IJAIR- Volume 4 Issue 6 (June 2015)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Strain Hardening Characteristics of Non-Heat Treatable Aluminium Alloys
Karthik S N, Santhosh A N, Ramesh K

Abstract —Aluminium is the most widely used material for applications such as cooking utensils, food processing equipment, storage tanks, aircraft components, pressure vessels, ladders, railings, frames, tool boxes, truck bumpers components in truck and automobile industries, which requires strength and good formability. In this study, it is aimed to present the experimental results of studies conducted on strain hardenable characteristics of non-heat treatable casted and forged aluminium alloys using tensile test.. Pure aluminium, Aluminium alloy 5052 and Aluminium alloy 3003 are the chosen materials for the work. Strain hardening conditions selected are H12 and H14 on specimens as per ASTM standards. This paper involves graphs of true stress v/s strain as per the results obtained from tensile test on different heat treatment conditions.

2 Design, Development & Analysis of Press tools for Locking Lever
Santhosh A N, Karthik S N, Mohan Kumar K A

Abstract—Sheet metal stampings have now replaced many components which were earlier cast or machined. Today’s modern technology demands technique to produce quality products at an affordable price to gain an edge over competitors .Sheet metal stamping plays a major role in fulfilling the requirements of modern technology. The component Locking Lever (LH/RH) under study for this dissertation work is used in MARUTI-zen (Car) a joint venture of Maruti and Suzuki, as a Locking member for its door lock assembly. IS EDD 513 series material is used for the component? The component is produced under a set of Three (one progressive & two stage) tools Blanking, Forming, followed by a Bending tool for the final operation.

3 Reduction of Global Emissions in a Micro Grid system
O.V.S Prasanna Kumar, P.Chandra Babu

Abstract—Renewable energy has been a promising alternative energy resource which brings new challenges when connected to the power grid. In the present day scenario, Energy systems are globally inclined towards sustainability. This paper presents the design of a Micro grid environment with solar energy, fuel cells and other distributed generators that oversee the parallel operation of different distributed generation (DG) inverters with in a micro-grid. The impact on the real and reactive powers of the distributed generators within the Micro grid is studied in the presence of a robust model predictive controller. The control system manages real and reactive power during grid connected and islanded operation. The robustness of the controller has been verified with this test scenario. The problems that occur with the increase of gassing, and self-discharge are studied and the modified model with Li-ion battery have depicted that global emissions are reduced in estimating the state of health (SOH) of Li-ion batteries. The concept offers consumers increased authenticity and quality in view of reduced global emissions and energy losses which become a promising alternative to traditional power distribution systems.

4 A Review on “Biomass Gasification as a Sustainable Alternative Source for Development of Rural India”
Arti Raulwar, A K Sharma

Abstract—In this paper, various aspects of the research and development in biomass gasification in downdraft fixed bed reactors like advances in downdraft gasification systems, and the effect various parameters like equivalence ratio, operating temperature, moisture content, superficial velocity, gasifying agents, residence time on the composition of producer gas, yield and conversion are reviewed.

5 A Review on Neuro-fuzzy Approach for Forecasting Electricity Load Demand
Richa Mishra, Arti Bhandaakar

Abstract-Load forecasting has always been an essential and important topic for power systems. A Good understanding of the characteristics of the system is important to design efficient and accurate forecasting model. Load forecasting is a difficult task as the load at a given hour is dependent not only on the load at the previous hour but also on the load at the same hour on the previous day and on the load at the same hour on the day with the same denomination in the previous week and also depend on the different factors like: weather, time, economy and random disturbance. Based on the various types of studies presented in these paper, the load forecasting techniques are: Multiple regression, Exponential smoothing, Iterative reweighted least squares technique, adaptive load forecasting, Stochastic time series, ARMAX model, Curve Fitting, Artificial Neural Network, & Fuzzy logic. The various types of methodologies & factors affecting the load forecasting are included in the literature.

6 Solar Water Heater working Performance Analysis with Flat Bed Collector
Sandeep Kumar, Arjun Thakur

Abstract -For obtaining cheap energy in form of Solar energy being emerging major need in today era of expensive fuels which is used to boil water for industrial and domestic purpose. A setup of two moveables solar water heaters with FPC’s (flatbed collector solar panel fitted) of 100 litres and 200 litres were placed in roof top open sky space made available. The data of 12 months have been collected and performance of analysed in this paper. It is found that the incoming hot tap water is about 30˚C higher than the room temperature during day time during winter months. This is about 25˚C in afternoon hours.

7 Design and Analysis of Shape Morphed Wing
Balasubramanian.A, Rajakumar.S

Abstract-In this work the concept of shape morphing technology is considered on a NACA 23012 airfoil. This airfoil has a thickness to chord ratio between 9% to 12%, and is best suited for operation with high speed subsonic passenger aircrafts. The analysis was conducted using ANSYS Fluent on a standard NACA 23012 airfoil with control surfaces activated by conventional hinged mechanism against the same airfoil with control surfaces activated by concept of shape morphing. The results indicated substantial improvement in lift for the shape morphed airfoil, when compared with standard airfoil using hinged controls.

8 Prevention from flooding attack in AODV over mobile adhoc networks using NS2
Vandana Batra, Deepak Bagga

Abstract-A wireless local-area network (LAN) uses radio waves to connect devices such as laptops to the internet and to your business network and its applications. An Adhoc network is a collection of mobile nodes and wireless communication network is used to connect these mobile nodes. This type of network is known as MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK (MANET). Different from normal networks, MANET is easy to be attacked. The attacking to the protocol can paralyze the network, so the security of routing protocol is an important part of the Ad Hoc networks security. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. In this dissertation we consider flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. In this we use a cryptographic approach to prevent the flooding attack in mobile adhoc network. Here we consider end-to-end delay and packet received as matrices. We simulate the environment in NS2 and results are shown through XGraphs.

9 Energy Modeling and Optimization of Application Specific Wireless Sensor Networks using Sleep Scheduling
Mohammed Moyed Ahmed, D. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract-Wireless sensor networks particularly related to monitoring disaster applications and time critical applications, data gathering in a timely and reliable fashion has been a key concern, apart from proper energy management. Nodes waste considerable amounts of energy as they keep their radios on for large time intervals while listening to an idle channel. Due to the importance of energy consumption of idle listening, energy efficient MACs should make nodes sleep for long periods of time instead of enabling them to be permanently active. An effort has been made to achieve energy optimization by using 802.15.4 coordinator in Beacon mode by applying proper seep scheduling.

10 Securing SOA using Enhanced TPA and XML Signature
Srinath KS, Ankit Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Akshay Nair, Himalaya

Abstract─ Interest in web services will continually increase from start of use. To exchange information among the clients is the main goal of web service. It is a functionality that provided as a response to request which provides an internal architecture over a network. It has an interface described in a form of XML (WSDL). SOAP protocol governs the format of the web service request and response, typically conveyed using HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) with an XML (Extensible Markup Language) serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards. In this paper, the SOA model is secured using cryptographic techniques and integrating enhanced TPA, XML signer/verifier model. WSDL (web service description language), SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) documents are encrypted and decrypted using AES technique. TPA (trusted third party authentication) is an entity which authenticates interacting parties using X509 certificate and public key. To avoid the integrity in the network the XML document is signed and verified using XML signature specified by W3C (World Wide Web Consortium).

11 Enhancement of Energy Efficiency and Data Security for ECG Transmission in Body Area Sensor Networks
Sugantha Baalan K S, Nagarajan C

Abstract -Electrocardiographic (ECG) information reveals the essential heart conditions for heart illness diagnosing. The detailed condition of a cardiac patient can be better understood from his ECG. So there is a need to design low cost, energy efficient, easy to use wireless ECG diagnosing system. Body area sensor network (BASN) is a technology used for wireless sensing and transmission of ECG signals. But there are two major challenges in wireless transmission of signals. They are more energy consumption and less data security. The proposed system can improve the performance of wireless ECG transmission by using data compression techniques such as Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) or COmbined XOr and Huffman coding (COXOH) and some encryption techniques. Compression techniques can compress the signal which reduces the energy consumption in wireless transmission. SPIHT uses the technique of set partitioning sorting and it provides good compression on the signals with the compression ratio of 8:1. COXOH is the combination of two operations XOR and Huffman Algorithm. XOR operation will reduce the data to 50% followed by Huffman compression which will further compress the data. The average compression ratio is 10:1. Run Length Encoding (RLE) can be used at the end of the COXOH to further compress the data. The proposed selective encryption mechanism provides a simple and effective security solution, where only the selected portion of compressed data is encrypted and the complete encryption mechanism also provides good security, where all the compressed data are encrypted.

12 Efficiency Increase of FPC with Shell and Tubes Heat Exchanger
Arjun Thakur, Sandeep Kumar, Vishal Mahajan

Abstract- This paper deals with the performance of a 6 heat pipe array with shell and tube type heat exchanger. The purposed design would reduce the production cost of the heat pipe panel and provides a better working condition for the system to act as thermal flux transformer compared to conventional heat pipe solar collectors because all the heat pipes can be evacuated, sealed and tested. In experiment the collector efficiency, heat pipe temperature, water outlet temperature, and useful heat absorbed by cooling water was determined and the results were compared with those obtained through theoretical analysis.

13 Gray Hole Attack on Manet: A Survey
JasleenKaur, Farminder Singh, Ankur Thakur

Abstract— Security is an essential requirement in mobile ad hoc network (MANETs)[1][2][3].Mobile Ad-hoc Network are dynamic networks, like other network MANETS are prone to various attack. Attacks on ad hoc networks can be classified as passive and active attacks, depending on whether the normal operation of the network is disrupted or not[3][10]. One of routing misbehavior attack is gray hole attack targets the routing protocol of the network [7]. Depending upon the nature of attack. This attack changes the performance of the network. Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is prone to gray hole attack due to lack of central control and security. Gray Hole attack is one of the attacks in network layer which comes under security active attacks in MANET.

14 Fabrication of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
M.Sreenivasa Kumar, M.Venkata Nagendra

Abstract— Control and make use of wind energy is one of the cleanest, most sustainable ways to generate electricity. Wind power is a clean energy source that can be relied on for the longterm future. This, and the fact that wind power is one of the most abundant and increasingly cost-competitive energy resources, makes it a viable alternative to the fossil fuels that harm our health and threaten the environment.

15 Implementation of symmetric transparent online BIST Schemes for RAM Modules
G.Sandhya Rani, T.Ravichanra Babu

Abstract— In this work we propose a symmetric transparent BIST scheme that can be utilized to test RAMs of different word widths; hence, more than one RAM can be tested in a roving manner. The hardware overhead of the proposed scheme is considerably smaller compared to the utilization of previously proposed symmetric transparent schemes for typical memory configurations.

16 Implementation of Double Precision floating point multiplier using verilog
A.Vineetha, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract— Floating Point (FP) multiplication is widely used in large set of scientific and signal processing computation. Multiplication is one of the common arithmetic operations in these computations. A high speed floating point double precision multiplier is implemented on a Modal sim. In addition, the proposed design is compliant with IEEE-754 format and handles over flow, under flow, rounding and various exception conditions. The design achieved the operating frequency of 414.714 MHz with an area of 648 slices.

17 Implementation of VecLIW Processor Architecture for Executing Multi-Scalar Instructions
K.Prathyusha, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract-This paper proposes new processor architecture for accelerating data parallel applications based on the combination of VLIW and vector processing paradigms. It uses VLIW architecture for processing multiple independent scalar instructions concurrently on parallel execution units. Data parallelism is expressed by vector ISA and processed on the same parallel execution units of the VLIW architecture.

18 Analysis of Image Quality Parameters Using Different Image Formats With Various Noises
Anamika Maurya, Mata Prasad Singh, Rajinder Tiwari

Abstract— Right and high quality of image makes a huge difference whether it can be any field of digital image processing. Image quality measurement is important for many image processing applications .We studied and discuss about various image formats, we try to find out various benefits and downfalls of all image format. We discussed various types of noise and their effects in various image formats after adding noise we do comparison of various performance metrics and accordingly we evaluate the result. It evaluates the performance of each format with MATLAB R2012a. The performance evaluation is done on the basis of MSE, PSNR, MAE, IQI, and RMSE.

19 Experimental Investigation of SS 410 Using Nd Yag Laser Cutting
M.D.Vijayakumar, M. Janaki Manohar, C.Silambarasan

Abstract-Although metal cutting operations traditionally employ mechanical or manual processes, laser cutting can be a viable, effective, and cost-efficient option for metal fabrication. Laser equipment is distinct from other cutting machines in both design and application. For example, laser cutters do not make direct contact with material, rely on high-energy power sources, have tighter cutting tolerances, and are generally automated to maximize precision. A laser device fires a concentrated stream of photons onto a precise area of the work piece in order to trim excess material and shape the work piece into a specific design. These machines are highly effective in cutting various grades of steel, such as stainless and carbon steel. However, lasers are less efficient on light-reflective or heat-conductive metals, like aluminum or copper, and require specific modifications to shape these materials. The material being cut often dictates the type of laser used in fabrication, making it important to match equipment specifications with forming stock. This project deals with the cutting parameter of Nd-yag laser cutting of high carbon steels. Carbon steels are found to be cut satisfactorily by a pulsed Nd-yag laser at the optimum process parameter ranges. Predictive models have been developed based on important process parameters, viz. cutting speed, and gas pressure. The responses considered are the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the taper of the cut surface. The optimization of process parameters has to be one using Anova or Multiple Regression Analysis. The effect of the process parameters on the output responses is also investigated through mechanical properties as well as microstructure as well as heat distribution also investigated through ANSYS.

20 Design and Analysis of Oblique Wing for an Aircraft
M.P.Tamizhmani, A.Karthikeyan

Abstract- In this paper aircraft drag is considerably reduced by a design and change in deflection of wing even with the increase in speed of aircraft. Aircraft drag depends on the aspect ratio of the wing, thus by reducing the surface area and twisting the wing about its vertical axis (pivoted axis) to a particular angle without compromising the lift force generated, the drag force was considerably reduced. As a result a speed of 0.3 mach was raised to 1.2 mach experimentally non-symmetrical wing of various length nearer to 1m is designed, analyzed and deflected from its pivoted section, drag produced around the wing is drastically reduced. Drag produced at different angle is compared with the drag produced at 00 deflections and by reducing the drag produced; the speed of the aircraft is increased. At take-off the wing is said to be about 00 angles and deflected at different angles after attaining a particular altitude from ground level thus mainly dealing with the reduction of drag with a nonsymmetrical wing.

21 Wavelet Transform Application to Fault Classification on Transmission Line
Vimal Patel, A.K.Jhala

Abstract-This paper presents the development of an algorithm for classifying the power system faults. The algorithm devised is based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) analysis of transient current signals recorded in the event of a short circuit on a transmission line. The DWT analysis of line currents are carried out for normal and various fault condition. Few parameters are defined using detailed coefficients of DWT analysis. Fault identification is done by comparing values of these parameters during fault with those in normal condition.

22 Self-Compacting Concrete Strength Improvement Using Selected Self-Compacting Concrete Mix Design
Neetu Deswal, Raman Kumar

Abstract-One of the important aspects for concrete buildings domain is self-compacting concrete (SCC). SCC has a special composition with no necessity of compacting and it is able to flow under its own weight. SCC has been developed to ensure proper compaction and facilitate placement of concrete in structures with congested reinforcement and in restricted areas. The present study aims towards the development of a suitable mix for SCC that would satisfy the requirements of the plastic state, casting of concrete samples and testing them for strength tests and durability tests like permeability test and water absorption test after giving cyclic exposures which consists of wet-dry cycles, heat-cool cycles to observe the degradation of SCC samples. In this Paper we conduct a series of experiments towards the development of a suitable SCC design.

23 Performance Improvement of Pseudo Boost PFC Converter with Less Number of Components
A.Praveena , R.Thangadurai

Abstract-Power supplies with active power factor correction (PFC) techniques are becoming necessary for many types of electronic equipment. Most of the PFC rectifiers utilize a boost/buck–boost topology converter at their front end due to its high power factor (PF) capability. However, a conventional boost PFC scheme has lower efficiency due to significant losses in the diode bridge. In this project, a new bridgeless single-phase ac–dc converter with a natural power factor correction (PFC) is proposed. Compared with existing bridgeless topologies, the proposed topology has the advantages of less component counts. The absence of an input diode bridge rectifier and the presence of only one diode in the current path during each stage of the switching cycle result in higher power density and less conduction losses. The proposed topology is designed to work in resonant mode to achieve an automatic PFC close to unity. The resonant mode operation gives additional advantages such as zero-current Ton in the active power devices, zero-current Toff in the output diode and reduces the complexity of the control circuitry. Thus the proposed circuit is simulated both open loop and closed loop system. The simulation results are compared with theoretical value.

24 Effect of low level visual features on CBIR: A Survey
Janarthanam S., S. Sukumaran

Abstract— This paper reviews the fundamental theories and concepts of Content Based Image Retrieval algorithms and development field. The methodologies used to retrieve the digital images from large image database by using the low level visual content features of query image are color, texture, shape and spatial location. Relevance feedback in CBIR system is the dominant technique for the image retrieval derived from user’s feedback processes. An analysis of visual contents of image is done with respect to features related to color, texture and shape to explore the CBIR techniques and the usage in various application domains. The most popular algorithms and methods of feature extraction and relevance feedback try to bridge the extracted low level features and the features with high level semantics gap from image are explores the different types of image retrieval methods.

25 Geographical Analysis of Micro Natural and Cultural Unit Shahjahanpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India
Mushir Ali, Syed Murshid Husain

Abstract -The present review work is an attempt to describe geographical features of micro unit Shahjahanpur district that is situated in a tract which lies between the Ganga and foothills of the Himalayas, and forms a part of Uttar Pradesh. It has five natural divisions orderly the tarai forest belt, the Gomti basin, the central bangar lands, the Ramganga khaddar lands. It covers 4575 sq km area where total population of 2.54 million resides in 11 urban centres and 2,080 villages.

26 Evaluation of Parthenium Hysterophorus in Pasture Management in Alamata, Ethiopia
Ibrahim Fitiwy, Alem G/Tsadik

Abstract—The experiment was conducted during the summer season in 2009 in Alamata, Tigray, Ethiopia. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate certain forage varieties of grass and legume species for outcompeting the weed P. hysterophorus L. in pasture/grazing lands in the field. A split plot design was used with treatments Mowing/Burning as main plot and six forage varieties vis., Cenchrus ciliaris. Clitoria ternate, Panicum coloratum, Sorghum Sudanese, Stylosanthes hamata, Vicia dasycarpa, and Control as sub plots. Results indicate that the weed species viz., Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria abyssinica, Parthenium hysterophorus and Alternathera pungens were the most dominant plants recorded in the over sown forage crops followed by Cenchrus ciliaris, Clitoria ternate, Panicum coloratum, Sorghum Sudanese, Stylosanthes hamata and Vicia dasycarpa. The obnoxious weed P. hyterophorus was the most dense (50 plants/m2) followed by Digitaria ternata (18plants/m2) in the forage variety of Cenchrus at mowing. Both weed species had 100% occurrence and an abundance of 53.2 and 19.1%, respectively. In the over sown Panicum and Sorghum forage species, although they vigorously grown, could not out compete the weed Parthenium where it showed relatively highest abundance and frequency of occurrence. In the burning main plot over sown treatment, Cenchrus, D. ternata, A. hybridus and P. hysterophorus recorded 27, 24, and 11 plants/m2 density and 40.9, 36.4 and 16.7% abundance, respectively. The forage plant Panicum was effectively suppressed the invasive weed parthenium which recorded the least, 4 plants/m2. The Fodder dry weight results also showed significant (P<0.05) differences when averaged over main plot treatments viz., the mean dry weight of Cenchrus ciliaris, Panicum coloratum and Sorghum sudanese were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the mean dry weight of Vicia dasycorpa, Clitoria ternate and Stylosanthes hamata all of which had the same mean dry weights. A linear correlation analysis have shown that forage stand count has negatively and highly significantly correlated (r = -0.773) with parthenium stand count.

27 Implementation and development of a SCM process Maturity model using the concepts of business process orientation
Moses Sashi Kumar, A.Ananda Kumari, A.Shalini

Abstract—The concept of process maturity proposes that a process has a lifecycle that is assessed by the extent to which the process is explicitly defined, managed, measured and controlled. A maturity model assumes that progress towards goal achievement comes in stages. The supply chain maturity model presented in this paper is based on concepts developed by researchers over the past two decades. The Software Engineering Institute has also applied the concept of process maturity to the software development process in the form of the capability maturity model. This paper examines the relationship between supply chain management process maturity and performance, and provides a supply chain management process maturity model for enhanced supply chain performance.

28 Detection and Classification of Exudates Using Enhanced Digital Fundus Photography
Harinatha Reddy.G, Venkata Nagarjuna.K

Abstract—Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading disabling chronic diseases, and one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the world [1]. It is an ocular disease and progressive by nature. It is characterized by many pathologies, namely microaneurysms, hard exudates, soft exudates, hemorrhages, etc., among them presence of exudates is the prominent sign of nonproliferative DR [2]. Both hard and soft exudates play a vital role in grading DR into different stages. Hence classification of hard and soft exudates using k-means clustering plays a vital role [3]. But Digital Fundus Images has multiple contrast and illumination problems which makes enhancement a necessity. Consequently, DFI must be enhanced to allow for better visualization in order to facilitate ophthalmologists to carry out their diagnosis [4]. Finally, the exudates are classified as hard and soft exudates based on their edge energy and threshold.

29 Advanced Lighting System by using Wireless Network and Sensors
G. Chandra Sekhar, K. Rambabu

Abstract—The main aim of this paper is to design advanced intelligent management and control system of the street lighting. The existing system is commonly used in all streets of street light system. But in this method there is a loss of heavy electricity in the whole night. If the street light is not stopped after the night, the loss will continue throughout the day. And also the street light is not necessary when there are no human movements in the street. So to come out of these disadvantages this paper is introducing a ZIGBEE based street lighting system. In this paper we propose the ZIGBEE based street lighting system. An application will be created for this particular system and by using this application the street light can be operated wirelessly by using ZIGBEE. Whenever the human movements will be occurred beyond the street light then the light will be automatically controlled. After the sunlight has been reduced in the street then the Street light will glow by using a light sensor. By using this project wastage of electricity will be reduced and human effect also reduced.

30 Original Article: Single Layer Intestinal Anastomosis, Safe and Cost Effective
Rajesh Narayan

Abstract—The objective of the study is to compare singlelayered intestinal anastomosis and double-layered intestinal anastomosis in terms of safety and cost effectiveness.

31 Theoretical analysis and Logistics Management Realities of supply chain collaboration
Moses Sashi Kumar, A.Ananda Kumari, A.Shalini

Abstract—This paper aims to investigate the gap between the interests in supply chain collaboration (SCC) and the relatively few recorded cases of successful applications. This is the reality of SCC. The research represents the viewpoints of the authors based on their collective field experiences and literature reviews. Three realities of SCC are identified establishing the prerequisites for the collaboration process; where the process starts; and where it terminates. Moreover, a realistic structured approach to SCC containing three loops is outlined. Increased awareness for practitioners in SCM by crystallizing when collaboration is useful; what to change; what to change to; and how to make changes happen. The value of the paper is that it offers a “different” perspective on SCC.

32 Encrypted: A Secure File Transfer Application
Eakkuluri Ramlal, R.China Appala Naidu

Abstract— Security is the most important factor to be considered while designing a network and lot of research has been done in this field. One of the most effective ways for granting secured access in an organization is use of VPN. VPN is a generic term used as a combination of network topologies/technologies to describe a communication network through the tunnel, otherwise unsecured or not trusted network. VPN transmits data by the means of tunnels. The most important principle in establishing security through VPN tunnel is by providing proper Authentication and data encryption. The proposed method provides advanced encryption and authentication by using MAC address as a key. Whenever a sender wants to send any data through tunnel after establishment of the connection, the MAC address of the receivers device is read by the encryption technique it use it as a key to encrypt data.

33 Energy efficient scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sunita Rani, Sanjana Kalyan

Abstract—It is an emerging technology that shows various applications both for public and military purpose. In order to operate these applications successfully, it is necessary to maintain the transmission of data. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. In this paper, we present an energy efficient scheduling of nodes in wireless sensor networks. Scheduling is done among the nearby nodes because it's well known that the nodes lying in the vicinity of each other i.e. the nearby nodes whose inter distance is too much small will sense the same data from the field the nodes are deployed in. So scheduling is done among the nearby nodes so as to increase the lifetime of network by saving the energy used in transmitting the redundant data from the nearby nodes.

34 Original Article: Gall ‘Tomstone’ Culture in Bihar
Rajesh Narayan

Abstract—The study was done to evaluate the correlation between clinopathological, chemical type of gall stone, stone culture, etiopathogenesis and epidemological assessment of cholethiasis in Bihar.

35 Development of a smart city using mobile tracking system
N.V. K. Ramesh, A. Mahesh Reddy

Abstract—Mobile tracking system is used to monitor vehicles position and in special cases there are much useful information can be monitored such as speed, cabin temperature and number of passenger. This monitoring process is done using vehicle's position data from satellite through GPS device, and sending the data to a server through GSM modem.

36 Implementation of SAR using VLSI technology
Krishna.P.Rathi, R.M.Deshmukh, A.V.Kalaskar

Abstract—Nowadays, a larger percentage of mixed-signal applications require energy limited system solutions. Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are critical component in most of such systems, hence the stringent requirements on energy consumption requests the ADC design to be low power. Among various ADC architectures, we chose to implement a Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC that is one of the best suited for low power. We target a resolution of 8-bit and a power consumption of few mille Watts. The SAR ADC is implemented in 180nm CMOS technology with a power supply of 2.85V which produce the power consumption of 3.1083 milli watts, Area covered is 341μsq.m with a resolution of 0.02.The ADC designed is carried out by designing each building block of the circuit separately and then assembling them together to get the required ADC. A comparison between different DAC topologies led us to choose a R-2R Ladder circuit topology for the D/A converter to have less power consumption, Reduce Area, Low cost and Resolution. Design has been carried out in Tanner EDA tools. Simulation results are verified using S-edit and T-edit.

37 Silky way: interfacing the silk cocoon market by using android technology
Shruti.A, Manjual

Abstract—India’s share in the global production of silk is over 18%. In this production of silk Karnataka plays a vital role. In this modern technology era to survive in silk business there is need of modernistic mechanisms. This influence has clearly shows that silk industry of Karnataka is flourished but dawdles in acquire the new technologies. The aim of this work demonstrate that Periodic silk market updates, reducing the middle man complication between the reelars and weavers, also financial grants from sericulture department to reelars and sericulture farmers by using android technology.

38 Study of Tribological characteristics of NiTiFe Shape Memory Alloys for varying composition of Fe
Ramesh Gowda N R, Yellappa M, Samal SureshKumar, Anand Manchalakar, Uday C Y, Santhosh N

Abstract—Shape memory alloys are those groups of alloys which have a characteristic phenomenon of exhibiting the property of remembering its shape upon deformation and returning to its original shape when heated. These materials change their properties, for example vibration resonance frequency or modulus in response to a temperature variation. When heated by direct electrical current above the transformation temperature, the pre-deformed shape memory alloy (SMA) try to recover their shape and since they are restrained, a stress is created. The stress thus created can be relieved by aging of the samples at different temperature ranges. Ni Ti Shape memory alloys have a unique behavior of exhibiting maximum super elasticity as compared to other shape memory alloys. However there are certain elements such as Fe, Cu, Al, and Mo which are added to the NiTi as ternary additions to enhance the transformational behavior of these alloys. Alloying Fe is found to have major implications on the shape memory effect of Ni – Ti (Nitinol) based shape memory alloys. The transformational behavior of these shape memory alloys are unique and found to have an impact on biomedical and structural applications. In our work, tribological characteristics of NiTiFe were effectively studied for varying compositions and it was found that hardness increases with the ternary addition of Fe from 3% to 9% and wear drastically reduces as a result of increase in hardness. This is attributed to the fact that the increase in addition of Fe causes precipitation hardening which will ultimately result in improved tribological characteristics. Also in our present work, the samples are subjected to heat treatment and subsequent aging, which has resulted in betterment of wear characteristics, that are compared with the as cast samples.

39 Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure on Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fueled with Mahua oil Biodiesel
Ramesh Gowda N R, Yellappa M, Mahadeva Prasad, Santhosh N, Srikanth H V, Praveena B A

Abstract—The depletion of world petroleum reserves and the increased environmental concern have stimulated the search of alternative fuel which is to be environment friendly. Trans esterified vegetable oil (biodiesel) are promising alternative fuel for diesel engines. The objective of this research is to study the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine fueled with Mahua oil biodiesel with the influence of fuel injection pressure. Bio diesel was produced from Mahua oil by transesterification process and used as fuel in diesel engine. The tests were conducted at full load at different injection pressures by means of adjusting injector spring tension. The fuels B10 (10% biodiesel +90% diesel), B20 (20% biodiesel+80% diesel), B30 (30% biodiesel+70% diesel) were used for the test. The engine performance and emission test results were compared with B0 (diesel). From the test results it was found that 210 bar injection pressure causes better performance and improved emissions characteristics for all fuels.

40 Thermal Analysis of Sandwich Busbar System
Praveen Poddar, K.S. Shashishekar

Abstract—A busbar is a strip or bar of copper, aluminium or any that conducts electricity within a switch board, distribution board, substation, battery bank or other electrical system. Its main purpose is to conduct electricity, not just to function as a structural member. Busbars improves systematic capacitance, lower inductance and impedance. Commercially, the present practice is to use different busbars for different current ratings. The main reason for this is the variation in temperature and the entire busbar system has to be replaced depending on the required current rating. This is a time consuming and expensive practice. To prevent the above difficulties in the present work a busbar with fins, which can be used for varying current ratings, is proposed. The proposal is done by thermal analysis of the busbar and the theoretical and simulation results are compared. There is the analysis is carried out by simulation using Star CCM+. The temperature distribution with and without fins are evaluated and number of fin is fixed for the required heat dissipation of the busbar.

41 Using Proposed Algorithm Computing Minimum Connected Dominating Set in MANET
Senthil Kumar S, Ramesh R, Vijayalakshmi

Abstract— One of the major obstacles faced by Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is to efficiently route among its nodes. Connected Dominating Set (CDS) is a widely used and accepted concept by many protocols for broadcasting and routing MANETs. These existing protocols important message overhead in construction of CDS. Proposed algorithm sends an extra BRM cell with a probability function of the current Connected in DS. The suggested / proposed algorithm saves time and message overhead in forming a CDS while supporting node mobility effectively. (Address Resolution Protocol) translates an IP address into a MAC address. Proposed algorithm forms a CDS of the network if the topology of the network remains unchanged for duration of time. The graph is assumed to be a unit disk graph. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm is effective in, both, message complexity and the size of the CDS.

42 Nutrition and Health status of adolescent Tribal Girls
G.Anbuselvi, K.Nanthini

Abstract—Scheduled tribes in India are generally considered to be ‘Adivasis’ meaning indigenous people (or) original inhabitants of the country. The tribes have been confined to low status and are often physically and socially isolated instead of being absorbed in the mainstream of Hindu population. Physically the scheduled tribes often experiences passive indifference that may take the form of exclusion for educational opportunities, social participation and access to their own land. The adolescent living in tribal areas, especially less educated and they are more pros to get reproductive health issues. Adolescent health, nutrition together with reproductive health concerns, has been neglected in the developing country like India.

43 Enhancing BER Performance for OFDM
Meena Sune, Shashank Mane

Abstract—Multi Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is one of the advance technology which enhances the performance of OFDM using Ultra Wide Band signals with high precision ranging and low transmitting processing power. Here decreasing the effect of Inter-Symbol-Interference, Reduces Inter Carrier Interference and Narrowband Interference. For this purpose we replace the IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) with IDWPT (Inverse Discrete Wavelate Packet Transform) and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) with DWPT (Inverse Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform), so that the system functionality gates increase. In this we follow the IEEE 802.15.3a standard and would present results obtained for the Bit Error Rate (BER) and compare them with other system like QPSK and BPSK.

44 Energy Efficient Adder for Error Tolerant Applications
Mrigendra Singh, Vijay Kumar Magraiya

Abstract—The energy efficient design is the prime challenge in the modern VLSI technology which is required by modern portable devices due to increased functionality on the single chip. The energy efficiency can be achieved through designing circuit imprecisely. This paper proposes an energy efficient adder architecture that achieves tremendous improvement in both the power consumption and speed performance. When compared to its conventional counterparts, the proposed adder is able to attain more than 57% improvement in the Power-Delay Product (PDP). Thus, the proposed adder can be efficiently utilized for the error tolerant applications. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed adder, proposed and existing adder architecture is implemented on MATLAB to evaluate error metrics and Tanner to evaluate design metrics. Simulation results shows that proposed adder significantly reduces power, area and delay simultaneously at small loss in accuracy.

45 Fracture Analysis of Hole Expansion Test for AHSS sheet
K.Balaji, K.Brahma Raju, M.Suryanarayana

Abstract—With the immense driving force from cost efficiency and fuel economy, the application of Advanced High Strength Steels and other lightweight materials has been dramatically increased in recent years. An increase of the flow strength has been achieved with a trade-off decrease in ductility. The finite element simulation gives an accurate prediction of HER, as well as the load displacement response and specimen deflection distribution in the hole expansion tests on un-cracked material. The correlation between simulation and tests on central hole specimen also turns out to be very good. The paper also presents a very interesting insight of the initiation and propagation of cracks from the hole edge during a hole expansion test by numerical simulation in comparison with FE testing observations. The number of final cracks is accurately predicted.

46 Watermarking Technique for Digital Image based on Stationary Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition in Compression Domain
Naina Choubey, Mahendra kumar Pandey

Abstract—In this paper, a watermarking technique for digital image is proposed based on sub-band fusion using stationary wavelet transform and singular value decomposition for compressed image. Here, aim of work to protect the watermark image information or hide such that assumption made like visible image is cover image and other is watermark image for content ownership. Therefore, both the images decomposed with SWT into sub-bands; after that SVD compute the fusion of both approximation bands. There resultant new approximation band compute with remaining cover image of sub-bands as per the inverse SWT analysis. Performance is evaluated in term of different fidelity parameter like as peak signal to noise ratio, normalize cross-correlation, these are shown the proposed technique is suitable for natural as well as compressed image.

47 New Information Inequalities with Particular cases
R. N. Saraswat

Abstract—In this paper, we have established some new information inequalities. We have also discussed relations between some f-divergence measures such as Chi-square divergence, Hellinger discrimination, Kullback-Leibler divergence and other well-known divergence measures using new information inequalities.

48 Design of Dual Dynamic Hybrid Flip-Flop Using pullup and pull down transistors
V.Venkateswarareddy, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract—In this paper, we introduce a new dual dynamic node hybrid flip-flop (DDFF) and a novel embedded logic module (DDFF-ELM) based on DDFF. The proposed designs eliminate the large capacitance present in the pre-charge node of several state-of-theart designs by following a split dynamic node structure to separately drive the output pull-up and pull down transistors.

49 New technique to reduce leakage power in VLSI circuit using multi bit flip flops
A.Sathish, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract—First, we perform a co-ordinate transformation to identify those flipflops that can be merged and their legal regions. Besides, we show how to build a combination table to enumerate possible combinations of flip-flops provided by a library. Finally, we use a hierarchical way to merge flip-flops. Besides power reduction, the objective of minimizing the total wirelength is also considered. The time complexity of our algorithm is _(n1.12) less than the empirical complexity of _(n2). According to the experimental results, our algorithm significantly reduces clock power by 30–40% and the running time is very short. In the largest test case, which contains 1 700 000 flip-flops, our algorithm only takes about 5 min to replace flip-flops and the power reduction can achieve 25%.

50 A Survey on Various Ranking Algorithm
Nisha Sharma, Charanjit Singh

Abstract—Web distributed vast and varied information resource all over the world including data and hyperlinks. With the exponential growth and increase in usage of WWW, it has become difficult to access desired information that matches with user needs and interest. Therefore now days, users use Search Engine to assist in information retrieval over the Internet. The results retrieved, ordered and accessible by search engine results in hundreds and millions of linked pages of which might not be useful to the user. Web page ranking algorithms plays a key role in ranking web pages so that the user could retrieve the page which is most relevant to the user’s query or interest. The different algorithms used for link analysis like Page Rank (PR), Weighted Page Rank (WPR), and Content Page Rank (CPR). The purpose of this research is to discover an efficient, easy approach and better system for mining the web topology to identify reliable web pages.

51 Dynamic Heterogeneity-Aware Resource Provisioning in the Cloud
P. Dayakar, Priyanka Arvapally

Abstract—Data centres consume great quantities of energy in terms of power distribution and cooling. Dynamic capability provisioning may be a promising approach for decreasing energy consumption by dynamically fixing the quantity of active machines to match resource demands. However, despite wide studies of the matter, current solutions haven't totally thoughtabout the heterogeneousness of each employment and machine hardware found in production environments. Specifically, production information centres of 10 comprise heterogeneous machines with completely different capacities and energy consumption characteristics. Meanwhile, the assembly cloud workload generally carries with it numerous applications with completely different priorities, performance and resource needs. Failure to contemplate the heterogeneousness of each machines and workloads can result in each sub-optimal energysavings and long programming delays, thanks to incompatibility between employment needs and therefore the resources offered by the provisioned machines. To handle this limitation, we tend to gift Harmony, a Heterogeneity-Aware dynamic capability provisioning theme for cloud information centres. Specifically, we tend to 1st use the K-means agglomeration formula to divide employment into distinct task categories with similar characteristics in terms of resource and performance needs. Then we tend to gift a method that dynamically adjusting the quantity of machines to attenuate total energy consumption and programming delay. Simulations victimisation traces from a Google’s figure cluster demonstrate Harmony will cut back energy by twenty eight p.c compared to heterogeneity-oblivious solutions.

52 Implementation of computing two pattern test cubes for path delay faults
A.Deepa, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract—Considering full-scan circuits, incompletelyspecified tests, or test cubes, are used for test data compression. When considering path delay faults, certain specified input values in a test cube are needed only for determining the lengths of the paths associated with detected faults. Path delay faults, and therefore, small delay defects, would still be detected if such values are unspecified. The goal of this paper is to explore the possibility of increasing the number of unspecified input values in a test set for path delay faults by un specifying such values in order to make the test set more amenable to test data compression.

53 Implementation of AES Algorithm on FPGA
M.Balram, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract—All the cryptographic algorithms developed can be implemented with software or built with pure hardware. However with the help of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) we tend to find expeditious solution and which can be easily upgraded to integrate any concordat changes. Each program is tested with some of the sample vectors provided by NIST and output results are perfect with minimal delay. The synthesis results found from FPGA implementation by Xilinx Synthesis Tool on Virtex II pro kit shows that the computation time for generating the ciphertext by AES with 4 sbox and 2 dual ports RAM is 6.922 ns.

54 A Two-stage Deanonymization Attack Against Anonymized Social Networks
Praveen Sanaka, N. Subba Reddy

Abstract—Digital traces left by users of on-line social networking services, even once anonymization, are liable to privacy breaches. This is often exacerbated by the increasing overlap in user-bases among numerous services. To alert fellow researchers in each the domain and therefore the trade to the practicability of such associate attack, we have a tendency to propose associate algorithmic program, Seed-and-Grow, to spot users from associate anonymized social graph, based mostly exclusively on graph structure. The algorithmic program 1st identifies a seed sub- graph, either planted by associate aggressor or divulged by a collusion of a tiny low cluster of users, then grows the seed larger supported the attacker’s existing information of the users’ social relations. Our work recognizes and relaxes implicit assumptions taken by previous works, eliminates whimsical parameters, and improves identification effectiveness and accuracy. Simulations on real-world collected datasets verify our claim.

55 Optimization of Circuit- Layout using Boolean Base Rules
Radha Kumari.B, Vinay Kumar

Abstract—This paper presents a CMOS one bit full adder circuit diagram into area-efficient, high-performance layouts in the style of one-dimensional transistor arrays. Using efficient search techniques and accurate evaluation methodologies, the huge solution space that is typical to such problems is traversed extremely swift, yielding designs of hand-layout quality. In addition to generating circuits, that meet pre-specified layout constraints in the context of a fixed target image, on-the-fly optimizations are performed to meet secondary optimization criteria. The core contribution is a detailed-routing based on a Boolean formulation. The routing uses a novel encoding scheme and graph theory to support floating terminals, efficient heuristics to reduce the computational cost, and minimization of the number of unconnected pins in case the cell is un routable. Using Cadence Virtuoso tool 180nm, the adder is simulated, synthesized and the layout designed.

56 A Review Paper on Performance Evaluation of Carry Select Adder
Deepak Kumar Patel, Minal Saxena

Abstract—Carry Select Adder (CSA) is one of the fastest adder used in many processors to perform fast arithmetic operations. Many different adder architecture designs have been developed to increase the efficiency of the adder. Speed of processor greatly depends on its multiplier as well as adder performance. Due to which high speed adder architecture plays an important role in many applications. In this paper, a literature review of different CSA architecture has been done. Verification of all architecture is done through design and implementation of 16, 32 and 64 bit adder circuits. Comparison is done with existing structure of adder and proves the efficiency of all design. In this paper, we also study an architecture that performs high speed addition using binary to excess-1 converter (BEC) in carry select adder. These designs are implemented on Xilinx device family.

57 Novel mechanism for Query Processing in Geographic Search Engines
Sonali B. Gosavi, Shyamrao.V.Gumaste

Abstract—Geographic search engines provide an interface mechanism to the Web that allows users to constrain and order search results in an efficient user understandable manner, by focusing a query on a particular geographic region. Geographic search technology has recently received significant amount of interest, but there has been only a limited amount of work. Authors perform massive extraction of geographic features from crawled data in databases, which are then mapped to coordinates and aggregated across link and site structure. This assigns to each web page a set of relevant locations as point of interest (POI’s), called the geographic footprint of the page. The resulting footprint data which is collected in term of POI’s, is then integrated into a query processor on a cluster-based architecture. Authors discuss the various techniques, both new and existing, that is used for recognizing, matching, mapping, and aggregating geographic features to process queries, and describes how to integrate geographic query processing into a standard efficient search architecture and interface.

58 Caching and Load Balancing Techniques for Bandwidth Optimisation
Ashok Kumar Tripathi, Ramesh Bharti

Abstract—This paper as case study discusses and analysed web caching and load balancing schemes and to optimised the network of organisation for bandwidth enhancement for mission critical and priority application accessibility across the Chanakya organisation.

59 A Survey: Implementation of Open source Cloud using Virtual Box
Hemant Petwal, Narayan Chaturvedi

Abstract—Cloud computing is an emerging concept in the era of technology. It confers resources and services to its end users according to their needs and requirements. Virtual machines are facilitates these services to the fulfil user needs and user can share services, resources and other useful devices with each other. Cloud services are provided and backed by many commercial and open source provider organizations. In this paper i have implemented an open source cloud (Openstack Juno) using virtual Box in a single system. The idea was to test the cloud computing environment based on single system.

60 Adaptive Position Update for efficient routing in mobile ad hoc networks
Pranoti A. Bedekar, Y. M. Patil

Abstract—Mobile Ad hoc network consists of mobile nodes moving randomly. In Mobile Ad hoc network, nodes can communicate with each other by forming an infrastructure less network. Data transfer from source to destination is performed by intermediate nodes through routing process. In geographic routing, forwarding decisions are taken according to the immediate neighbors positions so nodes have to maintain up-to-date positions of neighboring nodes. In geographic routing, periodic broadcasting of beacon packets is used to get more appropriate immediate neighbor positions. This paper illustrates the geographical routing in Mobile Ad hoc networks with the help of routing protocols and beacon update strategies.

61 Sixth Sense Home Automation with Security System
Supriya S Rai, Pallavi N Metrewar

Abstract—Gestures control is the next big thing in automation which can be used to control domestic appliances in a modern household. It is about the convenience of saving time and efforts by having a home automation system which can do functions such as turning on/off all lights or alarming the security system when one retires for the night all with the help of just a gesture. It is no secret that today’s world is busier than in days past. Because of the high-tech nature of a home automation system it can easily save your precious time and experience more daily productivity. Home automation is becoming a viable option for the elderly and disabled who would prefer to stay in the comfort of their home. The design uses Smartphone as a medium of giving commands by gestures. Many of us already manage our lives through our smart phones and tablets, so extending an android app for home automation are an enjoyable transition. Signals can be sent to microcontroller MSP430 via GSM to mobile and either way.

62 Front Under-Run Protection Device (FUPD) for Impact Loading Design of Truck Chassis of Passenger Vehicles
M. Venkateswarlu, B. Venkata narayana

Abstract—Under-running of passenger vehicles is one of the important parameters to be considered during design and development of truck chassis. Front Under-run Protection Device (FUPD) plays an important role in avoiding under-running of vehicles from rear side of a truck. In India, the legal requirements of a FUPD are fixed in regulation IS 14812-2005. This paper explains the FE analysis of FUPD for impact loading. All the results obtained from the CAE analysis are evaluated against the requirements of IS 14812-2005 which could reduce the process development time and cost involved in the same.

63 Low Cost Dairy Purpose System for Measurement of Milk Parameters and Billing
A.S.Mali, Aruna A.Chougale

Abstract—India is world’s largest milk product country as farmers took more interest in dairy industry more number of co-operative dairies is formed in villages. Dairies are formed in villages. Dairies collect test and rate milk. This paper describes system which provides milk testing and billing. The milk collection parameters such as weight, FAT and CLR are measured by this system as well as use of RFID curd to enter the daily billing for a farmer makes it convenient for dairy management and former to keep account of the entries made for a month The main aim behind this system is to provide measurement of milk parameters in low cost.

64 Real-Time Lane Detection for Driving System Using Image Processing
Shanti Bhushan, S. R. Ganorkar

Abstract—In the past decade a lot of research has been done on vision based real-time advanced driver safety system (ADAS). Many OEM car manufacturing companies have stressed their research on ADAS so as to increase the vehicle and driver safety. This work is aimed at developing an algorithm for on road lane departure warning (LDW) system. LDW can be successfully used for dropping the on road accidents which happened due to driver drowsiness or ignorance. In this report a survey has been done for the study and comparison of available algorithm for LDWs. An image processing based algorithm has been developed which uses a single camera mounted on-board. The robustness of algorithm has been tested under various lightning conditions and in the presence of heavy shadowing cast by bridges, vehicles etc. The algorithm is implemented in two steps; first it finds the vanishing point on the road and then a careful selection of line segments have been done by using the information of vanishing point. A smart and robust heuristic feature based filter has been used to validate the detected lanes. Kalman tracker is then implemented in order to track the detected lane and handle the critical sections where the detection algorithm fails. The major challenge for any vision based system has always been to achieve high accuracy and precision along with low computational cost (required for real-time applications).

65 Simulation studies on looped-tube travelling wave thermo acoustic prime mover using Delta EC
Suchith.K.S, Nagaraja.N

Abstract—Thermo acoustic systems are potential alternatives to conventional prime movers and refrigeration systems, since they have no moving parts and use inert gases, which are not harmful to environment. In order to optimize the performance of thermo acoustic systems, the analysis of the systems can be done using various tools. Here, simulation studies on travelling wave thermo acoustic system were investigated using theoretical models in Delta EC (Design Environment for Low Amplitude Thermo acoustic Energy Conversion). The results derived from Delta EC software were compared with available experimental results. From the comparisons it was found that the results obtained from DeltaEC are in close agreement with those obtained by experiments carried out in our laboratory.

66 Industrial Applications Comparison Analysis of CAD, CAM and CAE – Review
Bhupinder Singh, Sandeep Kumar

Abstract—This paper deals about Application of software’s in use for modern CAD modelling and CAE analysis cycles have become an inherent part of today’s product development process. There is a variety of commercial CAD software tools such as Solid Works, Pro/Engineer and CAE analysis software tools like Ansys and NX Nastran which are widely used in the industry. But for most of these tools the focus is usually on either CAD or CAE application separately and lacks complete potential to handle the other. In this paper mainly some of the major issues involved in CAD and CAE integration are summarized with terms, information losses, compatibility issues between data structures, breakdown of associations, lack of reusability of knowledge, the conflict of complex geometry and its analysis of specification requirement , loss of design expertise, difficulties in automation of the design process, unacceptable time associated with the total design cycles, geometry specification for CAD model and the conversion to FEA model for mesh generation and analysis.

67 Implementation of Downlink baseband receiver for Mobile WMAN using STBC-OFDM technique
K.Rushitha, T.Ravichandra Babu

Abstract—This paper proposes a space time block codeorthogonal frequency division multiplexing downlink baseband receiver for mobile wireless metropolitan area network. The proposed baseband receiver applied in the system with two transmit antennas and one receive antenna aims to provide high performance in outdoor mobile environments. It provides a simple and robust synchronizer and an accurate but hardware affordable channel estimator to overcome the challenge of multipath fading channels. The coded bit error rate performance for 16 quadrature amplitude modulation can achieve less than under the vehicle speed of 120 km/hr. The proposed baseband receiver designed in 90- nm CMOS technology can support up to 27.32 Mb/s uncoded data transmission under 10MHz channel bandwidth. It requires a core area of mm and dissipates 68.48 mW at 78.4 MHz with 1 V power supply.

68 Analysis of Internet Usage in Four Star Hotels of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yassin Ibrahim, Roman Tafessework

Abstract—This study attempts to analyse the Internet marketing usage rate of four-star hotels in Addis Ababa. The facets are classified into three broad groups: the location of the hotel, internal facets of the hotel and technological facets. This study was conducted with 17 four-star hotels using assess the relationship of these facets. The gap seen here is that the market and marketing strategies implemented are in totally different directions. Hotels promote their facilities and services on local media while their target market in most cases is foreign countries because there is no justification for Addis Ababa residents stay in hotel except in rare cases as witnessed in this research. Judgmental sampling technique was implemented while the methodology used is mainly descriptive research with some correlation analysis. Conclusions reached are four-star hotels in Addis Ababa are not utilizing Internet marketing to the fullest. The research has recommended on how to resolve internal, technological and location facets that hampered them from implementing this useful marketing tool, signifying the strongest relationship is seen between the internal facets followed by location and technological facets. It highlighted on how to best utilize websites, social media, search engines, training skills, web trafficking system and working on change of perception to do Internet marketing.

69 Case study: comparative study of two business models through blue ocean strategy
Pushpedu P.Rakshit

Abstract—This paper attempts to understand the scope of Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) applied in Industrial and Commercial sectors of Mumbai and Navi Mumbai (Raigad). BOS is a framework which inspires to innovate and develop new demand and new markets to sell your products instead of fighting with competition over the same market share and satisfying the same demand which is typically done in a red ocean strategy (ROS). Among the various organizations we studied two specific organizations namely, Starbucks (US based Company) based on the corporate model and Go Green Nursery (Indian Based Company) based on the Social model, have proven success adopting BOS in their respective business models.

70 Review on Image Fusion for Medical Imaging
Preeti Sharma

Abstract—In today’s modern era medical technology is among the growing technology to enhance the existing techniques .It has become the area of interest for many researchers. Image fusion is one of the widely used techniques among this. In the field of image processing many different methods are used for image Processing .For medical diagnosis , images are the sensitive ones as the deals with patients condition and are essential for proper treatment. Many Researchers does the work for Enhancement over medical images. This paper provides the overview of image fusion techniques and approach for image fusion.

71 An Overview on Electrical Load Forecasting Techniques
Seema Pal, A. K. Sharma

Abstract—Load forecasting plays a key role in helping an electric utility to make important decisions on power, load switching, voltage control, network reconfiguration, and infrastructure development. Load forecasts are extremely important for energy suppliers and other participants in electric energy generation, transmission, distribution and markets. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. This paper presents a review of electricity load forecasting techniques. The aim of this paper is to survey and classify electric load forecasting techniques published. In comparison with those earlier literature reviews, this survey not only covers newer papers, but also includes new categories that reflect recent research trends. It also provides up-to-date brief verbal and mathematical descriptions of each category. The various types of methodologies are included in the literature. Based on the various types of studies the load forecasting techniques may be presented in three major groups: Traditional Forecasting technique, Modified Traditional Technique and Soft Computing Technique. In electricity markets, in addition to the traditional load affecting factors such as season, day type and weather, electricity price, which is voluntary and may have a complicated relationship with system load, is also becoming an important factor influencing the load.

72 Development of Microcontroller-Based Energy Control System
Kamoli Akinwale Amusa

Abstract—This paper presents a developed system for energy control that can be deployed to effectively manage and cut down cost of power consumption in domestic buildings, offices, lecture halls and laboratories. The system is composed of a microcontroller (PIC16F876A); SB00622A-2, a Passive InfraRed (PIR) module as occupancy sensor; Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as light/darkness sensor; and DS 1621, a non-contact digital temperature transducer that measure the ambient temperature. The three sensors provide the needed inputs by the microcontroller to make informed decision. The device is provided with an LCD to display current status. When an occupant enters into the target space, the PIR sensor absorbs the black body radiation emitted by that person and alerts the microcontroller which in turn signals the LCD display from standby to display “Energy Saver Power ON”. Through LDR sensor a check on the room lighting is performed, when the light is sufficient the lamp will remain in OFF state and when light is insufficient the lamp will be ON. DS 1621 measures the room temperature and the speed of the fan is varied according to the temperature readings from the transducer. The microcontroller check on the PIR input at an adjustable pre-set time interval when the delay has lapsed and there is no more signal from the PIR sensor, the microcontroller turns off the whole system, the LCD display go into standby and the main power supply will be cut off from controlled lamps and fans.

73 Taguchi Method & Anova: An Approach to Obtain Optimum Conditions for Coagulation Flocculation Process in Dairy Wastewater

Abstract—Dairy industry is the most polluting food industry in terms of volume of effluent generated as well as in term of its characteristics, generating about 0.2-10 L of effluent per litre of processed milk. Treatment of dairy wastewaters using biological and physico-chemical methods having some drawbacks such as high energy requirement, poor nutrient removal, needs further treatment etc., among the physico-chemical methods; Coagulation-flocculation is used for removal of suspended and colloidal material from the dairy wastewater. Only few studies are reported in open literature for the coagulation of dairy wastewater. Present study shows an investigation for determining optimum conditions of coagulation flocculation process in simulated dairy wastewater treatment by using a series of jar test experiments. The effects of type and dose of coagulant, type and dose of coagulant aid and pH on the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process were studied & optimized using Taguchi method. The effective parameters to find optimum conditions were each of COD, Total Dissolved Solids and Turbidity of wastewater or altogether. Sixteen experiments were required to study the effect of parameters on coagulation-flocculation process in Dairy wastewater treatment. Each of experiments was repeated 3 times to calculate signal/noise ratio (S/N). The optimum conditions that were obtained for the treatment of the wastewater were: 200 mg/l PACL as coagulant, 100 mg/l CaCO3 as coagulant aid, and pH 9 for COD removal; 800 mg/l PACL as coagulant, 300 mg/l CaCO3 as coagulant aid, and pH 9 for TDS removal; 800 mg/l PACL as coagulant, 300 mg/l Na2SiO3 as coagulant aid, and pH 9 for Turbidity removal. The optimum conditions found for Turbidity removal were selected as optimum conditions for the cases where the removal of aforementioned parameters, all together is treatment goal. In the optimum conditions for the removal of turbidity, 72.5% COD removal, 91.2% turbidity removal, 42.6% TDS were achieved. Also based on ANOVA results, coagulant type & pH in COD removal; pH, coagulant aid type & its dose in Turbidity removal; coagulant type and coagulant dose in TDS removal were found to be most effective factors in this study.