMT) has high clinical relevance. To analyze the wall thickening there are many methods are used. In this paper to measure IMT some steps are used and develop fully automatic system. This system contains Segmentationand Tracking of Intima media Complex (IMC) in B-mode ultrasound video sequences. Segmentation deals with robust identification of the LI and MA interfaces in first frame of video sequence. In tracking stage, tracking of LI and MA interfaces in subsequent frames of CCA ultrasound sequence and inconsistencies of IMC can be reduced. In this paper proposes some algorithms to measure the Intima Media Thickness (IMT) using B-mode ultrasound image.

24 Improved Reactive EEMA Using Hard and Soft Thresholding
Rajeev Bedi, Neelmoney, R.C Gangwar

Abstract— The improvement in the EEMA has will be done by using the reactive principle i.e. hard and soft thresholding to reduce the number of communications between the sink and cluster heads. Also to improve the load balancing further the waiting nodes criteria will also be used. In EEMA a node might not become cluster head for a long time so will result in load misbalancing so it will be removed by using the waiting nodes.

25 Decision Making Based on Fuzzy Soft Sets with an Adjustable Approach to Interval-Valued Intuitionistic
G. Siva Kumar, Ch. Bindu Madhuri

Abstract -Feng presented an adjustable approach to fuzzy soft sets based decision making by using level soft set, and subsequently extended the approach to interval-valued fuzzy soft set based decision making. Jiang generalize the approach to solve intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets based decision making. Here it is generalize the approaches introduced by Feng and Jiang. Using reduct intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets and level soft sets of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, an adjustable approach to interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set based decision making is presented.

26 Fluoride Threat in the Groundwaters of Bommanahalli Area in Bangalore, India
Shankar B.S

Abstract—In the recent years in the study area, groundwater forms the mainstay of drinking water supply for meeting the community needs. But the threat of fluoride contamination is looming large over the study area. In view of this, it is of paramount importance to look for and to evaluate the fluoride levels in the drinking water of the area and assess their status of portability in the light of the criteria laid by Bureau of Indian Standards. Fluoride in excess of 1.5mg/L is known to cause fluorosis disease. Fluorosis is a crippling and painful disease caused by excess intake of fluoride. Fluorosis occurs as dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis. Sixty groundwater samples (30 each during pre and post-monsoon seasons of 2007) were analyzed for fluorides. 40% of the samples tested were found to contain fluoride in excess of the permissible results and a clear correlation between the ill health faced by the public and ground water contamination has been noticed.

27 Assessment of Quality of Potable Water Sources in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Uwem U. Ubong, Ini U. Ubong, Etim U. Ubong, O. U. Etukudoh

Abstract—A study on the physico-chemical parameters and some trace metal analyses was carried out to assess the quality of potable water sources in Eket municipal area. Four borehole water samples were collected within Eket at four different locations (BH1 – BH4) and a control source (BH5) from Onna. Consequently, four bottled water samples (BW1 –BW4) were also collected from Eket and analyzed using standard methods of analyses for physico – chemical parameters and trace metals. This was to establish statistically, whether there was any significant difference between the quality of borehole and bottled water samples, and to compare the observed results with WHO (World Health Organization) and NAFDAC/SON National Standards. The analytical result showed that pH of the borehole and BW4 were lower than the permissible limit of 6.5 - 9.5 by WHO. They were acidic in nature with data ranging from 4.3 – 5.10 and mean value of 4.67 ± 0.40 for borehole water. Those of the bottled water varied from 4.5 – 7.2 with the mean value of 6.45 ± 1.31. The levels of calcium in borehole water varied from 48.0 – 96.0 mg/l with a mean of 71.2 ± 20.5 mg/l. The bottled water had values ranging from 84.0 – 97.0 mg/l with a mean of 91.75 ± 5.6. The observed values were higher than the threshold limit of 3.72 mg/l by FMENV. Statistically, the pH data showed that, there was no difference between the borehole and bottled water samples as {t stat (-2.923143525) 0.05 ≤ t crit (1.894578604) 0.05 one tail and t stat (-2.923143525) 0.05 ≤ t crit (2.364624251) 0.05 two tailed for two samples assuming equal variances. The results showed that bottled water and borehole water in some parts of Eket were polluted and require urgent attention and high levels of treatment before use.

28 Seasonal Variations of Ambient Particulate Matter Sizes at Warri and Port Harcourt Metropolis
Uwem U. Ubong, Etim U. Ubong, Ini U. Ubong, Patrick A.C. Okoye

Abstract—An evaluation of the seasonal variations of ambient Particulate matter was carried out in Warri and Port Harcourt Metropolis (Nigeria). The sampling was performed with well calibrated equipment (A MultiRAE PLUS (PGM – 50) a programmable Multi Gas monitor with an electrochemical sensor). Parameters assessed were particulate matter with 1μm, 2.5μm (PM2.5), 7μm ( PM7), 10μm (PM10) and Total suspended particulate (TSP). At Warri TSP ranged from 586.8 – 672.8 μg/m3 while Port Harcourt had TSP value that ranged from 611- 725.0 μg/m3 for the dry season (October- March). The wet season (April – September) data were generally low for both study locations. Pollutants, typically TSP and others showed remarkable and more often significant seasonal variation with months of the year. The concentration of TSP in dry season being statistically higher than those of wet season, as [tstat (48.82782516).05 > tcritical one tail (1.734063592)0.05]; and P(T<=t) one tail = 6.93035 x10-21.

29 Mathematical Modelling and Simulation Study of Mesoscopic Heterogeneous Traffic Flow on Multilane Highway
Mohd. Rizwanullah

Abstract—Traffic phenomena are an important question in modern society. Investigating on regular pattern of traffic flow has significant meaning. Traffic stream is complex and nonlinear and defined as multi-dimensional traffic lanes with flow of vehicles over time. Traffic simulation models are often used for studies of emissions, security, traffic ability and traveling times on roads under various circumstances. The main purpose of traffic flow modelling is to describe the basic variables of traffic flow and develop mathematical models relating to them. Understanding the behavior of traffic flow is essential in the planning, design of flow control, launching new real estate projects, construction and operating phases of any transportation facility. So far only limited number of studies have been done on heterogeneous traffic. This paper presents to develop and analyses a simulation model for heterogeneous traffic flow conditions on a multilane highway. The simulation model includes component models like frontal spacing models, acceleration/deceleration models, car following models: Car) and lane changing models. The model developed was validated using data collected from The Jaipur-Kishangarh Expressway (Stretch of NH-8). Experiments were conducted on validated model to understand the traffic stream behavior under various flow condition. Stream characteristics is found to be related with capacity of heterogeneous traffic flow.

30 A Study of Emotional Intelligence and Job Stress of Academicians
Shaik Nafeez Umar, Diwakar Konda, Shaik Nishathulla, Labeeb Mohammed Zeeshan

Abstract—The present study focuses on the emotional intelligence and job stress of academicians of university colleges. In order to examine such relationship 21 variables factors of emotional intelligence and 20 factors of job stress for 96 faculty members were taken from different colleges of Andhra Pradesh. Sample data was collected through Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ) and was analyzed both through descriptive and Statistical techniques using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). It was found that a negative relationship between emotional intelligence and job stress was statistically significant at 0.01 levels. Current study is to measure the relationship between the emotional and stress intelligence of academicians.

31 Symlet based Steganography for Secure Data Communication
Avtar Patel, Amit Mishra, Richa Shrivastva

Abstract—Steganography is a type of security technique in obscurity; the art and science of hiding the available of a message between sender and intended recipient. But the techniques that are been developed in the area are based of complex and pattern based data hiding in pixels of images, later on key based approaches are also been developed, later on many combination (two different approaches cryptography and steganography working together) based method been developed. The proposed work is new concept for steganography that is analytical cum pattern based Image steganography the proposed method is been developed for achieving very high SNR and low MSE even if the size of original is less, actually the only problem with steganography is that it requires lots of data ( a full image) for transmitting few original data, so proposed work aims to reduce the size of image while maintaining the size of original data same. Proposed paper is a unique DWT and SVD based method for steganography.

32 Aerodynamic flow field & drag for Aerofoil wing
Mahantesh. H M, Kalyan yadav

Abstract—Investigation of airflow field over aerofoil wing is very essential to understand the flow complexity and its behaviour. In order to reduce the drag forces to achieve better performance with less power consumption for NACA 2415 model is been selected which is newly developed aerofoil wing. Drag forces are very critical parameters to optimize the performance for various AOA’s. To understand flow complexity and how to reduce the fluid force parameters with the help of vortex generator kind of devices. Vortex Generators are highly efficient aerodynamic devices that are used widely in both external and internal aerodynamics as means of flow control. The paper deals with the CFD analysis of flow over wing at different flow regimes and as well different AOA’s without & VGs are placed on a wing. Complete three dimensional results are for the flow over wing equipped with Vortex Generators with various shapes and locations over the wing. The drag and lift characteristics of each shape and locations of VG’s have to be studied. The analyses has carried out for subsonic (M=0.5), transonic (M=1.0) and supersonic (M=2.0) flow regimes. The best shape and location of the VG’s for each of the flow regimes will be determined. All computations will be carried out using the RANS modelling which is available in commercially CFD package.

33 Data Hiding In Motion Vectors of Compressed Video Based On Their Associated Prediction Error
Musale Shital Satapa, Pawar Sanjay S.

Abstract—In the today’s world transfer of data over the network increases tremendously. So, security of data is very important for secure communication .The steganography is a technique in which the data is hidden in the multimedia content like image, audio, video. The cryptography alone is not sufficient for securing the data. In this paper we compare two concept of data security using simple LSB & Reed Solomon algorithm. This paper deals with data hiding in compressed Video. Motion vectors are calculated using macro block prediction error, which is different from the approaches Based on the motion vector attributes such as the magnitude and phase angle, etc. Information hiding is a method of hiding secret data into a host medium so that the hidden data are imperceptible but known to the intended recipient [1]. The host medium may be a digital image, audio, video, or another type of media. In the image hiding system, the image used to embed secret data is called the host image (cover image). The resultant image, which is embedded with secret data, is called the stego-image.

34 β*gα-closed sets in topological spaces
M.Vigneshwaran, K.Baby

Abstract—In this paper we introduce β*gα-closed sets and investigate their properties. Using this set we introduce five separation axioms namely cTβ*gα , * βT1/2 ***, * βαT ***, * βsT ***,*Tβ*gα .

35 SMVQ and Image Inpainting Used for Joint Data Hiding and Compression Scheme
Sagar M. Shinde, K. R. Desai

Abstract—Two different modules viz. data hiding and data compression are to be combined into one and for this the techniques of side-match vector quantization and image inpainting are used. Here, while the image has to be compressed, the VQ technique is used by default for the blocks in the leftmost column and the topmost row as these are considered to be complex blocks. This controls the pictorial alteration and error dissemination caused by the gradual compression. All the other blocks are then embedded with the secret bits and also are compressed simultaneously using either SMVQ or inpainting adaptively. The compression depends on the current bit that is used for embedding. At the time of decompression, the compressed codes are first segmented and these segments are divided into sections according to the indicator bits. Every segmented section has an index value, based on which the decompression technique is decided.

36 State Of Environment Manipur: An Overview
ArambamSanatomba Singh

Abstract—The State of Manipur is the storehouse of biological diversity which includes 4000 angiospermic plants species, 430 medicinal plants species, 34 edible fungi species, 500 orchids species and 55 species of bamboo, 40 endemic rice cultivars, 160 fish species and 21 species of migratory aquatic birds and having a total forest and tree cover of 17,214 Sq. Km. which is 77.09% of the total geographical area of the State and 2.18% of the country’s forest and tree cover. Forest biodiversity of the State constitute the entire variability among the various flora and fauna available in the ecosystems of the State. An environment rich in biological diversity offers the broadest array of options for sustainable economic activity. However, the State of Manipur is now facing the problems of biodiversity degeneration due to varied reasons. The loss of biodiversity often reduces the productivity of ecosystems, thereby shrinking nature’s baskets of goods and services, from which we constantly draw. Thus biodiversity of Manipur has been declining rapidly and the accusing finger is clearly pointing to human activities.This leads to environmental degradation and causes ecological imbalance in the State of Manipur. Hence, it is the need of the hour to make an assessment of the present State of Environment in Manipur. And as such, the present study aims at (i) To make an assessment of the present scenario of environmental quality in the State of Manipur; (ii) To examine the impact of climate change on the biodiversity of Manipur; and (iii) To formulate appropriate strategies for protection of environmentin the State of Manipur.

37 Regions Containing All or a Specific Number of Zeros of a Polynomial
M. H. Gulzar, A. W. Manzoor

Abstract—In this paper we find regions containing some or a specific number of zeros of a polynomial under certain conditions.

38 RSA Encryption to Protect Cloud Data and Encryption of Private Key to Provide Security
Ritu Raj, P. S. Cheema

Abstract—Cloud computing is fast growing technology it grows up with time. Cloud is large space which is used by everyone to store data, retrieve data etc. Cloud service provider provides the service to user on their demand. Cloud is managed by third party so data stored in cloud becomes a point of worry for data owner regarding the data security. To protect the cloud data we proposed a model in which encrypted data as well as encrypted private key is store in the cloud. Encryption of data and private key is done with the help of RSA cryptographic technique. Encrypted data and private key will store in cloud and on the request of authorised user encrypted data will send to user. New user registration is done on the data owner side after register the new user owner will send the UID, Reg. No. and secret key, with the help of this secret key user will decrypts the data at their side. Service provider sends the data on the request of the authorised user. Service provider checks the UID, Reg. No., if both matches with the service provider then service provider send data to user in encrypted form. User decrypts the data with the help of key given by the user.

39 Mobile Anchor Path Planning In Wireless Sensor Networks Using Hilbert
Wilren D’cruz, Ann Susan Varghese

Abstract—In many application require the sensor location. Basically they are range based and range free schemes. Range based schemes are more accurate but very complex and expensive. Other path planning scheme which modifies the path of the mobile node or anchor instead of random movement like SCAN, DOUBLE SCAN, and HILBERT exist. A single mobile node moves through the sensing area. The path of the mobile node is in such a way so as to optimize the error and locate the sensors in the sensing field. Obstacles in the sensing field are also considered. The locations of almost all sensors in the field are located using a single mobile anchor and the mechanism is implemented in NS2.

40 Development of Automated wheel chair cum stretcher for Patients
V.B.Emche, N.G.Lokhande, R.D.Mankar

Abstract—This Paper deals with fabrication of automated wheel chair cum stretcher consists of a reclining backrest and a footrest which can be controlled through a switch by the patient which will convert the wheel chair into a bed. This helps the patient to rest without getting shifted to a bed. We propose equipment which could be handled easily by the patient, since it is a biomedical engineering project.

41 Ambient Air Quality Assessment of RSUST Campus Air Basin, Port Harcourt
Ini U. Ubong, T.J.k Ideriah, Josephine Igbara, Etim U Ubong

Abstract—The measurement of air quality was done within Rivers State University of Science and Technology (RSUST) campus, Nigeria, to document current levels of air pollutants and also ascertain the degree of alteration of fresh air on campus, which may to some extent, interfere with the comfortable work and learning activities. The environmental air quality covered measurement of the following parameters within the University Campus: Sulphur oxides (SOx), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Ammonia (NH3), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Methane (CH4), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1) and Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). Standard protocols were used for measurement e.g. portable digital monitors for air pollutants; geographical positioning system (GPS) for geo-referencing the sampling locations and a sound level meter for noise measurement. The results of particulate matter fractions showed that PM1 varied from <1.0-15.0 μg/m3 across all stations. The shopping complex had the highest concentration of 15.0 μg/m3 while the main Library and Technical and Science Faculty air sheds had less than 1.0 μg/m3. Concentrations North Easterly were higher than those of the Northerly. PM2.5 levels varied from 5.0 - 38.0 μg/m3 in the study area. The highest value of 38.0 μg/m3 was obtained from the shopping complex and lowest value of 5.0 μg/m3 from the Main Library environ. The North Easterly concentrations were higher than those of the Northerly. PM7 varied from 18.0 - 54.0 μg/m3 across the stations. The shopping complex had the highest concentration of 54.0 μg/m3 followed by the Main Gate (31.0 μg/m3). Levels at the other two sites were comparable (20.0-23.0 μg/m3). North Easterly concentrations were higher than those of the Northerly. PM10 concentrations varied from 23.0 μg/m3 at Main Library to 57.0 μg/m3 at the Shopping Complex. Similarly, levels of TSP varied from 27.0 – 61.0 μg/m3 with the highest (61.0 μg/m3) emanating from the shopping complex; followed by the Main Gate (54.0 μg/m3). The North Easterly stations had higher values than the Northerly. 87.5% of the PM2.5/ PM10 ratio data was outside the range observed for developing and developed nations whereas 12.5 % was within the range. The Shopping Complex air shed had the highest concentration of Particulate Matter (PM1 - 10 and TSP). PM1 and TSP did not exceed allowable limits but PM2.5, PM7 & PM10 showed exceedances over internationally allowable limits. The PM2.5/ PM10 ratio showed that 87.5% of the data had particulate matter in the size fractions of 10 microns whereas 12.5 % were in the size fractions of 2.5 microns. Exceedances were obtained for NH3, NO2, SOx and H2S in the RSUST Campus air basin. The results of gaseous parameters showed that Ammonia concentration ranged from <0.01–3.0 mg/m3. The highest concentration was obtained at the Main Gate site followed by the Shopping Complex site. The remaining two sites (Main Library and Technical & Science Faculty) had no detectable levels. Exceedances over recommended permissible value were clearly visible. Nitrogen dioxide was detected across the four stations with concentrations ranging from 0.105 mg/m3 at Main Library to 0.169 mg/m3 at the Shopping Complex. The noise levels on campus ranged from 67.7–75.6 dB(A) with a mean of 71.6 ±2.8 dB. The highest was obtained from the shopping complex while the lowest was at Technical and Science Faculty.

42 Study of Routing Protocol as DSR, TORA, OLSR
Shikha Tuli, Farminder Singh, Ankur Thakur

Abstract—In recent years, a vast research has been seen going on in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Due to limited resources in MANETs, to design an efficient and reliable routing strategy is still a challenge. An intelligent routing strategy is required to efficiently use the limited resources. Also the algorithms designed for traditional wired networks such as linkstate or distance vector, does not scale well in wireless environment. Routing in MANETs is a challenging task and has received a tremendous amount of attention from researchers around the world. To overcome this problem a number of routing protocols have been developed and the number is still increasing day by day. It is quite difficult to determine which protocols may perform well under a number of different network scenarios such as network size and topology etc. In this paper we provide an overview of a wide range of the existing routing protocols with a particular focus on their characteristics and functionality.

43 Computation of Potential Evapo-Transpiration of Yenbo City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Shams Al Deen M Saad, Saiful Islam

Abstract—Actual estimation of Potential evapotranspiration over large areas is needed for hydrological studies and other practices related to efficient utilization of Water resources. To achieve this Penman Equation is utilized. It is known to be dependent upon climatic factors. In this study, the potential evapotranspiration of the Yenbo city has been computed for three situations i.e. close ground crops, bare land and water surface considering it as a land use pattern of the city other than built up areas. The result obtained will help the water resource management of the city keeping in mind the climate variability factor. The data for various metrological factors, temperature, and wind speeds, relative humidity, sun shine hours and solar radiation for the period of (2004-2014) was collected from Metrological Department. Using the data, potential evapotranspiration was estimated using the internationally accepted PET version of Penman equation. The data was analyzed monthly. PET was found to show an increasing trend from January to June and decreasing trend from June to December having highest PET for the month June.

44 A Survey of TORA Routing Protocol in MANET
Amandeep Gautam, Jasdeep Singh

Abstract—Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET)[1] is a quite challenging to ensures security because of its open nature, lack of infrastructure, and high mobility of nodes. MANETs is a fast changing network in a form of decentralized wireless system. It requires a unique, distinct and persistent identity per node in order to provide their security and also has become an indivisible part for communication for mobile device. In this phase of dissertation, we have focused giving security to Temporally Ordered Routing Protocol Algorithm (TORA) from Sybil attack. TORA is based on a family of link reversal algorithm. It is highly adaptive distributing routing algorithm used in MANET that is able to provide multiple loop-free routes to any destination using the Route Creation, Route Maintenance and Route Erasure functions. Sybil attack is a serious threat for wireless networks. This type of attacker comes in the network and they start creating multiple identities. From that multiple identities they are disrupting the network by participating in communication with line breaking nodes. This cause a huge loss in network resources. These networks can be protected using network failure and firewall detection schemes for detecting the attack and minimizing their effects. Proposed approach is expected to secure TORA through the implementation. Performance factor of network would be taken into consideration in order to verify the efficiency of modified TORA in MANET environment.

45 Distribution of 10 Micron Sized Particulate Matter (PM10) in the Air-Shed of Port Harcourt Metropolis and Environs
Ini U. Ubong, Ifenyi C. Anunuso, Emmanuel J. Ejike, Uwem U. Ubong, Etim U. Ubong

Abstract—PM10 (Particulate Matter with ten microns size) concentrations were determined and evaluated in Port Harcourt, (Nigeria) Metropolis and Environs. The sampling was performed with well calibrated equipment (A Multi-RAE PLUS (PGM – 50) a programmable Multi Gas monitor with an electrochemical sensor). The parameter assessed was particulate matter with, 10μm size fraction (PM10). The temporal distributions of PM10 for all the sampling sites show data range at Igwuruta (Control) varied from 27.3 – 1642.4 μg/m3 with a mean of 188.1 ± 458.7 μg/m3. Seasonal Variation for PM10 concentrations were catalogued into dry and wet seasons. Dry season was observed as the season with highest particulate PM10, while the wet had the lowest PM10. Test of significance showed dry to be significantly different from the wet [tstat (4.3532).05 ≥ tcri (2.0017).05].

46 Implementation of an Intelligent Algorithm for Effective Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy
Atul P. Shingade, Prachi P. Londe, Harish G. Langar

Abstract—Diabetes is a group of metabolic disease which causes due to excess in blood sugar of human body. Blood sugar plays vital role for human health because it’s an important source of energy for the development of cells that makes muscles and tissues. Due to insufficient insulin in human body, retinal tissues of human eyes get affected. These abnormalities in retina may results in vision loss and known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). DR patients required regular eye check up as the delayed detection of DR may lead to permanent vision loss. An automated screening system can reduce the burden of medical experts and saves time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for effective detection of DR. The Color Fundus Images will be screened with preprocessing and severity of the disease is decided by considering the region properties with GLCM properties of Color Fundus Images. The Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used for classification of images. The classification accuracy and specificity is considered as the performance measures and found 91% and 94% respectively.