IJAIR- Volume 4 Issue 1 (January 2015)

 


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Design and Implementation of 64-bit Multiplication using CLAA & CLSA
Shaik Mohammed IrshadAhmed, K. Sanjeeva Rao

Abstract —In this paper deals with the comparison of the VLSI style of the carry look-ahead adder (CLAA) based mostly} 32-bit signed and unsigned whole number and also the VLSI style of the carry choose adder (CSLA) based 32-bit signed and unsigned whole number. Multiplication could be an elementary operation in most signal process algorithms. Multipliers have giant space, long latency and consume hefty power. So low-power number style has been a vital half in low- power VLSI system style. A system’s performance is mostly determined by the performance of the number as a result of the number is mostly the slowest part within the system. Moreover, it's usually the foremost space intense. Hence, optimizing the speed and space of the number could be a major style issue. Carry choose adder is one among the quickest adders utilized in several applications to perform quick arithmetic functions. The CLAA based mostly} number uses the delay time of 99ns for activity multiplication operation wherever as in CSLA based number conjointly uses nearly identical delay time for multiplication operation. However the realm required for CLAA number is reduced to thirty one procurable the CSLA primarily based number to complete the multiplication operation

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2 Design An Area And Speed Optimized FPU For DSP
Ankita Dixit, Atuliika Shukla, Ravi Mohan Sairam

Abstract—FPU is a key element for real time computation of signals and real time data to meet real time scenario of signal processing it is highly required to make computation faster as possible so proposed work is a fast FPU and the chip area is another requirement to design a compact module and less power. To achieve our set goals literature survey done including standard journals like IEEE, IJEAT & Hewlett Packard etc. A Hybrid FPGA has defined course grain modules which use wide data paths, such as, for instance 32 bits wide resources. Selection FPGA affects our design in respect of area and speed so we have chosen a hybrid FPGA for faster and area optimized computation. A FPU module has three submodules FM, FA & WB, optimizing these we can optimized overall design we have gone through multiple approaches for Floating multiplication and floating addition we plan to use Mitchell algorithm for multiplication and we will use course grain of Vertex -4 for all logical operations. We have proposal to modify Mitchell for designing FM.

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3 Finger Print Recognition: Survey of Minutiae and Gabor Filtering Approach
D Annapoorani , M Caroline Viola Stella Mary

Abstract—Fingerprint-based identification is one of the most important biometric technologies which have drawn a substantial amount of attention recently. Fingerprints are believed to be unique across individuals and across fingers of same individual. Even identical twins having similar DNA, are believed to have different fingerprints. To address the need for robust, reliable, and foolproof personal identification, authentication systems will necessarily require a biometric component. The verification system is a one-to-one matching and is based on the comparison of two groups of minutiae, respectively corresponding to two fingers to be compared.

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4 Synthesis and Structural properties of pure and doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles synthesized by novel solvent free method
Chithambara Thanu .T, Meenambika .R

Abstract—Nanoparticles of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) are widely used in many fields serving as catalysts, wear resistance materials, and advanced colorants. We have reported the solvent free synthesis of Cr2O3 nanoparticles via microwave irradiation followed by calcinations at 200, 400, 600 and 800°c for 1h. A transparent conducting oxide is a wide band-gap semiconductor that has a relatively high concentration of free electrons in its conduction band. These arise either from defects in the material or from extrinsic dopants, the impurity levels of which lie near the conduction band edge. As implicit in the name, transparent conductors must be simultaneously transparent and conducting, an unusual combination.


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5 A design for DSP processor for Transform applications
Abhishek Thakur

Abstract-As known any microprocessor is a general purpose IC (Integrated Circuit) which simply follow the instructions given to it, and the instructions set for the different microprocessors are different and designed such a way that it and perform required type for computations. Proposed paper work is a new RISC processor architecture for DSP and it has FSM and new instruction set and RISC feature like executing every instruction in one cycle. Paper work has use Xilinx ISE 12.2 ISE software for designing all modules and each module has been tested and verified with all possible instruction which are been supported by proposed design. The proposed architecture for processor requires less area and higher speed as compare with the other existing RISC architecture available.

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6 Minimizing MCU in SRAM Cell to Enhance Memory Reliability Using DMC
T.Maheswari, P.Sukumar, R.K.Gnanamurthy

Abstract -Computer memories are sensitive to soft errors which can affect system reliability [1]. Memory cells can be disturbed by high-energy neutron particles from terrestrial atmosphere or alpha particles resulted from IC package material.

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7 Efficient ZVS Operation Of Boost Converter With Load Variation
B. BalaRaju, N. Anjaneyulu, K.Gopala Krishna

Abstract-A new kind of step-up converter is hereby presented. It consists of a diode, an auxiliary switch, and a coupled winding to the boost inductor as in the conventional boost converter. By transferring the boost-inductor current to the coupled winding in a time of very short period, the negatively built-up Ipo current of the boost winding guarantees the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operation of the boost switch in all the load conditions. Further, since the negatively built-up Ipo current is minimized after the zero voltage of the boost switch is achieved, the unnecessary current build-up and the conduction loss are minimized. Therefore, efficient ZVS operation with load variation is achieved and the operation principle, design and simulation results of the boost converter are presented.

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8 Power System Control through STATCOM Devices
Ms. Shweta Chourasia, Dr.Baseem Khan, Ms Ritu K.R

Abstract-Facts devices have the capability to control voltage, impedance and the phase angle in transmission circuit and hence control the power flow. Among the converter based facts devices static synchronous compensator (statcom) is considered in this paper. This paper discusses the comparative result before application of statcom and after optimal placement of statcom in the system network. In the first stage newton raphson (nr) method is used to determine voltage magnitude and phase angle at every node of the ieee 14 bus system with and without statcom. In the second stage genetic algorithm (ga) finds the optimal location for placing the statcom. After placing the statcom the losses is reduce. The proposed method is tested on ieee 14 bus system using matlab. The result of network with and without using statcom is compared in terms of active and reactive power flows in the line and at the bus to analyze the performance of the devices injected voltage, injected phase, phase distortion are also shown graphically.

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9 Implementation of Battery Management System with State-of-Charge estimation (SOC) and equalization based on Modified DC/DC converter Topology
S. Manoj Kumar, P. M. Dhanasekaran

Abstract-In this Paper, to maintain the reliability of the Battery, state monitoring and evaluated by a sensing device that have implemented in this proposed technique. For equalization purpose Bi-directional DC/DC converter is used while the switching losses is reduced and boosts the performance during equalization period. The paper includes the development of the power electronic switching devices and State-of-Charge algorithm for improving battery charging/discharging performance and efficient utilization. To design the simulation modelling of a Battery pack with a charge module and expectation outcome for the charge equalization topology using MATLAB/ Simulink software to demonstrate the capability, voltage and current stability of the Battery stack.

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10 Cluster Tree Based Model For Secure Data Retrieval In Military Network
R.Ganesh Prabakar, K.R.Sangeethkumar, P.ArulPrakash

Abstract─Mobile nodes in military environments such as a battle field or a hostile region are likely to suffer from intermittent network connectivity and frequent partitions. Disruption-tolerant network (DTN) technologies are becoming successful solutions that allow wireless devices carried by soldiers to communicate with each other and access the confidential information or command reliably by exploiting external storage nodes. Some of the most challenging issues in this scenario are the enforcement of authorization policies and the policies update for secure data retrieval. Cipher text-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic solution to the access control issues. However, the problem of applying CP-ABE in decentralized DTNs introduces several security and privacy challenges with regard to the attribute revocation, key escrow, and coordination of attributes issued from different authorities. In this paper, we propose a se-cure data retrieval scheme using CP-ABE for decentralized DTNs where multiple key authorities manage their attributes independently. We demonstrate how to apply the proposed mechanism to securely and efficiently manage the confidential data distributed in the disruption-tolerant military network.

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11 A New Implementation for Measuring Delay and Radio Frequency/Ability in Wireless Networks
Sanyasi Naidu K, Santosh Naidu P

Abstract -Normally delay in the previous work on only on mesh topology, but on wireless sensor networks but always experimentally calculation and rectification of delay in the Wireless Sensor Network is a big challenge. Once the Wireless Sensor Network created statically or energetically/changing quickly as needed router or central server have to face big very hard to maintain the peers information. We use grouped flows (machine/method/way) with (making two or more things look the same or happen at the same time) to get the perfect delay in the session wise. Once the path(s) established for transmission the source and destinations will be under one session for logging (further checking (for truth)). The moment the data transmission is started our approach will check the session for any existing session which is matching with the current transmission. If it matches, the communication will not get copied and ignored and also log will not be updated. If any session is not matching with current transmission session then this session finds the shortest path for transmission and also calculates the average delay for that session's all communications.

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12 Environmental Philosophy In Literature
Laxmikant Tripathi, Dr. Karunesh Jha, Dr. Druv Kumar Dwivedi

Abstract-One of the most notable concerns of the modern world is the issue of environmental protection. Most of the developing as well as the developed countries put this issue at the top agenda and allocate specific funds to achieve optimum success in this direction. It is globally felt that the biggest menace to humanity in recent years has not come so much from military invasions as from the environmental disasters. The chief factor responsible for environmental deterioration is believed to be the modern way of living impacted by the capitalist thought of industrial imperialism. This leads impious encroachment into the world of Nature which tends to strike back after a certain interval of time. Remarkably, the world literatures have contributed a great deal for maintaining ecological balance. Various philosophical trends are traceable in these literatures attempting to create harmony between Man and Nature for peaceful coexistence

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13 A Novel Energy Efficient Gaussian Smoothing Filter for Image Processing
Dileep Singh Kushwah , Mrigendra singh and Vijay Kumar Magraiya

Abstract—The VLSI design for today’s application has become very complex and requires huge computational power to satisfy users demand. In order to utilize the design into the battery operated devices it must be energy efficient. So the energy efficiency is the prime concern for today’s VLSI design. In this paper, we propose a novel energy efficient approximate Gaussian Smoothing Filter that provides better results over the conventional approach. The proposed design is implemented in Tanner EDA tool to obtain design metrics and modeled in MATLAB to get error metrics. Simulation results shows that proposed filter improves the area, delay and power by 33%, 14%, and 25% respectively. Moreover the design improves energy by 35% over the existing design at the cost of 6.68dB loss in PSNR.

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14 A thumping approach for controlling congestion in Smartphone based mobile networks
A.Aishwarya, Prof. M.Govindaraj

Abstract— Smartphone networks (SNs) is one of the type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). In DTNs the Smartphone mobile users transmit with each other through short distance and provide a device to device communication. The major provocation problem of Smartphone networks is to control the congestion. The main focus is to research the context information between mobile nodes to control congestion. To avoid a discontinuous connectivity and everlasting disconnection in smart phone networks for providing a complete path from source to destination. To determine the forwarding set by using the CRITIC method which includes those messages that cause the least congestion in network.

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15 A Review on Voltage Stability Improvement Using SVC in Transmission Line
RoshniKesherwani, AshishChoubey

Abstract— Power system stability is defined as the ability of power system to preserve it’s steady stability or recover the initial steady state after any deviation of the system’s operation. In this paper previous various studies for shunt FACTS device-SVC is used in a two area power system for improving the power system stability is presented. SVC plays an important role in improving the transient stability, increasing transmission capacity and damping low frequency oscillations.

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16 Determination of heat flow rate of turbine blades exposed to products of combustion
Sampath S S, Sawan Shetty, Chithirai Pon Selvan M

Abstract—The present work investigates the thermal properties of the turbine blade which is exposed to the products of combustion. Profile of the blade is modelled and analyzed using the computational analysis software ANSYS CFX and the comparative tool DOT NET software. Temperature distributions at various points of the blade are deduced and the overall heat transfer is determined. A detailed study is conducted by considering different materials to obtain optimum material selection.

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17 Efficacy of GcMAF in Treating Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in a Cat: a Case Report
Giovanna Gallone, Dario Siniscalco

Abstract- A male cat was diagnosed of FIV infection. After inefficacious antibiotics therapy, the owner treated the cat with Gc Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), a protein responsible to induce macropaghe activation. After five weeks of treatment, the cat showed strong signs of improvement. As novel information, we indicate the possible use of GcMAF in FIV management.

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18 Risk Management Practices in a Construction Project
Upendra Saharkar, Navnath D.Shendage

Abstract— The purpose of this master thesis is to evaluate how the risk management process is used in the construction industry and how the practitioners are managing risks in everyday situations. The theory of the risk management process will be compared to the actual practice in order to investigate similarities and differences. In other words, the main idea is to see if the construction industry is working with risk management as it is described in the literature regarding the methods and techniques presented.

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19 Improved Global Image Denoising Using PDE and canny edge detection algorithm
Ajith G, C. Balaji

Abstract-Image denoising is one of the fundamental problems in image processing. Here proposes a technique for filtering, where each pixel is estimated from all pixels in the image. The system uses Nystrom extension for statistical analysis. In the field of image processing, the noise of an image means the appropriated random error introduced to the image during the process of digitization. These noise is usually unwanted and unpredictable. In the use of partial differential equations (PDEs) have advantages like such as easy description of local features of an image, provide mathematical theory for many algorithms, preserving most structures and information of an image, simulate the dynamic process of image restoration etc. Canny edge detector, an edge detector that uses a multi stage algorithm to detect a wide range of edges in image with matlab tool. This method achieves better structural similarity performance and provides better visual quality.

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20 A Review Paper on Web Mining
Neha Soni

Abstract- As growing need of World Wide Web in Corporate business, Web mining plays an important role to understand Visitors usage habits. In order to design web site one should first analysis web visitor pattern. In this paper I am presenting three Web mining. Web Usage mining, web Content mining, Web Structure mining.

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21 Analysis of Interleaved Flyback Converter with Voltage Multiplier Circuit
S.C.Logesh, N.veerakumar

Abstract-The recent growth of battery powered applications and low voltage storage elements are increasing the demand of efficient step-up dc–dc converters. Typical applications are embedded systems, renewable energy systems, fuel cells, mobility applications and uninterrupted power supply (UPS). These applications demand high step-up static gain, high efficiency and reduced weight, volume and cost. Usually, the conventional boost converter cannot realize high voltage gain even with high duty cycle due to the parasitic parameters limitation.

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22 Computer Aided Screening of Tuberculosis Using Chest Radiographs
Anandkumar A, Kannan R.

Abstract-Tuberculosis, is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. Approximately One third of the world’s population is infected with TB. The mortality rate of patients with Tuberculosis is increased if it is undiagnosed. The standard diagnosing methods of tuberculosis are slow and unreliable. In an effort to overcome the difficulty, this project presents an approach for detecting tuberculosis in conventional poster anterior chest radiograph. The lung region is extracted using a graph cut segmentation method. A set of texture and shape features are computed for the segmented lung region, which is given as input to the pre-trained SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier. The classifier outputs its confidence in classifying the input CXR as TB positive case. The performance of the system is analyzed using MATLAB R2013a simulator.

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23 Estimation and optimization of Direction of Arrival-Survey
Kumari A K, Suganthi B, Chitra Lekha

Abstract-In signal process literature, direction of arrival denotes the direction from that typically a propagating wave arrives at some extent, wherever typically a collection of sensors square measure set. These set of detectors forms what is known as sensor array. This paper describes the survey that has the study of estimation of Direction of Arrival (DOA) and therefore the improvement of direction of arrival by numerous Evolutionary Algorithms (EA). It includes the study of antenna placements in numerous environments and their calculable parameters. Estimation algorithms embrace correlation, maximum likelihood, and MUSIC, liveliness and matrix pencil. Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), square measure random search strategies that mimic the natural biological evolution and/or the social behaviour of species. These algorithms are developed to reach near-optimum solutions to large-scale improvement issues. The algorithms square measure random search, genetic algorithmic program, particle swarm, ant-colony systems, and shuffled frog jump.

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24 Image Morphing Using Pixel Transformation and Information Hiding by Morphing
Vimal Singh, Poonam Sharma

Abstract— In this paper colour transition method is based on colour difference in the pixel of the source and target images. In pixel transformation the pixel value of source image smoothly converted into pixel value of corresponding destination image. Information security is a very important issue in a ubiquitous computing environment. Cryptography may not be secure because it tells the attacker clearly that some secret messages are contained in the data. Usually, the encrypted messages look very unnatural. Some malicious person or group may just concentrate on the unnatural parts, and use all computing recourses to decrypt the messages. Thus, to make the information more secure, some other technology is required.

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25 SAGE Based Channel Estimation In An Af Relaying Network
Sayana P S, Suga priya S

Abstract -The basic goal of any communication system is to develop a better and reliable information transfer between a source and a destination, using minimum power and bandwidth .In a communication system the network will be affected by the fading. To overcome the fading, various diversity techniques are available now spatial diversity is one among them; in which diversity is created by using other terminals to relay the information from the source to the destination terminal. In order to achieve the channel between the different antenna pairs to be uncorrelated, the spacing between the antennas must be in the order of wavelength. So, multiple antennas will give rise to an increased hardware cost. For overcoming this limitation a cooperative communication model can be introduced. The basic aim of the project is to estimate the unknown channel parameters from the broadcasted signals which can be done using Space Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE) algorithm, to iteratively estimate the channel parameter from the pilot part of the information. The affine transformation on the received signal is done by the relays. The error is minimized using Maximum Likelihood (ML) criteria. In order to obtain the lower bound of the error Modified Cramer Rao Bound (MCRB) is used. Finally the Mean Square Error (MSE) and the Frame Error Rates (FER) are estimated after matlab simulation.

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26 Text Mining: Limitations and Future Scope
Shweta Gupta, Kirti Joshi

Abstract—This paper explains the concept of text mining. In the first section it explains how text mining is advantageous in different fields in terms of efficiency, development of new knowledge, exploring new horizons, improved research process and many other broader benefits. Further it puts light on barriers, risks and issues involved in text mining. A survey on various issues has been done like legal uncertainties, entry cost, noise, document format, lack of transparency and technical knowledge. The last section discusses the related work that has been done in this path and also provides suggestion to improve the results.

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27 Analysis of fuzzy working vacations queueing models using DSW algorithm
K.Julia Rose Mary, Sheela Jancy.S

Abstract-We consider the queuing systems FM/FM/1/SWV and FM/FM/1/MWV with finite capacity. An approximate method namely DSW (Dong, Shah and Wong) algorithm is applied for our models, which is based on α-cut representation for fuzzy sets in a standard interval analysis. For FM/FM/1/SWV and FM/FM/1/MWV queuing models DSW algorithm is used to define the membership functions of its performance measures. Further the performance measures are analyzed for fuzzy working vacation queuing models, which provides more information. Moreover numerical example is also illustrated to check the validity of the proposed models.

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28 Enrichment of Semantic Relation Networks in a Knowledge Base
Avvaru Padmaja, Kotha Mahesh, Kumara Swamy, Mastan Vali

Abstract- Enrichment of semantic relations at human level is an important. In this regard WordNet has been built to be the most systematic and as close to the human level and is being applied actively in various works by using semantic information processing in various works. It is observed that semantic gaps I real world of WordNet. Hence we tried to build an enrichment of knowledge base for automatic semantic relation network. We adapted are rule based, inference methods to enrich WordNet. After comparative study a word sense disambiguation method is constructed with the state of art algorithm.

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29 Reliability of Dynamic Data Storage in Cloud Computing
Kotha Mahesh, Avvaru Padmaja, Kumara Swamy, Mastan Vali

Abstract—Cloud Computing reducing the cost issues of organizations in terms of service providing. Reliable data storages is a big issue in cloud computing systems as organizations producing large volumes of data. Cloud Service Providers (CSP) is performing well in this regard by remote environment. Still reliability and security is an open problem by CSP in terms of false accusation. In this paper we attempted deal with the mentioned issues by using a good cloudbased storage scheme that allows the data owner to benefit from the facilities offered by the CSP and enables indirect mutual trust between them. This may gives reliable dynamic data storage in cloud computing.

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30 An approach for detecting Sentiments in e-commerce reviews
M.S.Abhinaya, R.Vidhya

Abstract—Trust scores are computed for the sellers in ECommerce using ratings given by the users but it leads to “all good reputation problem”, since all the sellers are given with high trust scores, it is difficult for the buyers to find the best sellers .And moreover though if the user give a good rating they expresses their negative feeling only as feedback comments. So it is necessary to consider those comments for computing the trust score of a seller. The comments are analyzed and its dimension weights are calculated and aggregated as feedback ratings and provided as overall trust score of a seller. The techniques used to implement this model are Natural Language Processing, Opinion Mining and Topic Modelling .The technique like LDA and Maxent tagging are used for computing trust score and to find the overall opinion of the seller. With this model proposed the sellers can be ranked effectively. This paper also focuses on utilizing the neutral comments expressed by the user rather than taking only positive and negative comments.

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31 Collusion free routing using RWA and WDM Algorithm in optical networks
P.Sathishkumar A., V.Mahalingam

Abstract—In this paper, we address traffic control enhancement in order to utilize bandwidth effectively in WDM based optical networks as well as the wavelength assignment problems and then develop an algorithm for both the problems. Traffics in WDM networks can be reduced based on the available free load, the number of wavelength used in the link as construction of predefined alternate paths, route and wavelength assignment can be done by considering each pair of source and destination the path with the minimum cost function is selected as the primary path for data transmission, allocating the adequate wavelength. This algorithm provides a reliable and dynamic path for the data transmission. This proposed system will use Dynamic RMSA with HSMR algorithm to be used and the performances will be evaluated by using ns-2 simulation models.

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32 Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Real World
Ms. Sonali R. Raut, Ms. Vanita P. Lonkar, Ms. Suchita S. Mesakar, Ms. Mamta R. Nagpure

Abstract—Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the revolutions in the world of information technology which proposes lots of applications that shapes our way of living. This paper aims to report the latest advances in every aspect of artificial intelligence technology, including data mining, machine learning, evolutionary computation, neural network, computer vision and fuzzy logic and hence we are going to study different applications of AI because of this there are so many complicated works become easy and convenient.

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33 Survey on Routing Protocol in Vehicular Adhoc network
R.Ramachandiran, V.Amudharani, P.Inbavalli, R.Suganya  V.Vijayakumar, K.Premkumar

Abstract—VANET is an emerging technology to achieve inter-vehicle communications, for improving the road safety, alerts messages, accessing and sharing the information and entertainments. Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), a subclass of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), is a promising approach for the intelligent transportation system (ITS). The design of routing protocols in VANETs is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Although rich literature in ad hoc networks exists, the scale, availability of realistic traffic data and vehicle equipments motivate researchers to study the unique characteristics of VANET. The aim to survey the paper and compare literature on the characterization and existing routing protocol of VANET.

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34 An effective approach to compute distance of Uncertain data by using k-nearest neighbor
Suman Bhakar, Priya.S

Abstract—Clustering uncertain data has been well recognized as an important issue. Generally, an uncertain data object can be represented by a probability distribution. In Existing system, Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence approach from information theory is used to measure the similarity of uncertain data. This approach work is based on probability mass function calculation, where continuous and discrete values of uncertain data are calculated. By using the probability mass function, distance value of continuous and discrete cases are calculated individually. The probabilistic ratio of both the cases is used to calculate the similarity. Then, the Density based clustering approach is used to cluster the uncertain data. However, choosing the nearest neighbor is a drawback in the existing system. To overcome this issue proposed system introduces K-nearest-neighbor algorithm to calculate the nearest neighbor. The K-nearest-neighbor (KNN) algorithm measures the distance between a query scenario and a set of scenarios in the data set. Here, distance is calculated for both continuous and discrete cases by using Probability mass function. Then, nearest neighbor is calculated by applying KNN approach. Thus, proposed system overcomes the existing drawback and produce effective result.

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35 Design and Simulation of Fractal Antenna for UWB Application
Abhishek Kulshrestha, Bhagwat Khakde

Abstract—This paper presents the design and simulation of fractal antenna that contributes ultra-wide band characteristics. Fractal technique is adopted to improve the radiation efficiency and other related antenna parameters. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed fractal antenna is 9 GHz ranging from 3.5GHz to 12.5GHz with maximum gain of 6.2dB and efficiency of %. Analysis of antenna is done using CST Microwave Studio.

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36 Multi-IDF Scheme for large scale image retrieval
G.Kavitha, E.Hari Prasath, P.Arul Prakash

Abstract—Visual matching could be a crucial step in image retrieval supported the bag-of-words (Bow) model. Within the baseline technique, 2 key points are thought of as an identical try if their SIFT descriptors are amount to identical visual word. However, the SIFT visual word has 2 limitations. First, it loses most of its discriminative power throughout division. Second, SIFT solely describes the native texture feature. Each drawbacks impair the discriminative power of the Bow model and result in false positive matches. To tackle this downside, multiple binary options are embedded at assortment level. To model correlation between options, a multi-IDF scheme [8] is introduced, through that completely different binary options are coupled into the inverted file. Matching verification methods [5] are supported binary options. The joint integration of the SIFT visual word and binary options greatly enhances the preciseness of visual matching, reducing the impact of false positive matches. The planned technique considerably improves the baseline approach. Additionally, massive scale experiments indicate that the planned technique needs acceptable memory usage and question time compared with alternative approaches.

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37 Mining Big Data: scope and challenges
Arti S. Bhoir, Archana Gulati

Abstract—Nowadays, Big Data is considered as a driving force for business & technology innovations as well as economic growth. Big data is the term for collection of data sets, which are large & complex. With Big Data databases, enterprises can save money, generate more revenue, and achieve many other business goals. Data Mining is the process of analysing data from different perspectives & summarizing it into useful information. This paper focuses on various features of Data mining and challenges in Big Data. It further provides solution to the challenges faced by mining in Big Data.

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38 Implementation of Speed Efficient Image Compression Unit for 640x480 pixel using VHDL
Mr. Shubhdeep Bhatt, Prof. Vinod Kapse

Abstract—This research work is devoted to design high speed Image Compression Unit, which ultimately performs jpg to jpg/bmp to jpg to jpg compression operation. In which JPEG Encoder is the key element of digitized image compression unit, which is used in many places such as for multi-image disk storage, sending of many images through email etc. Speed is the most prominent factor of this JPEG Encoder being used recently. That’s why it’s imperative to design high speed Encoder, which can enhance the efficiency of those modules which lies upon the image compression operations performed by JPEG Encoder. To enhance speed of this unit we have used Ping-Pong buffer that gives much better result in comparison to other conventional buffer in terms of speed. Further we have analyzed hat 2-D DCT provides much better results in comparison to other transformations like Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform with respect to speed. And found that the 2-D DCT with Ping-Pong buffer gives better outcome. Then we have proposed that design for the JPEG Encoder unit design. This proposed image compression Unit is able to perform image compression operation at high speed. And after designing each module individually, it has been integrated to design final module, in which reset and clock functionality has been provided to have better control on the circuitry. To design proposed JPEG Encoder unit Verilog hardware description language (HDL) has been used to design test bench, VHDL has been used to design modules and Matlab has been used to fetch the images from folder. For this design the target FPGA belongs to Virtex-5 (family), XC5vsx92t (device), ff1136 (package) with speed grade of -2. For synthesis purpose Xilinx synthesis tool (XST) of Xilinx ISE-13.2i has been used. For the behavioral simulation purpose ISE simulator has been used.

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39 Quick Review on multiplication Algorithm for enhancing efficiency of MAC Unit
Mr. Irshad Khan, Mr. Sunil Shah, Prof. Vinod Kapse

Abstract—This review work is devoted for seeking speed efficient Multiply Accumulate Unit. As we know that MAC Unit is a digital co-processor which can performs multiply then accumulate operation. MAC Unit is the heart of digital signal processors to perform various sophisticated tasks that includes FFT, DFT, resolving various complex equations and Convolution etc. apart from this it is also used in various other configurations such as IIR, FIR etc. Every digital domain based technology depends upon the operations performed by MAC Unit either partially or whole. Speed is the most prominent factor of processor and controllers being used recently. To meet this major concern of “speed” we need particular high speed MAC. That’s why it is highly required to design high speed MAC, which can enhance the efficiency of those modules which lies upon the operations performed by MAC. The speed of MAC greatly depends upon the speed of multiplier. At algorithmic and structural level there are so many multiplication algorithms exist now-a-days. After a thorough study and proper analysis we have seen that Vedic multiplication technique is the best algorithm that gives much better result in comparison to others in terms of speed. Further we have analyzed different existing Vedic multiplication hardware, and compared those with respect to speed. And found that the Vedic multiplier with Carry Save Adder gives better outcome. Then we have proposed that multiplier for the MAC unit design. This proposed MAC Unit is able to perform different arithmetic operations at high speed. All sub-modules in the MAC unit has been designed in combinatorial form. And integrated in the final module, in which we have provided the reset and clock functionality to have better control on the circuitry.

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40 Improving Energy Efficiency of Finger Printing System Through Geo Localized Radio Database Compression
Nagajothi.P, Iswarya.M, Bhuvaneswari.P, MohanaPriyanka.S, Naveena.P

Abstract—Although location based finger printing positioning method on cellular networks is effectively implemented, still there is a need in optimizing the energy efficiency of the finger printing system with respects to green networking. In this paper we develop a new analytical model to shrink the fingerprint database through geo localized radio database compression. We apply identifying the fingerprints based on geo location leaving the unnecessary fingerprints. This location based geo compression reduces the computational load and improves the energy efficiency and time. The geo localized compression targets by reducing the errors in identifying the distance.

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41 Identification and Segmentation of Helmets in Motorcycles
G.S.Gopik, R.M.Bhavadharini, Dr.S.Karthik
Abstract—The traffic video surveillance system is present in many countries to monitor the road traffic. The events are monitored as a whole to identify any violations. Our work is to detect whether the motorcycle riders are having the helmets. Even though motorcycles are convenient means of transportation, it is not so safer. Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem and a leading cause of death and injury around the world. Motorcycle and bicycle riders are at an increased risk of being involved in a crash. This is because they often share the traffic space with fast-moving cars, buses and trucks, and also because they are less visible. Motorcycles are difficult to detect using the surveillance cameras, since they overlap with other vehicles in the traffic. Here, we have give a traffic video as input. In this video, we apply background extraction algorithm. This is used to extract the foreground objects in the video which is then extracted as frames. In the next stage, the SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) algorithm is used to detect a motion object motorcycle. Using the Region of Interest (ROI), it chooses the location where the helmet can be found. This area is extracted and the helmet is detected.

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42 A Comparative Study Of Forecasting Different Data-Sets By Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network Using Data Mining
Meenu Madan, Dr. Sarsij Tripathi

Abstract—Forecasting time series data of different fields like finance, production, industries, etc. is an important problem that is receiving great attention of the researchers. Prediction of stock market opening, closing, high, low, etc. are an issue of interest to financial markets. Rice production in country is of great concern. Milk production is also one of the fields which are of concern as it is the basic necessity for a common man. Many prediction techniques have been used in stock forecasting, Rice prediction, milk prediction. Neural networks are one of the most suitable techniques for forecasting the future value considering the past data. This paper aims at collecting the past voluminous data belonging to different fields to forecast the future values of the same using Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network along with data mining concepts. We have calculated the Root Mean Square Error between the actual data and the predicted data. We have used Resilient algorithm in this research work. In this research work we have implemented different ANN architecture using Encog Framework supported by Visual Studio to forecast voluminous data of different fields such as stock market, crop production, etc .

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