JCT - Volume 3 Issue 8 (August 2014)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Novel Quality Metric for Improving Image Watermarking Techniques
S.Dhanalakshmi, T.Ravichandran

Abstract—Image watermarking is applied in copyright management (copyright authentication, traitor tracing, and access control) as well as channel error resilience. Watermark are visible or not with a given watermark strength. However, the critical question is whether the watermark takes full advantage of the perceptual distortion constraint and achieves the robustness as high as possible.It proposes a second-order statistics (SOS)-based image quality metric, which considers the texture masking effect and the contrast sensitivity in Karhunen–Loève transform domain. Apply this metric for spread spectrum watermarking and quantization index modulation based watermarking techniques to minimize the distortion of the watermarked image and to maximize the correlation between the watermark pattern and the spread spectrum carrier as well as Quantization index modulation (QIM) carrier.

2 Comparison of NRZ and RZ Modulation Formats using Dispersion Compensating Fiber
Rupinderjit Kaur

Abstract— In Optical Wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system in order to reduce dispersion various dispersion compensating techniques are used. Dispersion can also be controlled by selecting proper modulation format for the input data. In this paper we compare non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) formats at different wavelength. These two modulation format are well-known cost-effective candidates for the optical communication. The overall system performance of WDM system is investigated by NRZ and RZ modulation respectively using DCF. In this work we have designed, 8-channel WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system using NRZ and RZ. System performance can be compared at different modulation format by varying wavelength of single mode fiber. Comparison of different wavelength i.e. 980nm and 1550nm and different modulation format NRZ and RZ using dispersion compensation fiber is analyzed in this paper. We found 1550nm in NRZ has better performance as compared to RZ in 1550nm and 980nm in NRZ has better Performance as compared to RZ in 980nm Wavelength. We use the dispersion compensation fiber along with single mode fiber for length of 105 km operating at data rate of 3Gb\s with 8-channel of WDM System. Q-factor and BER (equivalent to bit error ratio) is selected as the criterion for the comparison.

3 BRAM: A New Bidirectional Routing Abstraction Model for identifying Intruders over Multiple Sensing Networks
Banasmita Moharana , S. k. Sharma, S. K.Padhi

Abstract— The migration to wireless sensor networks from wired network has been a global trend in the past few decades. For identifying the suspicious objects or intruders in wireless sensor networks there was no proper system until an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has been proposed. With the implementation of these new IDS, the malicious, incorrect or anomalous moving objects are easily identified in WSN.Wireless sensor networks are generally categorized into two types of networks like Homogeneous based network and other one is Heterogeneous based networks. In this current paper we consider the intrusion detection problem on heterogeneous WSN model. We have applied the bidirectional routing concept in order for the better routing over the existing two protocols AODV and OSPF technologies. For implementing the current problem, we used Qualnet 5.0 Simulator on two different sensing models like SSDM (Single Sensing Detection Model) and MSDM (Multiple Sensing Detection Model). We also proposed and implemented a new intrusion-detection system named Enhanced Adaptive ACKnowledgment Scheme (EAACKS) specially designed for MANETs in this paper. Our simulation results using Qualnet Simulator 5.0 clearly tells the comparison between single sensor homogeneous and multiple sensor heterogeneous networks.
4 Optimization of Distributed queries based on cost complexities
Amandeep Kaur

Abstract— In DB area, may be centralized or decentralized, Query optimization is the hardest problem. A user can pass query in declarative way in form of SQL command or some other form, some execution strategy is required for Query performance tuning. Moreover a distributed database is a collection of independent cooperating centralized systems. Query processing in a distributed database requires transfer of data from one computer to another through a communication network. Query at a given site might require data from different (remote) sites. An optimizer can help in this regard as it can decide in which order a query should be executed. Cost is measured in terms of sum of I/O cost, CPU cost at each site and the cost of transferring data between sites. The complexity and cost increases with the increasing number of relations and amount of data transmission in the query. If number of relations and data transmission can be minimized, then cost can be automatically controlled. The key problem for query optimization in a distributed database is selection of the most cost effective plan to execute a query. Lots of research is going on in this area. Here this paper will focus on optimization model, application of optimization techniques on queries and cost analysis before and after applying Query optimization.
5 Bitcoin-Security Issues
Preeti Sharma, Gulshan Kumar

Abstract—Bitcoin is a free open source peer-to-peer electronic cash system. It is completely distributed, without any control of a central server or trusted parties. Bitcoin has the prospective to transform online payment systems in a way that welfare consumers and businesses. Instead of using an intermediary such as PayPal or submitting credit card information to a third party for verification-both of which often include transaction fees and other restrictions-Bitcoin allows individuals to pay each other directly for goods or services. The characteristics that make Bitcoin so ground-breaking have also made it a target for regulators, who dread that the cryptocurrency will aid money laundering, tax evasion and other crimes. But, unlike cash, Bitcoin transactions are logged in an online journal. Bitcoin closely look like traditional cash than other forms of e-spending, and this ability to marry cash-like properties with prompt electronic payments is highly advertised by Bitcoin buffs as an advantage to various actors, traders involved. Bitcoin combines the best of both worlds from a feature viewpoint, from a security perspective this union of cash and computers could barely be inferior. A currency which is vulnerable to large-scale theft can never be widely accepted for everyday acquisitions, and thus it follows that if Bitcoin is to become a substitute to current payment systems, we must find some way to make it secure for the average user. This paper highlights various security issues and attacks on Bitcoin. Finally, it provides some research directions in the area of Bitcoin.
6 Hash functions for message Authentication
Richa Arora

Abstract—This paper talks about hash message authentication code which is used for message authentication using hash functions. It also discusses about keyed-hash functions and digital signatures.

7 Decision Support System in Educational and Telecom Sector
Heena Kalra

Abstract—Every organization needs a system which can take efficient decisions for the company’s growth. Data Mining provides a platform which facilitates efficient decision making on the basis of past data trends and behavior. This paper proposes the benefit of using some techniques of Data Mining in Educational Sector and Telecom Sector. Such techniques can grow Staff performance, students’ performance and hence organizational performance.

8 Task scheduling in Grid Computing Platform
Nagamani T1, Balamurugan V, Senthil Kumar. V

Abstract—Grid computing is a high performance distributed computing environment to solve larger scale computational demands. It contains resource management, job scheduling, security problems, and information management and so on. Job scheduling is a fundamental issue in achieving high performance in grid computing systems. The objective of this project is to schedule independent, equal-sized tasks on a tree-based grid computing platform, where resources have different speeds of computation and communication. Instead of minimizing the total execution time, which has been proven to be Non-deterministic Polynomial time hard (NP-hard), we improve existing integral linear planning model. In this model, the time complexity to obtain optimal number of tasks assignment to each computing node of multi-level tree is high. To address this problem, Push-Pull method is proposed, which transforms the linear planning of multi-level tree into single-level tree and therefore the time complexity is greatly reduced. Based on the optimal tasks assignment to each node, a static distributed heuristic task scheduling algorithm is employed for establishing efficient mapping between tasks and available resources. The performance analysis of the resulting system reveals that the system is highly robust and efficient execution of the tasks is possible. The proposed approach employs a static distributed task scheduling algorithm for establishing efficient mapping between tasks and available resources. This scheduling strategy groups the user jobs according to a particular grid resource’s processing capability and sends the grouped jobs to the resource. Job grouping in tree based grid environment enhances the computation/communication ratio.

9 Representation of Web Requirements Engineering Using Agile
Aabha Sharma

Abstract—During development of any project the software requirement is the foremost and most crucial step. A well explained and client discussed requirement specification results a robust and reliable software development. But any sudden and untimely change in requirement disturbs the whole development process and increase the cost of the software. But vice versa when the requirement is clearly defined we can save such cost, effort and time of redevelopment. In this proposed work we are presenting the agile based requirement gathering automated system for web applications development based on extreme programming and Scrum. This system is basically designed for the web applications where we will merge the user web page requirements, respective validation and the development phase. This whole process will be done in the form of a navigational tool which will accept the user requirements in terms of design and control specification and generates the client side and server side code with validations.

10 Efficient Neural Network Based Edge Detection On Medical Images
K.K.Thanammal, Dr.J.S.Jaya Sudha

Abstract—Edge detection is an important but rather difficult task in image processing and analysis. In this research, artificial neural networks are employed for edge detection based on its adaptive learning and nonlinear mapping properties. Fuzzy sets are introduced during the training phase to improve the generalization ability of neural networks. The application of the proposed neural network approach to the edge detection of medical image for automated lung cancer. So simulation results are obtained .

11 A Novel Packet Hiding Mechanism to avoid Selective Jamming Attacks: Model and Analysis
Vangapandu V Kalyani, V.Lokeshwari Vinya

Abstract—This intentional interference with wireless transmissions can be used as a launchpad for mounting Denial-of-Service attacks on wireless networks. Typically, jamming has been addressed under an external threat model. This paper considers the problem of an attacker disrupting an encrypted victim wireless ad hoc network through jamming. Jamming is broken down into layers and this paper focuses on jamming at the Transport/Network layer. Jamming at this layer exploits AODV and TCP protocols and is shown to be very effective in simulated and real networks when it can sense victim packet types, but the encryption is assumed to mask the entire header and contents of the packet so that only packet size, timing, and sequence is available to the attacker for sensing. A sensor is developed that consists of four components. The first is a probabilistic model of the sizes and interpacket timing of different packet types. The second is a historical method for detecting known protocol sequences that is used to develop the probabilistic models, the third is an active jamming mechanism to force the victim network to produce know sequences for the historical analyzer, and the fourth is the online classifier that makes packet type classification decisions. The ratio of the jamming pulses duration to the transmission duration can be as low as 10-4. We investigate and analyze the performance of combining a cryptographic interleaver with various coding schemes to improve the robustness of wireless LANs for IP packets transmission.

12 A Novel Identity based Secure Distributed Data Storage System in Cloud Computing based on Database –as-a-Service
kilani kusuma, P.S.Avadhani

Abstract—Now a day’s by using secure distributed data storage schema, we can reduce a lot of burden of maintaining a large number of files from the data owner to proxy servers. In general proxy servers are those which can convert encrypted files for the data owner to encrypted files for the data receiver without knowing the original information. For space complexity the data owner will remove the original files from his system. As data was stored on a remote server, we must mainly concentrate on two major issues like confidentiality and integrity of the outsourced data. In this paper, we have proposed two new identity-based secure distributed data storage (IBSDDS) schemes. Our two new schemes can capture the following properties: (1) Firstly whenever the data/file which is uploaded by file owner on remote server he will decide the file access permission independently on his own without the help of any third party private key generator (PKG).(2) For one query, a receiver can only access appropriate one file, instead of all files that are stored by the owner; (3) Our two new schemes are secure against the collusion attacks, namely even if the receiver can compromise the proxy servers, he cannot obtain the owner’s secret key. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first IBSDDS schemes where access permissions is made by the owner for an exact file and collusion attacks can be protected in the standard model.

13 Enhanced Three Tier Security Scheme for Data Transfer in Mobile Sensor Networks by Using Mobile Sinks
Kadiri Sireesha, Mr. Jagadish Gurrala

Abstract-A wireless sensor network (WSN) of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. Mobile sinks (MSs) plays a very important role in many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications for efficient data accumulation, localized sensor reprogramming, and for distinguishing and revoking compromised sensors. Mobile sinks provides a great security in WSN as there was a lot of chance for attacker to easily obtain the keys by capturing a small fraction of nodes which in turn leads to gain the control of the network. In this paper we mainly describe a threetier general framework that permits the use of any pairwise key predistribution scheme as its basic component. The proposed new framework requires two separate key pools, one key is used for authentication between mobile sink (client) to Access Point or Router in order to access the network, and another for pairwise key establishment between the server and router . As an enhancement we have also implemented a security of data by encrypting the data and giving security with the help of AES encryption algorithm,inorder to give more security for the data while transferring from server to client. Our simulation results clearly tells that our new three tier security framework has higher network resilience to a mobile sink replication attack as compared to the polynomial pool-based scheme.

14 Web Search Engine: A New Crawling Tool for Mining Web Pages over Internet based on Page Usage
Gowthami.G, S. A. Bhavani

Abstract-A web Search is a program, which automatically traverses the web by downloading documents and following links from page to page. They are mainly used by web search engines to gather data for indexing. Other possible applications include page validation, structural analysis and visualization; update notification, mirroring and personal web assistants/agents etc. Web Search are also known as spiders, robots, worms etc.In this project we are using the web search program as a crawler application where the crawling of the pages is done not by the overall page rank(I.e. Overall total page’s rank count visited by users),but the pages are crawled based on individual page count of individual URL’s.As our application is used to measure the individual page traffic accurately our application is mainly useful for Web –Masters for maintaining the traffic of each and every web page in an very sophisticated manner. As this application requires internet connection, the internet connection should be of enough bandwidth as in order for processing the Web pages URL’s accurately and fastly.This application is limited for crawling up to non SSL protected pages but it is failed in crawling SSL protected pages as due to governing internet security policies. In this current application we can find out the count of successfully crawled URL’s as well as failed URL’s successfully based on the pages which were crawled by internet traffic.This work implements the “Breadth First Searching” algorithm, a refined version of one of the first dynamic Web search algorithm.

15 A Novel Mechanism of Preventing Unparlimentary Messages in OSN Networks
Mulagapati DurgaDevi, J.Peter Praveen

Abstract-Online Social Networks (OSNs) plays a very important role in today‟s day to day communication. By using OSN network a lot of billions of users share their recent updates and personal feelings all around the world through public and private access policy pattern. As the OSN Network is increasing its popularity by gaining a lot of user‟s attention ,the major important issue that was faced by OSN user‟s is the ability to control the messages posted on their own private space to avoid that unwanted content is displayed. To solve this problem, in this paper, we proposed a new novel filtering system which allows all the participating OSN users to have a direct control on the messages posted on their walls. This new mechanism allows users to post the wall message with a free of abused words. This is achieved by a Machine Learning (ML) based soft classifier algorithm which is used for automatically labeling messages if it is recognized as black list word.

16 A Novel Privacy Preserving Tool for Hiding Sensitive Data in Digital Media Format
Manjeti Prashanthi Rani, J.Peter Praveen

Abstract-Today’s large demand of internet applications requires data to be transmitted in a secure manner. Data transmission in public communication system is not secure because of interception and improper manipulation by eavesdropper. So the attractive solution for this problem is Steganography, which is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intend recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. Steganography is the scheme of hiding the existence of secret information by concealing it into another medium such as audio, video or image files. In Steganography does not alter the structure of the secret message, but hides it inside a cover image so that it cannot be seen. A message in a cipher text, for instance, might arouse suspicion on the part of the recipient while an “invisible” message created with steganographic methods will not. In other word, steganography prevents an unintended recipient from suspecting that the data exists.

17 MultiFactor Authentication by Using Image Processing Techniques
Poosarla Vinay Raj, Pranitha Gadde

Abstract-User Authentication is the process of confirming the identity. It majorly depends on three factors namely, something you have (Hardware token), something you are (e.g. finger print) and something you know (e.g. password). In this paper we analyse three factors of authentication, text password authentication, image sequence and image template. By providing aforementioned major factors we can increase security level and secure data from third party. As we have conducted several experiments on this three factor authentication, we finally came to a conclusion that this proposed approach is very good at providing security for the large and small scale usage person’s in order to hide their valuable data.

18 A New Access Control Mechanism for Providing Security in OSN Networks
Kantimahanti Sravya, Sri.M.Sampath Kumar

Abstract-Now a days OSN is becoming a online community based portal for users to inform the users activities and movements to people who live around the world. In the online social networks like Facebook we create friendslist to classify easily the friends into own groups and also to assist or monitor users in controlling access to their information. In this paper, we mainly concentrate on the effectiveness of FF’s from two aspects: Friend Management and Policy Patterns by examining how the facebook users build their individual own friendlists and to what extent they use them in their policy templates for preserving the information. For doing this we designed a new access control model to capture the essence of multiparty authorization requirements. In this OSN, we are also giving highest security for the Owner posted images in the form of comments and replies given by various Stakeholders and Accessors, which is not at all implemented in any Social networking sites till today.

19 A Novel Secure Protocol for Spontaneous Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Creation
Botcha Sandhya Rani, Sri.M.Sampath Kumar

Abstract-Now a day’s wireless ad hoc networks are becoming more and more promising network in real time environment. These ad hoc networks using both symmetric and asymmetric schemes for performing network creations. In this paper we presented a new secure protocol for spontaneous wireless ad hoc networks which uses a hybrid symmetric/ asymmetric scheme and the trust between users in order to exchange the initial data and to exchange the secret keys that will be used to encrypt the data. Through this paper we want to convince that our proposal is a complete selfconfigured secure protocol that is able to create the network and share secure services without any predefined infrastructure. The protocol includes all functions needed to operate without any external support. We have designed and developed it in devices with limited resources. Network creation stages are detailed and the communication, protocol messages, and network management are explained. Our proposal has been implemented in order to test the protocol procedure and performance. Finally, we compare the protocol with other spontaneous ad hoc network protocols in order to highlight its features and we provide a security analysis of the system. As an extension of this paper we have also implemented a data transfer mechanism along with network creation mechanism.

20 A Novel Privacy Protocol for Message Authentication in Hop-by-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks
Sumala Hemababu , Majji Venkata Appala Naidu

Abstract-In wireless sensor networks message authentication plays a very effective way to identify unauthorized and corrupted messages from being forwarded. To avoid these attacks many message authentication schemes have been developed till to date, based on either symmetric key cryptosystems or public key cryptosystems. Most of them, however, have the limitations of high computational and communication overhead. To address these problems, a new polynomial-based scheme was recently introduced based on threshold function. In this paper, we propose a scalable authentication scheme based on new elliptic curve cryptography (NECC),While enabling several intermediate nodes authentication, our proposed scheme allows any node to transmit an unlimited number of messages without suffering the threshold problem. In addition, our scheme can also provide message source privacy. By conducting various theoretical analysis and simulation results, we finally demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient than the polynomial-based approach in terms of computational and communication overhead under comparable security levels while providing message source privacy.

21 A Novel Protocol for Detection and Prevention of Fraud in Online Through Proactive Model
Krishnaveni Ampolu, P.Srinivasu Varma

Abstract-In the Past 4 Years, e-commerce is growing faster than predicted as it is up over 400% compared in the past. As customers have the ease to buy things without spending much time there are also some criminals who try to do fraud and get profit in illegal ways. As people are enjoying the advantages from online trading, traitors are also taking advantages to accomplish betrayal activities against candid parties to obtain dishonest profit. In this paper in order to detect and prevent such illegal and betrayal activities online probit fraud-detection moderation systems are commonly applied in practice. Machine learned models which are learned online are capable to catch deceptive more proficiently and quickly than human-tuned rule-based systems. In this paper, we show that this model can probably distinguish more deceptions and extensively decrease customer complaints which are based on a real-world online auction fraud detection data compared to several baseline models and the human-tuned rule-based system.