IJAIR- Volume 4 Issue 5 (May 2015)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Design and Analysis of Elevator Control System Using PLC
Kalaiselvi D, Ravibabu B

Abstract —This paper mainly focuses on using programmable logic controller to control the circuit and building the elevator model. Hall Effect sensor is used for the elevator position. DC Motor is used to control the up and down movement of the elevator car. Push buttons are used to call the elevator car. The elevator position is described by using the display unit. In this paper, Auto Station Software ladder logic program is used for four floors control system.

2 Forecasting Bus Arrival Time Using GPS and GSM with Cell Tower Sequencing
P.Nivetha, T.Vigneswari

Abstract—The bus arrival time is the key information to most city transport travellers. The excessive long waiting time at bus stops discourages or disappoints the travelers and makes them unwilling to take buses. A bus arrival time prediction system based on GSM and GPS using Cell Tower Sequence Matching is presented. When the Bus moves, our systems predicts the bus travelling route using cell towers located nearby and estimate the time to reach the destination and then alerts the user who waits at the bus stop or at anywhere by developing an android platform based mobile application. If there is any delay due to traffic or any other situation, the system re-intimates the user with the new waiting time with the help of two factor delay evaluation technique. The user gets services about bus arrival time through their mobile phone. Also, the proposed solution is more generally available and energy friendly.

3 Literature Survey on Implementation of Highway Driving Automation and accident detection severity system
P Parthasaradhy, K.Manjunathachari

Abstract—The integration of Information and communication technologies with embedded system has given a new technological world. The service of Ad hoc Networks (Wireless Sensor Networks) for the society is an important aspect and can be possible with only the integrated environment of interdisciplinary technologies. All the remote technologies are assisting people in safety manner. Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Transportation system also one of the service of Ad hoc networks. This paper presents about the literature survey on various Highway Driving Automation and accident detection severity system implementations. The objective of this literature is to have sufficient knowledge to build highly automated system with traffic rules, human rules and system rules; intelligent speed adaptation system and Lane keep assistance with changing functionalities. Finally to achieve safe driving and reduce accidents.

4 Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Double Doped Barium Titanate
R.K. Sharma

Abstract—Coarse grained ceramic of pure BaTiO3 having grain size 20-50 μm, show εr ≈ 1500-2000 at room temperature. Several other investigators observed higher values εr ≈ 3500-4000 in dense, fine-grained BaTiO3 ceramic having 1 μm grain size. By adding oxide group softeners, hardeners and stabilizers one can modify the properties of BaTiO3 ceramic. Dielectric results show that all the compositions have TC at 130 °C for all measured frequencies, but magnitude of dielectric constant was found to be highly dependent on doping and frequency of measurement. In this paper we have reported the effect of double doping on structural and dielectric properties of BaTiO3.

5 Attitude of parents towards sex education in schools in relation to their level of education and profession

Abstract-This study was conducted to evaluate the attitude of parents towards sex education in schools in relation to their level of education and profession. The objectives of the study are to study the attitude of parents belonging to teaching profession and medical profession towards sex education, to study the attitude of graduate and post graduate parents towards sex education, to study the attitude of graduate and post graduate parents having teaching profession towards sex education, to study the attitude of graduate and post graduate parents having medical profession towards sex education. Descriptive survey method was used in this study to know the attitude of parents towards sex education. The sample of the study included 200 parents, 100 from teaching profession and 100 from medical profession selected by using stratified random sampling from Amritsar city. Self prepared scale was used for the study. For the purpose of drawing out the result the investigator used statistical techniques like t-test, mean and standard deviation. It is concluded that there exists no significant difference in attitude of parents belonging to teaching profession and medical profession, significant difference in attitude of graduate and post graduate parents towards sex education, no significant difference in attitude of graduate and post graduate parents having teaching profession, no significant difference in attitude of graduate and post graduate parents having medical profession towards sex education in schools.

6 Transistor Level Representation of 8 Bit NCL Based Adder QCA
J.Asha jenova, C.Reginamary

Abstract -Null Convention Logic (NCL) has the main advantage of Delay insensitivity and Low Power when compared with other asynchronous VLSI design methodologies. The paper proposes the design and implementation of 8bit exponent adder using the Null Convention Logic (NCL) asynchronous design. The 8 bit exponent adder developing a transistor level design and using static version of NCL gates. Exponent adder plays a significant role of adding the exponents during the process of multiplication of floating point numbers. The design is simulated in VHDL using 1.8V 0.18μm TSMC CMOS NCL process libraries. The transistor level design is simulated and implemented using 2.5V 0.25μm CMOS process. The proposed NCL 8 bit Exponent adder when compared with the equivalent synchronous version in terms of average delay, power and area.

7 Enhancement Of Power Quality In Distributed Generation Resources Through Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Nikhila Emerson, S. Srinivasan

Abstract-To optimize the utilization of large PV modules, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is generally employed in combination with a power converter. The MPPT scheme ensures that the system can always yield maximum power generated by the PV system irrespective of change in environmental conditions. In view of the fact that the power–voltage (P–V) characteristic curve varies nonlinearly with solar irradiations, tracking maximum power point is a great confront. This paper proposes an artificial bee colony algorithm for global maximum power point tracking. Micro grid usually consists of multiple distributed generation units interfaced to the system through power electronic inverters. Usage of power electronic inverters results in harmonic generation and leads to power quality issues. In the proposed method multiple photo voltaic arrays are considered. When PV arrays are partially shaded there is failure in finding global maximum power point. Using artificial bee colony algorithm maximum power point can be tracked and this is given as duty cycle to boost converter to boost voltage. Hence voltage fluctuations can be minimized and there by power quality can be enhanced. The proposed method has been simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in power system block set.

8 Highly Throughput DAB/DAB+ Codec With Adaptive Compression Scheme
P.Srinivasan, R.Anandh

Abstract-This paper explores the latter strategy.In this paper we make the following contributions. First, we propose four lossless, reversible transformations that can be applied to text: star-encoding (or *-encoding), length-preserving transform (LPT), reverse lengthpreserving transform (RLPT), and shortened-context length-preserving transform (SCLPT).

9 A Reconfigurable CIS Based On Background Image Subtraction Method Using Gaussian Mixture Model
S.Arunpradhapsingh, V.Sanjivee

Abstract-Digital CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) are an attractive emerging technology. It is possible to use digital cameras, web cameras, handset cameras and other imaging system. This paper considers a reconfigurable CIS based on background image subtraction method using Gaussian mixture model. We were presented an efficient reconfigurable CIS in existing system. So we are going to use the same architecture with error in pixel and without error in pixel. By using that we had observed two types of image. One image is created by CIS architecture with non error in pixel, in which we can’t identity and error on the image but the image were created by the architecture with error in pixel. The error can be found on the image by using background image subtraction and Gaussian mixture models. Modified guided filter for image sensors also introduced to get the input of the CMOS image sensor (CIS). In this method gives the good SNR, dynamic range and high fill factor and also we can easily identify error on the pixel.

10 Study of Online Shopping In Ghaziabad and Noida Region – A Customer Perspective
Ritesh Singhal, Ankit Garg

Abstract─ The Internet is a global medium which works as the most subversive marketing tool to increase interest and attractiveness rapidly. Today it seems to be the most prominent and convenient way to shop online as it reduces time of shopping, reduces shipping cost, saves energy, less crowd and less queues than offline retail store. Online shopping becomes an alternative tool of shop as it saves time of visiting the stores. In addition to this it is a great challenge for online retailers to make customer shop online. Since internet helps to reduce the cost of product and service delivery by reducing the geographical boundaries between seller and buyer so it gives a great potential in this area. This study is moved around to recognize the factors that sway consumers towards online shopping in Ghaziabad and Noida region. The study focused on the variables like problems faced by consumers, risk in financial transactions, accuracy, identity theft, lack of trust on vendors, originality of product, best online shopping site. We use likert scale to check the level of agreement of the consumers towards above variables. The findings of our study shows that the above factors influence the customers towards online shopping and risk of financial transactions and identity theft are the main factors that effects more towards online shopping.

11 Smart Authentication in Wireless Mesh Network Using FSASD
C.Janaranjani, M.Sudha

Abstract - Distributed mesh sensor networks provide cost-effective communications for deployment in various smart grid domains, such as home area networks (HAN), neighbourhood area networks (NAN), and substation/plant-generation local area networks. In proposed work they have proved that their algorithm provides security and overcome dos attack, but not completely overcome. Existing may lead to overhead problem and authentication delay .To solve this problem we can enhance this Merkletree based authentication scheme with FSASD, a novel framework for establishing security associations in sequentially deployed WMNs. Our proposal overcomes the bootstrapping problem of many other key management proposals for WMNs including the current draft standard 802.11s. As opposed to the draft standard our proposal reduces the influence of compromised mesh routers on the overall security of the mesh to a minimum and protects mesh clients from curious and malicious routing MCs. In addition, our framework enables secure and efficient handovers of mesh clients and mesh routers based on the new 4-way handshake protocol.

12 Analytical CRM for Customer Likelihood Identification in Retail Sectors Supported by Data Mining Model
J.Vijaykumar, K.Iyyakutti

Abstract- Customer relationship management (CRM) has not ever been as helpful for companies as it is nowadays. The company’s competitive operating environment forces the company to adopt customer centered strategies for all customer related management. The technological advancements occurred in recent years have enabled companies to maintain databases with customers. This favors any company to apply the data mining techniques for extracting the required knowledge from these databases thereby gaining competitive advantage as well as to remain at the leading edge. Data mining tools search the data base maintained by the companies in order to predict the hidden patterns and present them in form of a model. Strategic decisions regarding the customers can be taken with the help of these models. Many data mining algorithms have been presented by the researchers to extract patterns in data for successful CRM approach. Each of these approaches has their own merits and demerits either in the way they search the database or the extracted knowledge from the database. In this article, we have suggested that the data mining technique named k-means clustering can be applied to analyze customer’s preference over retail shop products (Men’s exclusive wear). Here K-means clustering method is used to discover knowledge that come from CRM system. This study will help the retail shop to identify the customer’s preference over different brands, customer’s willingness to adopt to a new product and improve the product selling strategies.

13 Design a Processor Using Reversible Logic Technique
I.Ilammathi1, K.Prasanna

Abstract— Reversible logic has presented itself as a prominent Technology which plays an imperative role in Quantum Computing. This reversible gates which are applicable in Nano technology, Quantum computing, Low power CMOS, Optical computing.

14 Efficient Time Synchronization for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
R.Janani, M.Prabhu

Abstract— Underwater acoustic communications which utilizes acoustic waves to transmit information has been widely studied and implemented in the past decades. However, the channel bandwidth of underwater acoustic links is typical limited to kHz since the sound is decayed in the ocean proportionally to its frequency. And the lower propagation speed typically 1500 m/s leads to a large time delay for acoustic system. Meanwhile, the multipath reflection of sound may cause signal fading and security issues. As the frequently activities of oceanic exploitation recently, the acoustic method is not able to meet the requirements of large data and high data communications.

15 An Approach of Data Aggregation Using Wireless Networks with Filtering Attacker’s Impact
S. Sasi Rekha, J.Rakesh

Abstract— In this paper were WSN’S are increasingly used in several real-world applications [1]–[4], such as wild habitat monitoring, volcano and fire monitoring, urban sensing, and military surveillance. In most cases, the sensor nodes form a multi-hop network while the base station (BS) acts as the central point of control.

16 FEA Analysis of Leaf Spring of light weight vechical Using ANSYS
Utkarsh Singh, Anshul Choudhary

Abstract— Leaf springs are widely used in automobile and in railway. This work involves design and analysis of a conventional leaf spring dynamic loading conditions. The 3D model is prepared in Autodesk Inventor, and then analysis is performed in the ANSYS 13.0. For the cost reduction in existing leaf spring modification carried out by iteration method considering three materials i.e. Steel, Composites like glass epoxy, and Jute Epoxy. The optimization has been carried out to satisfy the permissible value of factor of safety.

17 Non Repeating Test Pattern Generator with State Transition Fault Analysis Using FSM
M.Durga, K.Prithviraj

Abstract-BIST is a circuit that has the ability of logic to verify a failure-free status automatically, without the need for externally applied test stimuli (other than power and clock), and without the need for the logic to be part of a running system. It’s implementation increases the accuracy of VLSI chip that makes the design efficient. BIST techniques employ on-chip test generation and response verification; therefore the need for expensive external testing equipment is reduced. Furthermore, with BIST at-speed testing can be achieved; thus, the quality of the delivered ICs is increased. Exhaustive test generators provide for complete fault coverage without the need for fault simulation or deterministic test pattern generation. Exhaustive generator uses LFSR to generate test patterns up to 2k patterns for K bits, needs a complex RAM to store up the patterns. It makes the chip size larger and increase the area with high power consumption. Here we propose a alternative method Pseudo-exhaustive pattern generators for built-in selftest (BIST) provide high fault coverage of detectable combinational faults with much fewer test vectors than exhaustive generation. It contains two binary counters to generate patterns and test the circuit. Here we need a simple RAM design which consume fewer areas and consume very low power. The main objective is to design non repeating test generator in order to reduce delay coverage and increases speed.

18 Design and Emulation of Raspberry Pi based eLearning System in Linux Computer
Navaneetha Krishnan V, Satheesh A

Abstract— Raspberry Pi is an ARM11 processor based credit card-sized, single board computer that can be used as a web server for any small eLearning applications in educational institutions or corporates for resource management on training and development. Normally the educational institutions rely on the bulk server based eLearning platform for making the learning environment with their own management system or through open source content management systems (CMS's) like Drupal, Wordpress or Joomla, etc. This paper proposes an alternative strategy for implementing eLearning environment with Raspberry Pi OS. For the implementation purposes the raspbian OS is installed in linux computer's QEMU machine emulator, is used to visualize the progress and results.

19 Gesture Based Authentication
K.Venkata Sandeep Kumar, N. Mani Manjusha, M. Kameswara rao

Abstract-To improvise the security of mobile devices by using the most user friendly gestures with biometric features. On flexible devices like mobile phones the security is maintained by the help of the user interacted gestures? Security is obtained by rejecting the wrong gestures to login the phone. The input mobility of the device is the gesture given by the user. Present using pass word technologies are PINS, PATTERNS, and GESTURES. Though these many locking systems are present the most user selected is of less security (can access without user presence). The security can be improvising the gestures by using the bio metric techniques. These gestures with the bio metric techniques gives the easy remembering of pass word and the best security by considering some of the bio metric features. As this technology deals with the very efficient properties like Location of Gesture, Edge on which the gesture is performed, Speed of input, Duration of the bend etc., they also include the decision making access to the user based on finger prints or touch variances of each person.

20 Data Forwarding Mechanism in MANET using Selfish Nodes
S.D.Bhopale, N.P.Chawande

Abstract- An Adhoc network is a group of wireless nodes that cooperatively form a network independent of fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. The previous system uses the reputation based and credit based approach to enforce cooperation among non-co-operative nodes in wireless Adhoc networks. The previous solutions are context based ones which need to accurately identify selfish nodes, and punish the selfish nodes. From a completely new angle a context free protocol to enforce co-operation among selfish nodes which has the ability to transmit a packet over the path successfully without the dependency on the information of other packets transmission. The enhanced context free mechanism is based on the context free protocol considering that every node in the network is rational, during the packet sending stage. If the intermediate nodes not clearly tell whether the packet is destined to them or not. They cannot drop the packet. The simulation results show that protocol gives high throughput and low packet delivery ratio.

21 A Review Approach on Content Based Image Retrieval Techniques for Natural Image Retrieval
S.Govindaraju, G.P.Ramesh Kumar

Abstract-Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is the technique for data retrieval especially images from a broad collection of database. The CBIR development requirement is increased due to growth in the images as well as the well-known application in multiple fields. The common behavior to represent and index the images is color, texture, shape and spatial layout. Since the multimedia technologies development and network are very popular nowadays, the users with the standard retrieval techniques are not satisfied. Research: The content based image retrieval is required for retrieving the particular query. For retrieving the relevant images which meets the information needed by the user, an automated search is introduced for the images having the similar features. Motivation: The main motivation for developing the effective CBIR images arises due to the necessity for exploring the growing images. Several models and algorithms for image retrieval are developed for past twenty years. The survey is analyzed, compared and discussed the techniques of content based image retrieval.

22 Detect Sybil Community Region in Social Network

Abstract-A Sybil defense mechanism that leverages the network topologies to defend against Sybil attacks in social networks. Based on performing a limited number of random walks within the social graphs, Sybil Defender is efficient and scalable to large social networks. Sybil Defender can effectively identify the Sybil nodes and detect the Sybil community around a Sybil node, even when the number of Sybil nodes introduced by each attack edge is close to the theoretically detectable lower bound. We propose two approaches to limiting the number of attack edges in online social networks.

23 A Study of Cryptography Algorithms used for Information Security
Tanu, Rupali Malhotra

Abstract-In today's rapidly changing world, security is of great concern. As the Internet becomes an increasingly important means of conducting transactions and the volume of e-business grows exponentially, a secure infrastructure is needed to provide authentication, confidentiality and access control. To perform the secure and reliable communication over the network, there exist a number of cryptographic approaches both symmetric and asymmetric. The survey is done on some of the more popular and interesting cryptography algorithms currently in use and their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. This paper discusses various types of cryptography techniques and shows the benefit of using geometry based cryptography by using hybrid approach of geometrical shapes for information security.

24 Minimal Infrequent Itemset Mining Using FP-Growth and Residual Trees
Nandhini S, Yogesh Prabhu M, S.Gunasekaran

Abstract— Data mining is the analysis of (often large) observational data sets to find unsuspected relationships and to summarize the data in novel ways that are both understandable and useful to the data owner. Data mining is an interdisciplinary field bringing together techniques from machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, databases, and visualization to address the issue of information extraction from large data bases. The most common data mining tasks are Description, Estimation, Prediction, Classification, Clustering, and Association. In Association the Presence of one set of items in a transaction implies other set of items. Classification develops profiles of different groups. Sequential Patterns identifies sequential patterns subject to user constraints. Clustering helps segmenting database into subsets or clusters.

25 Underwater Image Enhancement using Unique Combination of HSV Stretching and Filter
Madhuri Puranam, Santosh chauhan

Abstract -Underwater environments generally cause colour cast or colour scatter while photography. Colour scatter is due to haze effects appearing when light reflected from thing which absorbed or may be scattered several times by particles of water. This cause lowers the visibility and less contrast of the image. Colour cast is due to the varying attenuation of light in various wavelengths, and this is cause underwater environments bluish. To mention distortion from Colour scatter and Colour cast, this paper proposes a method to reconstruct underwater images that which is a combination of a Affine Combination of Stretching and Filter (ACSF). One has to determine the distance between the objects and the camera using dark channel prior, then haze effects cause by Colour scatter can be removed by the de-hazing algorithm. Next, one has to estimation the photography scene depth using residual energy ratios for each. According to the attenuation of every wavelength, reverse compensation conducted to restore all distortion from Colour cast.

26 DWT and SVD based Secure Data Communication
AvtarPatel , Amit Mishra, Richa Shrivastava

Abstract—In this paper we propose a new steganography technique which embeds the secret messagesinfrequencydomain.Accordingtodifferentuse rs’demandsontheembeddingcapacity and image quality, the proposed algorithm is divided into two modes and 5 cases.

27 Multilayer IMAGE Enhancement METHOD USING Interpolation, starching and Filter
Nitin, Amit Mishra, Richa Shrivastava

Abstract—In computer graphics, image interpolation is the process of resizing a digital image. Interpolation is a nontrivial process that involves enhancement in sense of efficiency, smoothness and sharpness.

28 A DSP processor design with modified Super Harvard and Mitchell multiplication
Abhishek Thakur, Vivek Dudey

Abstract—Proposed paper work concept comes after thinking and deep study of all these methods of enhancing processor performance and proposing a new DSP microprocessor architecture and it has FSM and some instruction set (big instruction set which better for various applications) and RISC kind of feature like executing every instruction in one cycle. Paper work has use Xilinx ISE 12.2 ISE software for designing all modules and each module has been tested and verified with all possible instruction which are been supported by proposed design. The proposed architecture of processor requires less area and higher speed as compare with the existing architecture available, it has certain limit that cannot work with medium or sophisticated scale application or it can say it is not suitable for OS based application. As the design core processor is been for small scale non OS based applications which are very common in Microcontroller.

29 Broadcast Disks Model for Efficient Performance and Scalability in Asymmetric Communication Environments
K. Srikanth, P.V. Kumar, S. Krishna Mohan Rao

Abstract—As the mobile technologies playing good role in communication and mobile computing gains more popularity. Providing ubiquitous access to clients is a challenge issue in asymmetric environment. To meet this issue we used Broadcast disks model to increase performance and scalability in Asymmetric Communication Environments.

30 Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Farmers of Uttarakhand
R.K. Sharma

Abstract—The present research work on Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Uttarakhand is study which explores scientifically the traditional practices of people with natural resources, their utilization, maintenance and conservation which needs preservation, upliftment, and further research in order to achieve sustainability. The body of knowledge is based on experience gained through centuries by indigenous people of Uttarakhand which has transmitted through generation and generation. The broader dimension of traditional knowledge, which is documented here, are traditional practices in agro-horticultural system, traditional practices in soil-erosion control, traditional water management system, and traditional medical practices. It was found that Uttarakhandi agrarian people have enough experience based knowledge which has been explored with keen observation and analysis. If the knowledge base will be explored independently, uplifted, preserved and integrated with modem technology it would perform more better which will lead to sustainable environment for living a prosperous life.

31 A Review on Sign Recognition and Classification Approaches
Kanika, Rupali Malhotra

Abstract—Sign language is having its significance to perform the communication for deaf and mute community. Sometimes, these signs can be used to pass the communication in critical situations when voice communication is not possible. Sign language is composed of gesture which is formed by the movement of hand, arm or facial expression. Sign language is not a universal language as it vary from region to region .ISL (Indian sign language) used in India, ASL (American Sign Language) etc. To understand such communication in automated way there is the requirement of human computer interaction for sign language. These systems are designed to substitute the requirement of interpreters. In this paper a survey on various sign language recognition methods is done. Generalised model of Sign Language recognition system consists of two phase: - Training Phase and Testing Phase.

32 A Survey on Network Attacks in Wireless Networks
Shelly Sachdeva, Rupali Malhotra

Abstract— With the growing pace of Internet and network technology day by day, the security threats are also increasing for the users, due to lot of information flow on the network. Wireless networks are preferred over wired networks due to their cost effectiveness and ease of use. Wireless networks are being used in many commercial and military applications to collect event driven and real time data. One of the major challenges wireless networks face today is security. This very air-borne nature of WLANs opens it to intruders and attacks that can come from any direction. WLAN traffic travels over radio waves that cannot be constrained by the walls of a building. As a result of this, intruders and would-be hackers can potentially access the network from the parking lot or across the street. In this paper, we analyse the fundamental security challenges and constraints of these networks, classify several possible attacks and survey several intrusion prevention, detection and response mechanisms found in the literature.

33 An Approach towards Segmentation of Real Time Handwritten Text
Apash Roy, N. R. Manna

Abstract—Segmentation of real time handwritten text is always a challenging task since long. Complexity increases with the presence of connected characters in the text. This work proposes a technique to segment real time English handwritten text containing connected characters through finding location of connection points. The system segments a text into lines, words, and characters, which consists of singular characters and/or multiple connected characters. Multiple connected characters are segmented by finding connection points between the characters using the developed technique. Finally, the system normalizes the extracted characters to a standard format in order to identify them through some character recognizer. Experiment with the system shows efficient accuracy in character recognition.

34 An Improvisation of Security in Leach Protocol through Homomorphic Encryption
Shikha Devi, Arvind Grewal

Abstract—Encryption schemes that support operations over cipher text are of utmost importance for wireless sensor networks & especially in LEACH protocol. The salient limit of LEACH is energy.0020.

35 Efficient Dynamic Round Robin CPU Scheduling Algorithm
Meenakshi Saini, Navdeep Kumar

Abstract—CPU Scheduling is one of the fundamental concepts of Operating System. Round Robin (RR) CPU scheduling algorithm is optimal CPU scheduling algorithm in timeshared systems. The performance of the CPU depends on the selection of time quantum in timeshared systems. The time quantum taken in RR algorithm is static that decreases the performance of CPU. In this paper selection of time quantum is discussed and a new CPU scheduling algorithm for timeshared systems is proposed and is called as EDRR (Efficient Dynamic Round Robin) algorithm. The objective of this paper is to make a change in round robin CPU scheduling algorithm so that the performance of CPU can be improved. EDRR also includes advantages of round robin CPU scheduling algorithm of less chance of starvation. Round robin CPU scheduling algorithm has high context switch rates, large response time, large waiting time, large turnaround time and less throughput, these disadvantages can be improved with new proposed CPU scheduling algorithm. In this paper analysis of number of context switches, the average waiting time and the average turnaround time of processes in round robin CPU scheduling algorithm, SRBRR (Shortest Remaining Burst Round Robin), ISRBRR (Improved Shortest Remaining Burst Round Robin) and new proposed EDRR CPU scheduling algorithm has been done.

36 An Efficient Secure Architecture for Scan Based Attacks Removing Technique Using T-Algorithm
Priyadharshika P, Jyothi A, Sheebha B

Abstract—The testing architecture mainly used in all type of real world application architectures and thus the architecture to modified based on the enhancement purpose. The VLSI technology to optimize the any type of testing architecture. So the modification process used to the VLSI technology. The Talgorithm technique to optimize the testing architecture.

37 Operating System Ported Embedded System with WIFI Direct Functionality
P.Elango, S.Sellam

Abstract—Peer-peer is a new technology enhancing direct device to device communications in Wi-Fi. Thus, given the wide base of devices with Wi-Fi capabilities .This technology is expected to have a significant impact. In this article we provide a thorough overview of the novel functionalities defined in Wi-Fi Direct, and present an experimental evaluation that portrays the performance to be expected in real scenarios.

38 Security enhancement in Image Steganography A Matlab approach
M. Kameswara Rao, K.Pradeep Reddy, K.Eepsita Saranya

Abstract—Steganography helps in communication of secured data in several carries like images, videos and audio. It undergoes many useful applications and well known for ill intentions. It was mainly proposed for the security techniques in the increase of computational power, in order to have security awareness like individuals, groups, agencies etc. The factors that are separated from cryptography and water making are data is not detectable; capacity of hidden data is unknown and robustness of medium. The steganography provides different methods existing and guidelines. The current technology of image steganography involves techniques of LSB in image domain but once the attacker acknowledges that medium is containing embedded data he will attack the medium and breaks into the secured content. In this paper, we are discussing how to protect the steganography image by embedding it into another medium using mat lab. Here we work on image matrices to perform the steganography. Lightness adjustment on the matrix is done to reduce the brighter pixels in image. The lightness decreased image then embedded into another cover image by matrix difference technique (will be discussed in detail). This enhances the security to a higher level because to acquire the steganography image embedded we need to have the key image, which will be having only by the receiver. In addition, from millions of images on the internet it is impossible for an attacker to guess the key image. Moreover, this enhances the level of security.

39 Performance Evaluation of TFH-PPM with UWB Channel Using LDPC Code
P.Murugeswari, S.Ruth Karunya, S.JanardhanaPrabhu

Abstract—To increase the multiuser capacity of UWB channel using TFH-PPM with LDPC code. Methodology: Single band UWB that is time and frequency hopping technique is used to randomizing the multi access capability without interference.The TFH-PPM modulation which adapts its number of time and frequency hops depending on the required bit error rate and increase the multiuser capacity. The proposed system is used to achieve fast,secure communication and increase the multiuser capacity.

40 Wireless Sensor Networks: An Overview
Akhand Pratap Singh, Devesh Pratap Singh, Santosh Kumar, Ajit Singh Negi, Sashank Singh

Abstract—Wireless Sensor Networks can be generally described as a network of nodes that cooperatively sense and may control the environment enabling interaction between persons or computers and the surrounding environment. Wireless sensor networks are widely used in military surveillance, industrial process control and environmental monitoring. Here we are discussing deferent types of WSNs and different types of security threat attacks and localization techniques. Attacks and Node localization is one of the key problem of wireless sensor networks applications.

41 Support Vector Machine for Video Background Subtraction
Audhavan.S, Amsavalli, Rajini Girinath.D

Abstract— The important feature of detecting the moving objects in videos is Background subtraction. The main process involved in the background is the foreground detection. However, many algorithms usually neglect the fact that the background images consist of different objects whose conditions may change frequently. In this paper, a hierarchical background model is proposed based on segmenting the background images. It first segments the background images into several regions by the Support Vector Machine. Then, a hierarchical model is built with the region models and pixel models. The region model is extracted from the histogram of a specific region which is similar to the kind of a Gaussian mixture model. The pixel model is described by histograms of oriented gradients of pixels in each region based on the cooccurrence of image variations. We propose Silhouette detection algorithm. The experimental results are carried out with a video database to demonstrate the effectiveness, which is applied to both static and dynamic scenes by comparing it with some well-known background subtraction methods and according to the experiment, the Silhouette detection method is easy to operate and possesses high rate of accuracy, low rate of complexity, and well adapt to different kinds of shadow distribution.

42 A Survey of Summarization on Indian Text Document
Ragini Mishra, Vipul Dalal

Abstract—Everyday enormous amount of digital documents are generated through socials, economics and academics. Most of documents contain massive and ambiguous data that requires ample of time and resources to interpret the content. To minimize the overhead of reader there is need for discovery of knowledge rooted in such documents. This paper presents a survey of summarization done for various Indian text documents for languages like Hindi, Tamil, Punjabi, Assamese, Odia, Bengali, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu.

43 Human Physiological Based Life Saving Intelligent Transportation System

Abstract—Nowadays, the rate of vehicle usage is increased due to the technology advancements in vehicles and transportation need of public and factories. The safety of vehicle depends on the driver and environment. The smart car is a kind of mobile robot which is an integrated system which integrates multiple functions like environment awareness etc. Accidents majorly occur due to drowsiness of the driver. The proposed system is a robotic car which enhances more road safety. The system continuously monitors the driver’s physiological behaviors by monitoring driver’s physiological signals such as pulse rate, heartbeat rate, thereby makes its own decision and acts autonomously. The vehicle may have chance collide with the other vehicles on road. If the driver is found as drowsy or unconscious is detected, he/she is awakened by an alarm setup. During Driver’s unconsciousness state the vehicle automatically plans its own trajectory path and parks vehicle on road with the help of sensors. Vehicle to vehicle communication is established to inform the condition to nearby vehicle to avoid collision. We can monitor the speed and location of the vehicle continuously using VB package. Message or phone call is passed as information about the vehicle is sent to the vehicle’s owner; it helps for the immediate rescue process in the case of any accidents.

44 A Frequency Re-configurable Inclined Slot Antenna for Cognitive Radio
Sanjeev Sharma, Rajeev Kumar

Abstract—A frequency-reconfigurable antenna having an inclined slot in the ground plane is proposed which is capable of switching the frequency to eight different bands, one at a time, between the frequency range of 3.84 GHz and 7.31 GHz. To achieve frequency re-configurability, the length of inclined slot is varied by use of four PIN diodes which are placed along the length of the slot. Frequency tuning ratio of about 1.91:1 can be achieved using this design. Results such as return losses, gain, bandwidth and radiation patterns are presented in this paper. Comparison of Return loss of the Inclined Slot with a Horizontal slot of similar dimension is also been carried out.

45 Simulation and Analysis of energy-efficient routing in self organised MANET’s
P. P. Kotekar, D. G. Chougule

Abstract— This paper presents the energy-efficient routing in self organized Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET’s). MANET’s is a multihop network & its nodes are having limited battery power. So because of limited power, there are less chances of achieving energy-efficient route between source-destination pair. So routing protocols must establish the energy-efficient route between source-Destination pair. So we are proposing the energy-efficient routing protocol named as PEER. By comparing the proposed protocol with existing AODV protocol simulation results shows that proposed protocol reduces end-to end delay, and improves Packet Delivery Ratio by consuming less energy compared to existing AODV protocol.

46 Congestion Control in Delay Tolerant Networks Using Cache Queue and Replication Process
A.Aishwarya, M.Govindaraj

Abstract— Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN’s) is considered as the type of mobile networks, which an attempt to extend the reach of networks. DTN’s causes a discontinuous connectivity and long-lasting disconnection. Therefore, the communications in such type of networks become challenging issues. To overcome this issue, store-carry-and-forward method is used. They provide a limit buffer size, so only a few messages can be store. It will leads to packet loss and causes a serious congestion problem. In existing method, a CRITIC method is used to avoid the congestion in the networks. CRITIC method is used to calculate the congestion factors (C (size), C (dur), and C (num)) and produces the new metric gain which causes the least congestion in the network. A large buffer can store more number of messages which probably reduces the congestion. To provide a better network performance, a message replication method is used which means the multiple copies of the same message can be replicated which causes buffer flow. In proposed method, cache queue and replication process is used to avoid the replication messages. The messages are temporarily stored in the cache queue and the replicated messages are dynamically checked by the replication process. It will help to avoid the replication messages which probably reduce the congestion level in the network.

47 Analysis of ground water during the year 2014-15 areas Around CBIT-VBIT campus, Proddatur, Kadapa(Dist) AP, India
C.M.Bhaskar Reddy, C.Chandrika, K.Tejaswini, R.N.S.Praveena, U.Anusha

Abstract— A systematic study has been carried out to explore the water quality of ground water of various villages around cbit –vbit campus of kadapa district. Physico-chemical studies such as, pH, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total acidity calcium and magnesium hardness, temporary hardness ,permanent hardness and total hardness of ground water was carried out from four places around cbit –vbit campus during the year 2014- 15,in order to assess water quality index.. Present study recommends that the top priority should be given to water quality monitoring and indigenous technologies should be adopted to make water fit for drinking after treatment.

48 Stress Analysis of Tata Ace Ex Truck Chassis Using Finite Element Method
Supreet Mahadeokar, Anshul Choudhary

Abstract— The biggest challenge in present ground vehicle industry is to cope up with the increasing insistent demand for higher performance, reduced weight, and prolonged life of components, all this at a minimum cost and in a shortest period of time. The chassis of any vehicle is the mainstay and integrates the main vehicle component systems such as the axles, suspension, power train, cab and trailer. Since the vehicles chassis is a biggest component in the vehicle system, it is often identified for continuous improvement. There are many industrial and domestic sectors using this TATA ACE ex vehicle for their transportations such as the logistics, agricultures, factories and other industries also. To cope up to use in certain condition the chassis should be rigid enough to withstand the shock, twist, vibration and other stresses generated during the working condition. Also with strength, another important factor in chassis design is to have optimum bending stiffness for better handling features. So, both the maximum stress and deflection are important criteria for the design of the chassis.

49 Design of Two K-Shaped Slotted Antennas for Dual Band Applications
R.VenkataVeeraBadra Raju, R.Krishna Kanth, P.Sudheer Chakravathi

Abstract— A compact design of two element K-shaped slot Antenna is proposed for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. The antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding technique printed on a dielectric substrate Rogers RT/duroid 5880(tm) with permittivity =2.2. The proposed K-shaped slotted antenna offers good return loss and isolation characteristics. This two element MIMO system produces dual band of frequencies with resonating frequencies at 3.655GHz and 5.23GHz which can be used for Wi-Fi and Wi- Max applications. The simulation results of return loss and radiation pattern are presented in this paper.

50 Design Optimization of Nozzle Shape for Maximum Uniformity of Flow Using CFD
Sathish kumar V.S, Sreenath.N, H.V.Harish

Abstract— CFD analysis of a convergent divergent nozzle has been conducted to understand the phenomena of supersonic flow through it at various divergent angles and different throat to that of inlet diameter ratio .Numerical study has been conducted using k-ε model at different divergence angle. Governing equations were solved using the finite-volume method in ANSYS CFX software. The boundary conditions were specified according to the available experimental information. The present project is aimed at investigating supersonic flow at different divergence angle and different throat to that of inlet diameter ratio, the variations in the parameters like the Mach number, static pressure, are being analyzed and nozzle design will be optimized. Mach number is found have an increasing trend with increase in divergent angle there by obtaining an optimal divergent angle. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software package, ANSYSCFX was used to simulate the compressible, viscous gas flow-field in different nozzle shapes. Here throat diameter to that of inlet diameter has been varied and analysis has been carried out. Based on the Mach number we are optimizing the geometry. Further optimized geometry has been taken for analysis at different altitude. Model and meshing has been done through ICEM-CFD, analysis has been done by CFX and results obtained through CFD-POST.

51 Efficient Retrieval of Multimedia Data Resources
B.Manivannan, M.Ananda kumar

Abstract— Recently multimedia resources are growing rapidly. it needs to be coordinated and processed. The multimedia resources are organized by their semantices. Semantic association is measured by using surrounding area of multimedia resources. Content Based Image Retrieval takes image and identifies the matched images based on the visual similarity among the query image. It proposes the semantic link network method for coordinate multimedia resources. it uses the multimedia related application such as searching and recommendation process. The evaluation method is taken by cluster and retrieval is used to perform by real data set having images. Finally it provides the efficient retrieval of images. The goal of the process is to measure the semantic relatedness between images accurately and robustly.

52 A Comparative Study of Various Visual Cryptography Schemes
Mangang Ngamba Nandeibam

Abstract— Security and Confidentiality is one of the most common aspects of information technology. The secure and effective protection of sensitive information is a primary concerns in any scientific, military, medical and commercial systems. This is achieved using different techniques for different types of information. Visual cryptography is one such technique that secures visual information, which is a very secure and unique way to protect secrets. Visual cryptography is an encryption technique which is used to hide and encrypt information present in an image encrypted in such a way that the decryption can be performed by the human visual system, without the aid of computers. In this, images are distributed as shares that need to be superimposed to retrieve the hidden secret image. The intent of this paper is to study various visual cryptography schemes and research works done on the basis of pixel expansion, number of secret images and the merits and demerits of each.

53 Ear Authentication using Cancellable Biometrics
Kottidi Anusharao, Annapurani.K

Abstract— Biometric identification methods have proved to be very efficient, more natural and easy for users than traditional methods of human identification. With the rapid advancement in technology, smart phone have become applicable and so the need arise to solve the security challenges that are accomplished with its operation. With location-based service (LBS) support, it can enable convenient and implicit owner authentication system when accessing the protected smart premise and property. The smart phone camera is used to detect the user’s ear image for authentication in proposed method. To represent the ear image, the size and shape of the ear is considered. The features of ear can be extracted by using geometrical feature extraction methods. The proposed technique is able to detect ear of different size and shape along with the geometrical features and efficiency can be improved. The security of biometric data is guaranteed by cancellable ear biometrics. Cancellable biometrics is to transform a biometric data or feature into a new one so that users can revoke their single biometric template in a biometric security system. It uses bio hashing technique to store the template securely in the database.

54 An Effective Design for Region Incrementing Visual Cryptography Scheme
Mangang Ngamba Nandeibam

Abstract— A Region Incrementing Visual Cryptography Scheme (RIVCS) deals with the sharing of an image consisting of multiple regions with different secrecy levels, which can be incrementally revealed as the number of shares increases. It is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Visual Cryptography Scheme (RIVCS) can achieve the minimum pixel expansion and the maximal contrasts. An efficient construction for RIVCS using linear programming is presented in this paper. The proposed integer linear program aims at the minimization of the pixel expansion under the constraints for being a RIVCS.

55 A Research Paper On Vertical Handoff Algorithm For WLAN And 3G
Bindal Patel, Vinit Gupta

Abstract—Communication services anywhere and anytime is driving an accelerated technological development towards the integration of various wireless access technologies such as WLAN, 3G and etc.

56 A Survey on Detection of Malarial parasites using Intelligent Techniques
A.Valli, S. Mareeswari, G. Wiselin Jiji

Abstract— Malaria is a life threatening disease and severe problem which affects many tropical regions around the world. This is an infectious disease by searching malarial parasites from human blood smears obtained from microscopes and they are called as microscopic images. These images clearly show each and every blood cells of human. Manual process of malaria diagnosis leads to very time consuming, because more number of steps are required to diagnose this disease and sometimes it may leads to more error prone by human. Diagnosis process of malaria tends to be very slow by manual process is report by one of the recent studies. This situation leads to find some technological solutions to diagnose malarial disease automatically. Most of the approach discussed here is red blood cells gets categorized into normal or abnormal condition and detect this condition using some of the computer aided diagnosis systems. Various image processing algorithms are used to detect malarial parasites in blood smears are discussed throughout this paper.

57 Study on Causes and Effects of Employee Turnover in Construction Industry
Justin Thomas

Abstract—The term “employee turnover” is a crucial metric that's usually central to organizations workforce planning and strategy. the explanations why staff leave their current positions; not simply the actual fact that they leave have crucial implications for future retention rates among current staff, job satisfaction and employee engagement and an organization’s ability to draw in proficient folks for job vacancies. The impact of turnover has received substantial attention by senior management, human resources professionals and construction engineers particularly project engineers in construction projects. It’s tried to be one among the foremost expensive and ostensibly intractable human resource challenges braving many organizations globally. The aim of this analysis is so, to seek out the particular reasons behind turnover and its damaging effects on the development industries in Kerala. To explore turnover in larger detail, this text can examine the most sources of turnover rate, its effects and advocate some ways on however a company will retain staff and scale back turnover rate in housing industry in Kerala. The results of this study area unit expected to be helpful for numerous construction firms for taking remedial measures to scale back the worker turnover that is the major resource in determining the general success of a project.

58 A Survey On Different Wavelet Transforms In Steganography
Paramvir Rathi, Neeraj

Abstract— It is obvious that image and signal processing has become an important and hot topic that comes across many areas like: engineering, physical science, computer science and of course mathematics also. It is now becoming increasingly well known that signal and image processing are getting great improvements in performance by using various wavelet based methods. In order to achieve better understanding of wavelet based methods, Haar , daubechies, symlet, and Biorthogonal wavelets are discussed and the use of wavelet transform in watermarking process also increases the essence of the mechanism is the central focus of this paper.

59 Review on Various Techniques for Collaborative Data Publishing
Sheetal Shahare , Sachin Barahate

Abstract— Here we consider the collaborative data publishing problem for anonymizing horizontally partitioned data at multiple data providers. We also consider a new type of “insider attack” by colluding data providers who can also use their own data records (a subset of the overall data) to interfere the data records which is contributed by other data providers. This paper provides new threat, and tries to make a number of contributions. First, we provide the notion of m-privacy, which give the guarantees that the anonymized data satisfies a given privacy. Second, we use heuristic algorithms exploiting the monotonicity of privacy constraints for efficiently checking the m-privacy for a given a group of records. Third, we provide a data provideraware anonymization algorithm to ensure high utility by checking some strategies and finally, secure multi-party computation protocols for collaborative data publishing with mprivacy .Existing system mostly focused on a single data provider setting and considered the data recipient as an attacker. A large body of literature assumes limited background knowledge of the attacker, and defines privacy using adversial notion by considering some specific types of attacks. So here we make a use of fog computing which makes a use of decoy techniques, which will try to give the better result by maintaining the privacy as compare to the previous paper while providing m-privacy guarantee.

60 Design RFID tag and implementation of RSSI based automatic toll Connection
D.Muthulakshmi, S.Janani

Abstract— Electronic toll collection (ETC) systems are designed to assist in the management of toll operations through technology that aids in streamlining traffic movement. ETC aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads by collecting tolls electronically. ETC determines whether the vehicles passing are enrolled in the program, alerts enforcers for those that are not, and electronically debits the accounts of registered vehicle owners without requiring them to stop. ETC involves four major components: Automated vehicle identification, Automated vehicle classification, Transaction processing, Violation enforcement. The database and report capabilities allow for better management of tolling operations, ensuring maximum revenues. This system detects distance between the vehicles and the reader using RSSI and debits from the account. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is a measurement of the power present in a received radio signal. My project consists of an integrated vehicular unit on board with wireless transceiver and a roadside reader with wireless transceiver and web access to debit from vehicle owner’s account. The vehicular unit automatically communicates with the reader when it enters the range and transmits its identification. The reader based on the identification received, deducts money from the vehicle owner’s account and sends a message to the owner. Other vehicles are indicated in case of arrival of an emergency vehicle in the range to yield the way to the emergency vehicle.

61 Issues on Different Network Authentication Schemes
Thamraj N. Ghorsad, Swati N. Sonune

Abstract— Textual-based password evidence scheme tends to be more accessible to attacks such as shoulder surfing and hidden camera, eves dropping, dictionary attacks, social engineering. To overcome the vulnerabilities of traditional methods, graphical password schemes have been developed as possible alternative solutions to text-based password schemes. Most of the graphical schemes are accessible to shoulder surfing. To solve this problem, text can be combined with images to generate session passwords for evidence. Session passwords can be used only once and every time a new password is generated. In this paper, we introduce a new evidence techniques “authentic recallbased” and Complect recall-based techniques.

62 Considerations of similarities between nerve and muscle as excitable cells
Toshifumi Kumai

Abstract— From the similarity between nerve and muscle fibers as excitable cells, the following possibilities are considered: (1) neurotransmitters would be ejected by the contraction of the nerve terminal; (2) the nerve terminal and sarcoplasmic reticulum would be considered to be homologous architectures from a functional viewpoint; and (3) muscle contraction would be brought by canceling the inside electrostatic force, where the increase of inside Ca2+ ions would work in its development.

63 Efficient FPGA Implementation of Parallel 2-D MRI Image Filtering Algorithms
Supriya S. Patil, B.T..Salokhe

Abstract— FPGAs are increasingly used in modern parallel algorithm applications such as medical imaging [1] , DSP , image filtering However, most of the above FPGA-based solutions are typically programmed with low-level hardware description languages (HDL) inherited from ASIC design methodologies This paper proposes a method to efficiently implement Parallel 2-D MRI image filtering algorithms using the Xilinx system generator. The implementation method consists of five simple steps that provide fast FPGA prototyping for high performance computation to obtain excellent quality of results. The results are obtained for nine 2-D image filtering algorithm.

64 An Efficient approach for Remote Update Firmware for Embedded Systems
M. Kameswara Rao, B M Kumar Gandhi

Abstract— The ability to update firmware over a network link is changing into a progressively necessary feature. Updates are applied for increased security, feature upgrade, bug fixes, and add new functionalities. The flexibility to upgrade firmware is considered a crucial feature for embedded systems, significantly those that are connected to the internet. It becomes even a lot of necessary when the devices are deployed in remote Locations. To beat these issues device manufacturers are choosing secure firmware Upgrade, wherever the upgrades are initial authenticated and verified and then upgraded. This paper discusses the key problems that have got to be considered for the upgradability of the system and presents a reference design of the secure firmware Upgrade System.

65 A Review on RSA and AES for Encryption
Seema Rani

Abstract— The incredible growth of the internet has excited business and consumers which lead the issue of security for sensitive information .In this paper I am reviewing RSA and AES cryptosystem which is most used throughout the world for protecting information. These cryptosystem are much secure than others as they a provide confidentiality of the information, integrity of information certainty, to prevent information from tampering and forgery.

66 ANFIS based Sign Language Recognition System
Vishal A. Wankhade, Shilpa R. Jadhav

Abstract— In the world of sign language, and gestures, a lot of research work has been done in the past. This has brought about a gradual transition from isolated to continuous, and static to dynamic gesture recognition for operations on a limited vocabulary. In present scenario, human machine interactive systems facilitate communication between the deaf, and hearing people in real world situations. To improve the accuracy of recognition, many researchers have developed methods such as HMM, Artificial Neural Networks, and Kinect platform. Effective algorithms for segmentation, classification, pattern matching and recognition have evolved. The main aim of this paper is to analyze these methods and to effectively compare them, which will enable the reader to reach an optimal solution. This creates both, challenges and opportunities for sign language recognition related research.

67 Performance Comparison and Analysis of Reactive Protocols for MANET
ShilpaKhot, J.K.Patil, S.B.Patil

Abstract— Mobile nodes are powered by batteries with limited capacity, so for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). Energy Conservation is a very important design issue for the different routing protocols, main consideration is the shortest path but they do not consider the energy of that node. Node failure affects the overall lifetime of network. So in this paper provide utilization of more energy path by improving conventional routing path. The performance comparative and analysis of existing AODV, DSR and Optimal Energy Reverse Reactive Routing Protocol (OERRRP) which is modified to improve network lifetime as well as Energy consumption is presented in this paper. Simulation results indicate that the routing scheme of proposed method is more efficient for throughput, number of nodes alive, and Energy consumption than existing well-known routing protocols.

68 Computational analysis of a helicopter-rotor blade with tip sweep to reduce the vibration
B.S.Renjini, A.Manivannan

Abstract— In Helicopters, rotor is the main part which is used for pitching and yawing controls. By the Newton’s law it creates torque about its axis and on the helicopter. During the flight of the helicopter the torque created by the main rotor is equalized by tail rotor which is used as anti-torque system. This torque produces undesirable vibrations and reduces the life of the blade. To minimize these vibrations, rotor blade with and without sweep at the tip is made and analyzed using ANSYS software. The results obtained from the swept blade are compared with the ordinary rotor blade. Frequency of vibration gets decreased when blade tip is made with sweep. Sweeping the blades is the best technique to control the vibrations. Reduced frequency protects the blades from fatigue and fracture.

69 Survey of Attacks in Vehicular Adhoc Network
Jatin Malik, Rupali Malhotra

Abstract— Recent developments in wireless communication technologies led to the evolution of Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The main goal of VANET is to afford communication between vehicles without negotiating security. Regulating the traffic and identifying malicious vehicles plays an important role in VANET. In Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is taking more attention in automotive industry due to the safety concern of human lives on roads.

70 Authentication of Healthcare Information Exchange Using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)
J.Jeno Angel, P.Alli, S.Poonkuntran

Abstract— Great challenge in our day to day life is that sending the data in a secure manner. So, security plays vital role in every one’s life. To protect our information one can use some of the techniques like cryptography, data hiding, biometric security etc., Biometric security can be an advanced technique, to give security to information, but it needs both human as well as system interaction at all time. So, we’re choosing the technique called data hiding. It needs two data one is cover data and another one is secret data. Data hiding is the method of hiding the secret data into the cover data. Data can be anything such as text, image, audio, video, graphics etc., Data hiding can be perform using two techniques like watermarking and steganography. To protect our cover data we are hiding the secret data into the cover data. In medical field, security to medical images can be given using invisible watermarking. Images can be represented in the form of pixel values which is in spatial domain. In our system watermarking can be done using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). DCT is used to convert pixel values in spatial domain into the frequency domain. For the purpose of authentication DCT can be a well suited technique. This transformation can be applied to cover image. Reduce the intensity of the secret image that is converting the integer pixels into floating point pixels to embed the values in cover data using process of addition. Next, inverse transform can be applied, to view the embedded image. This embedded image can be transmitted over the network from one Healthcare Information System (HIS) to another. During the process of authentication, system should satisfy main key requirement of watermarking such as reversibility, imperceptivity, capacity and fragility during authentication.

71 Single Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverter with H6 Type Configuration Using Hybrid Modulation Method
A.Malliga, S.Subalakshmi

Abstract— This paper presents the design and implementation of high performance inverters with H6 type configuration using hybrid modulation method. In this configuration without the input split capacitors, multiple DC sources, common-mode voltage and leakage current issues can be eliminated. The main objective of this system is to achieve high efficient system with the elimination of common-mode voltage and leakage current. The hybrid modulation topology is the combination of unipolar and bipolar pulse width modulation schemes. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed by comparing the level of reduction of common mode error as a parameter and the working of existing H4 inverter.

72 Repetitive Control based Harmonic Voltage Compensation in Distributed Generation System
R.S.Nishathini, S.Krishna Kumar

Abstract— Distributed Generation refers to small-scale electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to customers using renewable energy in remote areas. Distributed Generation system is suitable for both stand alone and grid connected systems. In standalone mode, the DG output voltage should be sinusoidal at the point of common coupling irrespective of the load variation and type of load. The design can be implemented with PI controller which is suitable for only balanced linear loads. In case of, non linear and unbalanced loads, it is difficult to maintain the DG output voltage always sinusoidal due to harmonic voltage drop in the system impedance. To overcome the drawbacks of PI controller such as slow dynamic response, poor voltage regulation and high harmonic distortions, it can be replaced by the Repetitive Controller. Repetitive Controller is a control method developed by the Japanese scholars in 1980’s based on the internal model principle and is used specifically in dealing with periodic signals. The comparison of THD values using controller is estimated. The feasibility of the proposed control strategy is verified through the simulation results.

73 Enhancement of Heat Transfer in a Circular and Noncircular Duct Using CFD Simulation
Christapher Robin A, Kushal kumar G, H.V.Harish

Abstract— The phenomenon of forced convection with turbulent flow is complex and hard to develop analytically. The aim of the project is to enhance heat transfer by optimizing the design of domain. In this study forced airflow at 5 m/s for different heat input, for different inclination both for circular and noncircular ducts has been carried. Naturally convection depends on fluid parameters and geometry of the domain through which fluid flows. The aim of our project used to find the value of heat transfer coefficient ‘h’ for turbulent flow in many fluid transfer systems. Heat transfer coefficient ‘h’ is very important parameter because they determine rate of heat transfer. ICEM-CFD has been used for modeling and meshing purpose, CFX has been used for analysis and CFD-POST has been used for results

74 Design & Implementation of 12 Bit Segmented DAC
Deepkant Kumar Mishra, Vivek Dubey, Ravimohan

Abstract— This Paper presents a 16-bit Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) using CMOS technology for mixed-signal applications. A segmented current steering architecture for the DAC is proposed using binary weighted architecture. This architecture is the most optimized in terms of speed, resolution and power. A novel static performance testing method is proposed. In current steering DACs, the transistor mismatch limits the accuracy of the signal and bias current sources. These tolerances translate to mismatch among the parallel current cells, causing DAC static and dynamic nonlinearity. For good transistor matching, the transistors need to be made big and laid out close to each other. The tool used for simulation is Tanner EDA SEdit and T-Spice.

75 A Novel Approach of Digital Audio Watermarking Using Frequency Marking Algorithms
Aakash Shrivastava, Raj Tiwari

Abstract— This paper considers desired properties and possible applications of audio watermarking algorithms. Special attention is given to statistical methods working in the Fourier domain. It will present a solution of robust watermarking of audio data and reflect the security properties of the technique. Experimental results show good robustness of the approach against MP3 compression and other common signal processing manipulations. Enhancements of the presented methods are discussed.

76 Digital Audio Watermarking - An Overview
Aakash Shrivastava, Raj Tiwari

Abstract— There is a need of an effective watermarking technique for copyright protection and authentication of intellectual property. In this work we propose a digital watermarking technique which makes use of simultaneous frequency masking to hide the watermark information. The algorithm is based on Psychoacoustic Auditory Model and Spread Spectrum theory. It generates a watermark signal using spread spectrum theory and embeds it into the signal by measuring the masking threshold using Modified Psychoacoustic Auditory model. Since the watermark is shaped to lie below the masking threshold, the difference between the original and the watermarked copy is imperceptible. Recovery of the watermark is performed without the knowledge of the original signal. The software system is implemented using MATLAB and the characteristics studied.

77 Review of Various Latched Flip Flop Structures
Surbhi Vishwakarma, Vinod Kapse

Abstract— In this paper various flip-flop structures has been studied like PowerPC 603, HLFF, SDFF, CDMFF, XCFF, DDFF, DDFF-ELM. In all designs if we want to reduce power consumption, the Pulse Generator circuitry should be in build along with the flip-flop itself. If we include a pulse generator along with DPSCRFF structure we can reduce power consumption. The pre-charged and discharge phenomenon can be easily understood by SAFF which gives accurate timings for higher frequencies. Thus on the basis of above conclusion we will try to design a Dual Pulsating Latch Flip-Flop with in build Pulse Generator.

78 An Efficient Node Deployment and Priority Based Cluster Head Selection

Abstract— In WSN sensor nodes are deployed to sense the data but these sensor nodes have limited recourses therefore WSN is considered as a resource constraint network. In order to save energy and resources, data must be aggregated, and avoid amounts of traffic in the network. The objective of data aggregation is to eliminate redundant data transmission and to enhance the life time of energy in wireless sensor network. Efficient clustering schemes are beneficial for data aggregation process. Thus, in this paper we propose priority based cluster head selection (PBCHS) with respect to clustering is performed to attain energy efficiency and to extend the lifetime of WSN. Initially network formation is proceed with random node deployment , Region Division, Dead node elimination ,Number of dead node calculation, Number of alive node calculation, Probability calculations for regions. And we also process the Clustering concept to increase the efficiency of the network. We employed to increase the Quality of service parameters.

79 A Comparative analysis of single tail comparator based on CMOS, FINFET and CNTFET technology
Rameshkumar.R, Bharathiraja.S

Abstract— The Conventional CMOS technology’s performance decreased due to the short channel effect. To improve the performance of the circuit performance the FINFET and CNTFET technology has been introduced. To prove the above things single tail comparator is chosen. The main parameters considered in the performance analysis are delay, frequency, Power Delay Product and power consumption. H-Spice simulation software is used for design and analysis of the single tail comparator circuit in the specified scaling range.

80 Design and Analysis of Vortex Injector in Hybrid Rocket Motor
S.Sharmila, S.Raja kumar

Abstract— The goal of this project is to design and analysis of rocket motors. It mainly supposed to abnormality due to overpressures, combustion oscillation, damaging shock waves, hang fires (delayed ignition) extinguishment and chuffing. In the present paper a vortex injector is used to enhance the performance of a hybrid rocket motor with paraffin as fuel and nitrous oxide as oxidizer. The surface and structural design of the rocket motor is made by using CATIA V5R19 and the analysis of the design is done on ANSYS Workbench, the operational and performance waveforms are analyzed in the fluent. The performance curves and theoretical results are verified for the efficiency of the designed rocket with vortex generation placed in different layers.

81 Intensification of Heat Transfer in Economizer and Validation of Experimental Results by Analysis of Flow through CFD Simulation
Srinatha K.M, C. Badrinath, C.H. Hemanth kumar, H.V Harish

Abstract— When the flue gases are coming out from boiler they take away a lot of heat. Economizer utilizes this heat from flue gases. And this heat is used to heat the feed water which is going to feed the boiler. Hence by using economizer the fuel consumption required to heat the feed water is reduced hence cost is reduced. First by taking parameters like flue gas temperature, water inlet and outlet temperature, mass flow rate of fuel and mass flow rate of water from the plant setup, the heat input will be calculated. The above readings will be validated through CFD.Further heat transfer enhancement in economizer will be carried out by adopting passive methodWhere insertion of strip along the passage of flow has been carried which obstructs the flow there by enhancing heat transfer. Another passive method has been used to provide roughness to the surface which enhances heat transfer, which ever gives more heat transfer Modelling analysis that passive method will be optimized. Done in CATIA, imported to ICEM CFD where meshing is done. Further carried out through CFX.

82 Detection of Copy Move Forgery Using Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform
K.Amutha, E.Hari Prasath, T.Selvakumar

Abstract— Nowadays, several software’s are available that are used to manipulate images, so that the forged images looks like the original. Images are used as an authenticated proof of any crime and if these images do not remain genuine there are possibilities of insecure issues. To determine whether a digital image is original or healed and to find the marks of tampering is a challenging task. Copy-Move forgery is a specific type of image forgery, in which a part of a digital image is copied and pasted to another part in the same image. This project works by applying Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) to the input image to yield an appropriate result for forgery detection. To achieve this, overlapping blocks of pixels are decomposed using DTCWT and then channel energies are extracted from each subband at each decomposition level using the L1 norm. The performances of these transforms are compared in terms of Mean Squared Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC), Average Difference (AD), Structural Content (SC), Maximum Difference (MD) and Normalized Absolute Error (NAE).

83 An Intelligent Adaptive Visual Tracking Automated Monitoring System for Detecting the Movements of a Coma Patient
Krishnapriya. K.V, S.Uma

Abstract— An intelligent adaptive visual tracking system is an automated monitoring system which can be applied in a variety of fields like military surveillance, hospitals etc. where it is impractical for human being to do efficient monitoring for a longer period of time. This can also be implemented to ensure high security in banks, museums, research centres, laboratories etc. Object detection in video is usually performed by background subtraction techniques. Basically, coma patients are not able to convey their recovery immediately. Coma is not a brain dead state. It is a brain disability caused due to a heavy head injury or a mental depression. Day-night care is important for these patients.The proposed system is an intelligent adaptive visual tracking automated monitoring system for detecting the movements of a coma patient.Camera is fixed at a required place for surveillance purpose and a real time monitoring is done. The proposed system will detect the patient's movement and sends a communication to the person in-charge through E-mail and also does sound an instant alarm. Today all smart phones are equipped with the facility to view E-mails instantly. This system uses the pixel based approach in live video processing. Since a single dot resolution is able to achieve, each and every movement will be stored as an online backup, which will be helpful in the patient status analysis. Here, experimentation is done by moving a stationary object and marking the pixels when a motion is detected. These experiments are successfully done and screenshots of the result are attached.

84 Energy Efficient Reliable Routing Using Clustering In Ad-Hoc Networks
S.Kaviya, S.Uma

Abstract— Mobile computing devices (nodes) that form a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) are known by their limited resources, and therefore, some kind of organization and resource management is required especially in large networks. Hence, the concept of clustering was introduced to allow special reuse of bandwidth and to minimize routing overhead. However, node mobility perturbs the stability of the network and affects the performance of other protocols such as scheduling, routing, and resource allocation, which makes re-clustering the network to maintain up-to-date information at each node unavoidable. Consequently, clustering models for MANETS should be carefully designed while taking into consideration the fact that mobile nodes are energy constrained. The proposed load balancing energy efficient clustering algorithm allows for electing a node to play the role of cluster-head taking into consideration its degree, residual energy, and mobility. Elected cluster-heads are responsible for servicing a set of nodes (i.e. cluster-members). The algorithm establishes the basis for an energy-efficient environment by allowing each node to monitor its energy expenditure and to strive to survive its utmost during the network lifetime. By monitoring its energy consumption, a cluster-head might diminish the number of its cluster-members or relinquish its role according to its residual energy. Initially the clusters are formed and cluster-heads are elected; then the clusters are maintained taking their residual energy into consideration in order to prolong the network life time.