IJAIR- Volume 3 Issue 8 (August 2014)


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Steganography System Using Successive Logical And Operation Of Last Four Bits
Shivani Yadav, Deepak Goyal

Abstract — Steganography is a technique of hiding information in some cover media i.e. image, text, audio, video . The main purpose of steganography is to conceal the existence of the message while communicating. In this paper, a new Steganography technique is presented, implemented and analyzed. The proposed method uses the 5th, 6th, 7th & 8th bit of pixel value of cover image. The main idea is to apply successive Logical AND operation on last four bits of pixel value.

2 Review Paper on Black Hole Attack in Manet
Monika Nandal, Deepak Goyal, Pankaj Gupta

Abstract— A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by radio network and maintaining connections in a decentralized manner. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due to theirseveral features suchas open medium, dynamic topologies, reliance on cooperative algorithms, absence of centralized accessing points, and lack of clear lines of defense. A large number of attacks occur in MANET such as wormhole attack,blackhole attack,Sybil attack etc. So, protecting the network layer of a MANET from these malicious attacks is an important and a very challenging issue. Most of the routing protocols for MANETs are vulnerable to various types ofattack such as AODV, DSR. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) is a very popular routing algorithm. However, it is vulnerable to thewell-known black hole attack. Blackholeattack , where a malicious node falsely advertises good paths to a destination node attract the source nodes during the route discoveryprocess but drops all packets in the data forwarding phase. This attack becomes more severe when a group of malicious nodescooperate each other.

3 Enhanced Security Mechanism to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in MANET Using Fuzzy Logic
Monika Nandal, Deepak Goyal , Pankaj Gupta

Abstract—A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes that communicate with each other by radio links and maintaining connections with each other in a decentralized manner. Security is a major challenge for wireless networks due to several features such as open medium of communication, dynamic topology, absence of centralized accessing points etc.[7,10]. In this paper, Blackhole attack is discussed. A Black hole node[5] is actually a bad node which seems to promise sender that it will direct the message to the correct receiver, but in actual it either drops the packets, not try o send the message to proper destination or disturb the contents stored in packets. So, to protect the network layer of a MANET from this black hole attack is an important issue. We try to use fuzzy approach to detect and prevent node to be black hole[4]. Here, three parameters –throughput, packet loss, packet delay are used to ensure which neighbor node will be next hop to reach destination We use AODV protocol. While selecting the next routing node a fuzzy analysis is performed to identify the maximum throughput node, minimum packet loss and the minimum delay node. The work generates a new routing path for the communication. The obtained results show that the proposed approach has improved the overall communication over the network and reduced the packet loss.

4 Experimental Investigation Of Thermal Energy Storage Using Spherical Pcm Capsules
K.Jayasimha Reddy , E.Siva Reddy

Abstract— Conventional fossil fuels on one hand are depleting and on the other, are creating pollution and spoiling the environment and hence the efforts to utilize various renewable energy sources are to be expedited. In countries like India, solar energy is a promising alternate source of energy. The major problem with solar energy is inconsistency between the supply and demand. The method of Thermal Energy Storage system used in the field of solar energy may fulfill the gap . TES technique is achieved by means of Sensible Heat Storage (SHS) and Latent Heat Storage (LHS). Several researchers focused to study and analyze the heat transfer of TES system using PCM . Phase change in spherical geometry is of great interest. Good amount of research work has been carried on the solidification and melting with in spherical enclosures. Spherical shapes exhibited the best heat released performance among the other investigated shapes. In the present work it is proposed to study and analyze the solar TES with PCM encapsulated in spherical geometry. Line focusing concentrating collector are used under high mass flow rates with continuous circulation. Also as the part of study, the experiment have been conceived to carry out at different flow rates of inlet fluid and two types of PCM .

5 Evaluation Model For Web Service Change Management Based On Business Policy Enforcement
G.Nandhini,P.Inbavalli,T.Halima Begum

Abstract-Today organizations in all industries are increasingly dependent upon IT and a highly available network to meet their business goals. As customer expectations is one of the current problems faced by IT enterprises at present, leading to increasingly complex IT service management systems. Although there exists many change management issues and solutions, there is no proper support for efficient change evaluation and monitoring. Present change management works are done only in the web service interface such as WSDL Web Service Definition Language and there is no proper support for dynamic nature in them. In order to provide a flexible environment for the Business Analyst to perform the emergency changes over the service business logic without the need of IT staff and also to evaluate changes made, we propose a Finite State Machine based Evaluation Model for Web Service Runtime Change Management and also a set of change factors to evaluate runtime changes of web services. Among which we mainly focus on the factor Business Policy Enforcement which is used for checking whether there is any policy violation with respect to the changes made. We first define the various change factors and derived solution is considered as the change measure for individual change factor.

6 Performance Analysis for the Combination of Histogram based Thresholding And Morphological Watershed in comparison to other Existing Optic Disc Detection Techniques
Amandeep Kaur, Reecha Sharma

Abstract -- Several methods have been introduced in the last decades to detect the optic disc in retinal images that is the most fundamental step in the prognosis and diagnosis of various eye disorders. This paper presents the various techniques which are beneficial in disc detection and attempt to provide a comparison between several detection methods. An important aspect of our study is to highlight the advantages of the combination of histogram based thresholding and morphological watershed transform while pointing the shortcomings of other methods.The combined approach is able to detect the Optic Disc in 99.31% of tested cases.The approach is tested on 6 different databases.

7 A novel technique for the estimation of accurate thickness of the sea ice
Maninderjeet, Reecha Sharma

Abstract-An ice has different types of properties and types. Remote sensing is safe navigation for ships where ice caps are form and it is essential to understand the climate conditions of the oceans. The main function of ice mapping is to generate the maps of sea ice according to their geographical location. Existing algorithms are not able to give accurate results of the thickness of the ice and size of the ice. In this proposed work, we will be work on pixel segmentation. It helps to calculate the exact thickness value of the ice.

8 Design a flattop Window Based Digital Filter by Using Neural Network a Comparison
Ajeet Maheshwari, Karuna Markam

Abstract-In this paper, we have designed the digital filter based on flattop window function using ANN. Firstly we have designed the 10th order digital filter based on flattop window function then calculate the coefficient of designed filter. We have designed filter at frequency ranges 1 to 45 Hz. Then we calculated the coefficients of filter at different frequencies. Some data group of coefficients is used to train the neural network designed using feed forward back prop, radial basis and layer recurrent algorithm and rest are used as test input to neural network. The output corresponding to test input is approximate equal to output calculated using FDA tool. After training the neural network using prefer three network algorithms we got the output. The output gathered from all three methods has been compared on the basis of nearest value of cut-off frequency. The layer recurrent method provides more accurate result as compare to other two methods.

9 Design A Rectangular Window Based Digital Filter Using Layer Recurrent Method
Deependra Singh Karoria, Madhav Singh

Abstract-In this paper low pass filter has been design using FIR rectangular window technique. The coefficient of this filter calculated at frequency range from 0.05 to 0.95. the collection of 17 data values out of 19 data has been used for trining of neural network using layer recurrent neural network algorithm. Simulation of this neural network done using remained two test data the accuracy of this neural network approximate near to data value collected from fda tool.

10 Estimation of Drag and Lift on Ahmed Body Using CFD Analysis
M.Govardhana, Dr.B.Veerabhadra Reddy

Abstract─The aim of the paper is to evaluate the drag and lift coefficients of an Ahmed body. The geometry of Ahmed body is a simplified car used to investigate the flow analysis in automotive vehicle. CFD simulations are carried out by dividing the physical domain into small finite volume elements and numerically solved the governing equations that describe the behavior of the flow, in which simplified generic land vehicle geometry was used to analyze the effect of a slanted rear end and the effect of the angle is carried. The geometry with 25° hatchback angle solid model of the car is developed using CATIA V5. The modeled car is imported to GAMBIT (version 2.4) where the fluid flow around the car is given and a tetrahedral mesh is generated. The drag and lift coefficients are obtained using the FLUENT. The commercially available FLUENT (version 12.1) has been used in the present analysis with the objective of obtaining a better flow around the car and lowering the coefficient of drag.

11 Fuzzy Cost Analysis Of Mx/G1 G2/1/Mv Queuing Model
K. Julia Rose Mary, P. Monica, S. Mythili

Abstract - The aim of this paper is to investigate the cost analysis of MX/G1 G2/1 Multiple vacation (MV) Queuing model in Fuzzy environment which helps to control the queues in different situation. A mathematical Parametric Non-linear Programming (NLP) method is used to construct the membership function of the system characteristic of a batch arrival multiple vacation policy queue in which arrival rate, service rate for vacation period, holding cost, setup cost, startup cost reward cost are fuzzy numbers. The α-cut and Zadeh’s Extension Principle[19] are used to transform a fuzzy queue into a family of conventional crisp queues. By means of membership functions of the system characteristics, a set of parametric non linear program is developed to calculate the lower and upper bound of the system characteristics function at α. Thus the membership functions of the system characteristics are constructed. Numerical example is also illustrated to check the validity of the proposed model.

12 Reduction Of Short And Long Duration Faults In Three Phase –Three Wire System Using UPQC
Mr. Jalli Manohar, Smt. Saleha Tabassum

Abstract-The power electronics based devices are to produce the quality power in the electrical power supply. nowadays the power quality reduced equipment applications are increasing so that the power engineers to develop the dynamic solutions to power quality custom power devices (CPD) that deals with the load current and supply voltage to called the UPQC(unified power quality conditioner). This paper investigated the development of UPQC control schemes and algorithms for power quality improvement and implementation of a versatile control strategy to enhance the performance of UPQC. The proposed control scheme gives better steady-state and dynamic response. The validity of the proposed control method is verified by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK.

13 A Novel Construction Technique For Designing Of Video Application Using Wireless 4G
G. Naga jyothisree, K.Vasu babu

Abstract— In an OFDM scheme, a large number of orthogonal, overlapping, narrow band sub-channels or subcarriers, transmitted in parallel, divide the available transmission bandwidth. The separation of the subcarriers is theoretically minimal such that there is a very compact spectral utilization. The attraction of OFDM is mainly due to how the system handles the multipath interference at the receiver. Multipath generates two effects: frequency selective fading and inters symbol interference (ISI). The "flatness" perceived by a narrow-band channel overcomes the former, and modulating at a very low symbol rate, which makes the symbols much longer than the channel impulse response, diminishes the latter. Using powerful error correcting codes together with time and frequency interleaving yields even more robustness against frequency selective fading and the insertion of an extra guard interval between consecutive OFDM
14 Optimizing The PTFE Teflon Vortex Tube Parameters Using Taguchi Technique
Prerna S. Kulkarni, Dr. J.W.Bakal

Abstract— Vortex tube is a mechanical device that separates compressed gas into hot and cold streams. When high pressure air enters into the vortex chamber through one or more tangential nozzles, a strong vortex flow created which splits into two regions. The high temperature air near the boundary of the tube leaves circumferentially through the conical valve where as the air at lower temperature leaves through the cold orifice. A conical valve is adjusted with the hand control knob allows for adjusting the volume and temperature of air coming out from the cold end. There is no maintenance, no mess, no explosion hazard, no electricity, and no moving parts in using the vortex tube. Vortex tubes behave in a very predictable and controllable way. The only disadvantage with the vortex tube is its low coefficient of performance (COP).

15 Comparison Of Experimental And Cfd Analysis For Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient
Manjunatha D G, Mr Dodda Hanumesha & H V Harish

Abstract— Free convection heat transfer for an inclined steel pipe of 55 degree was carried out for different heat input .The experiments were carried on specially developed facility to perform constant heat flux and the temperatures were measured by thermocouples. The electrical input to the heater was controlled by dimmer stat and is measured by wattmeter. The experiments are carried for Gr number; the effects of inclination and Gr number on the temperature distribution were investigated. The average Nusselt numbers (Nu) were estimated along the tube length. The experimental heat transfer co-efficient was calculated from Nu number. The aim of project was concentrated on optimizing the Design (D/L RATIO) of inclined heated steel pipe for different heat input. Further by using the boundary condition of different heat input flow of steel pipe, analysis for copper pipe carried out through CFD and D/L ratio of inclined heated copper pipe for different heat input was finalized. The present work is aimed at studying the effect of different system parameters on the heat transfer and buoyancy induced flow inside circular tubes using CFD. They include tube length, tube diameter, tube inclination and heat supplied. Constant heat flux boundary condition is created on the tube surface. The heat transfer coefficient and the induced flow rate both were found increasing with increase in the heat supplied and the angle of inclination with the horizontal. The Experimental results Compare with the CFD results has been validated. Geometry is created in ICEM CFD Boundary conditions are provided to the pipe in CFX-PRE software, solving carried out through CFX-SOLVER and results obtained through CFD-POST.

16 Designing an Efficient Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Network
Nikhil Khichariya,Neha Choubey

Abstract— Opportunistic networks are one of the mainly attractive developments of MANETs. In These networks, movable nodes are enabled to correspond with each other even if a route linking them not at all exists. In addition, nodes are not invented to hold or obtain any information about the network topology, which (instead) is essential in traditional MANET routing protocols. Routes are built enthusiastically, while communication are route among the dispatcher and the target(s), and any promising node can opportunistically be use as subsequently hop, provide it is probable to take the communication quicker to the final objective. These necessities formulate opportunistic networks a difficult and hopeful research field. In this Paper, a new steering protocol for transportation less is predictable that is an enhancement of the obtainable contagion routing protocol.

17 Enhancement of Rectangular Micro strip Patch Antenna Parameters By Using ―Slotted Circular Ring‖ Shaped Meta material Structure
Anjana Goen, Anshuman Garg, Vivek Gupta, Krishna kant Digharra

Abstract-A patch antenna tested the performance of the magnetic meta material as a substrate and validated that a single substrate can achieve a range of miniaturization values. In this work CST-MWS simulation software is used to compare the return loss and bandwidth of the micro-strip patch antenna at a frequency of 2.29GHz and height of 3.2 mm from the ground plane with the proposed meta material structure. It has been observed that the return loss has improved by 23.50 dB, bandwidth is improved up to 50.7 MHz the directivity increases by 0.4dBi.

18 A new approach for highly throughput AES encryption method on FPGA
Ashish kumar Agrawal, Santosh Yadav

Abstract— The significance of the security problems is greater in current data networks than in earlier systems because users are provided with the way to accomplish very critical operations like banking transfer and sharing of confidential business data, which require very high levels of protection. Weak security architectures allow successful eavesdropping (unauthorised attack), message tampering and modification attacks to occur, with huge consequences for end companies, users and other departments. The Advance Encryption standard (AES) block encryption present at the core of the f8 data hiding algorithm and also the f9 data reconstructing algorithm for Universal data Telecommunications System networks. The design aim is to enhance the data conversion rate means the throughput to an appropriate value hence the design can be used as a cryptographic sub-processor in very high speedy network uses. The work is to design an optimised solution for secure data communication AES is the standard encryption technique but proposed work is more optimised solution for the same when the chip area and encryption time considers as design parameters. Thesis work describe a new method for the Sbox-8 AES substitution and Key gen approach.

19 A Conceptual Overview: Awareness of Adversity Quotient and Need for Organizational Resilience in the Contemporary Era
Dr. Venkatesh. J, Shivaranjani. G, Thenmozhi. S, Dr. Balasubramanie. P and Manjula Gandhi. S

Abstract-One’s workforce is the foundation of one’s organizations ability to remain resilient. The concept of organizational resilience was born out of organizations strong sensitivity to perturbations on any scale. It is essential for organizations and individuals to become more agile as disruption seems to be everywhere these days with more and more industries collapsing, shutting down of major urban centre’s and financial markets getting imploded due to increase in volatility. This paper aims to throw light on Adversity Quotient, Organizational Resilience and how companies can improve their abilities to withstand disruptions.

20 Video Compression: A New Accordion Based Approach
Ajay Devatwal, Prof. Mahesh Prasad Parsai

Abstract- In this paper, we propose a new strategy to for the improvisation in the performance of ACC-JPEG. ACC-JPEG is the approach based on the accordion transform that tends to exploit the both intra and inter frame correlation. The ACC-JPEG technique compresses the video by reducing the spatial, spectral and temporal redundancies of the input video. The temporal redundancy is mainly depending on the co-relation between successive video frames. The accordion function converts the temporal redundancy into the spatial redundancy, which was removed using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). The accordion based ACC-JPEG technique is modified by changing the extracted block size used for the accordion manufacturing.

21 Efficient Cooperative Cache Replacement Algorithm for Distributed Social Wireless Networks
K. Kiranmai, Y.Leela krishna

Abstract-This paper introduces cooperative caching techniques for tumbling electronic content provisioning cost in Social Wireless Networks (SWNET).SWNETs are formed by mobile devices, such as modern cell phones etc. sharing common takings in electronic content, and actually meeting together in public places. Electronic object caching in such SWNETs are shown to be able to reduce the content provisioning cost which depends heavily on the service and price dependences among various stakeholders including content providers (CP), network service providers, and End Consumers (EC).This paper develops practical network, service, and pricing models which are then used for creating two object caching strategies for reducing content provisioning costs in networks with homogenous and heterogeneous object demands. The paper develops analytical and simulation designs for analyzing the proposed caching strategies in the presence of selfish users that deviate from network-wide cost-optimal policies. It also reports results from an Android phone based prototype SWNET, validating the presented analytical and simulation results.

22 Constitutional Battles On Right To Property
Anukriti Jain

Abstract-The Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (earlier Bill, 2011) was passed in the Lok Sabha in September, 2013. It was passed in view of the various short comings of the Land Acquisition Act, 1984 and due to lack of resettlement and rehabilitation policies. The new Act tries to fill the lacunae in the previous Act. It tries to solve the dispute of forced acquisition and compensation which existed in the 1984 Act. This paper analyses the Act and the major concerns with respect to right to property in the light of the Constitutional history and development of the Right to property in India. The highlights includes whether the present Act actually redresses the resettlement and other grievances of the people. Whether the state now justified in acquiring the property with its new compensation, resettlement and rehabilitation policies? Are the justifications enough to be given to the people while acquiring their property in the name of public interest? Is the scope of “public purpose” now exhaustive? Would it be better to have right to property as a fundamental right? What led the Supreme Court to make right to property a constitutional right? Whether the new Act a consequence of making right to property a constitutional right or a consequence of its emerging importance as a fundamental right? All the questions have been dealt with respect to the development of right to property in the Constitutional law. The key questions would be dealt in this paper, starting with the present Land Acquisition Act, 2013.

23 Comparative Analysis Of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network And Sensor Network
Monica Parmar, Saurabh Mishra

Abstract-Ad-hoc network is a self-configuring network of mobile routers connected by a wireless link. MANET is self-organizing and self-restoring. Sensor network have various nodes distributed randomly in a particular area to monitor physical and environmental conditions. These networks have some similarities and some differences. In this paper, MANET and WSN are compared in many terms by using same routing protocols for both networks. This analysis gives a result that same protocol can have different effect on both networks.

24 Survey of Cloud Protector Using IDS
Reena, Parbhat Varma

Abstract— Cloud computing poses a diversity of challenges in data mining operation arising out of the dynamic structure of data distribution as against the use of typical database scenarios in conventional architecture. Realization of maximum efficiency depends much on the initiation of accurate decision data mining. Cloud computing aims to provide convenient, on-demand, network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, and ser- vices), which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interactions.

25 Survey of IDS Approach Using Data Mining Tool WEKA
Aakshi Choudhary, Sarbjit Kaur

Abstract - Two common data mining techniques for finding hidden patterns in data are clustering and classification analyses. Classification is supposed to be supervised learning and clustering is an unsupervised classification with no predefined classes. Clustering tries to group a set of objects and find whether there is some relationship between those objects. In this paper we have used the numerical results generated through the Probability Density Function algorithm as the basis of recommendations in favor of the K-means clustering for weather-related predictions.

26 A Review on ―Assessment of Noise Pollution Indices in India"
Krishna Bhagwan Sharma, M. K. Koshta, R. K. Bhatia

Abstract- Traffic is a significant part of urban environment contributing about 55% to the total urban noise. Traffic noise is associated with adverse health effects, such as deafness, hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, annoyance and stress hormone disorder. For this reason inventory of road traffic noise in different cities around the world has become a popular research topic among the environmental scientists. In the recent years Transportation projects in India have created excessive Noise pollution which is displeasing the activity or balance of human and animal life. In the present study, attempts are made to evaluate the different parameters related to road traffic noise in India. The broad objective of this paper is to present the brief literature about the Road traffic noise, reason of noise pollution as well as remeady for noise pollution in Indian context.

27 Analysis of Load Balanced Model for Public Cloud Based on Cloud Partition Method
K. Venkateswarlu, Y.Leela krishna

Abstract-As we know Cloud computing is a concept that has many computers interconnected through a real time network like internet. Cloud computing means distributed computing. Cloud computing enables convenient, on-demand, dynamic and reliable use of distributed computing resources. Load balancing in the cloud computing environment has an important impact on the performance. Goodload balancing makes cloud computing more efficient and improves user satisfaction. This paper introduces a better load balance model for the public cloud based on the cloud partitioning concept with a switch mechanism to choose different strategies for different situations. The algorithm applies the game theory to the load balancing strategy to improve the efficiency in the public cloud environment.

28 On Prime Graphs
Dr.J.Devaraj, Linta K.Wilson

Abstract- In this paper we shall prove that the special butterfly graph, Franklin graph, and Herschel graph are prime graphs.

29 Presence Cloud for Mobile Presence Services in Social Network Application
Gonchi Shobha, A.Anitha

Abstract—Now a day’s Social networking services on the Internet are growing and increasing number of people are using these new ways to communicate and share information. At the same time mobile phones are becoming more powerful and increasingly offer high speed Internet connectivity. Because of this people expect these social networking services to be available on their mobile device. The mobile presence service is maintains each mobile user’s presence information, such as the current status (online/offline), GPS location and network address, and also updates the user’s online friends with the information continually. If the availability updates occur frequently, the enormous number of messages distributed by presence servers may lead to a scalability problem in a large-scale mobile presence service. To solve the problem, we propose efficient and scalable server architecture, called Presence Cloud, which enables mobile presence services to support large-scale social network applications. When a mobile user joins a network, Presence Cloud searches for the presence of his/her friends and notifies them of his/her arrival. Presence Cloud organizes presence servers into a quorum-based server-to-server architecture for efficient presence searching. It also leverages a directed search algorithm and a one-hop caching strategy to achieve small constant search latency. We analyze the performance of Presence Cloud in terms of the search cost and search satisfaction level. The search cost is defined as the total number of messages generated by the presence server when a user arrives; and search satisfaction level is defined as the time it takes to search for the arriving user’s friend list. The results of simulations demonstrate that Presence Cloud achieves performance gains in the search cost without compromising search satisfaction.

30 Investor Knowledge and Investment Practices of Private Sector Bank Employees
Dr. Rohit Manjule, Dr. Tarun Sharma

Abstract—The present study was conducted with an objective to analyze the level of knowledge regarding various investment avenues and present investment practices of employees of private sector banks in Nagpur city. A sample of 150 respondents was selected from 19 private sector banks in Nagpur. The study highlights the important sources of information that the respondents used to make their investment decisions. Further, the study revealed that a large majority of the respondents had invested in secured investments like employee provident fund, public provident fund, and post office saving schemes and even, the bank employees considered insurance as an investment tool rather than risk coverage instrument.

31 Power Quality Improvement In A Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid Connected To Pv System
A.Kusuma Kumari, M.Bhaskar Reddy

Abstract—This project deals with a single phase Photo Voltaic system with grid connected voltage control. When Distributed Power Generation System (DPG) is connected to a low voltage grid then the frequency and voltage of a grid cannot be controlled by adjusting the active and reactive power independently and also it is cost effective. To overcome this DPGS are replaced by PV systems where the shunt controllers are used to compensate small voltage variations which can be controlled by reactive power injection. The shunt controllers can be used as static VAR generator for stabilizing and improving voltage profile of power systems and to compensate current harmonics, unbalanced load current and improving voltage quality in case of small voltage dips. There the present topology of PV system adopts a repetitive controller, able to compensate the selected harmonics. The power provided by the PV panels are controlled by a recent algorithm know as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) based on the incremental conductance method and it has been modified to change the phase displacement between the converter voltage and the grid voltage, maximizing the extraction of power from the PV panels and compensation of harmonic distortion at the Point Of Common Coupling (PCC).

32 Fuzzy Cost Enabled Multipath Routing With Rough Set Approach in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Gomathi.M, Viswanathan.R

Abstract—In this article, we propose on selecting the effective routing paths in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) with fuzzy cost using rough set theory. MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that can dynamically form a network. Many routing protocols have been existed to find the shortest path using various resources. Fuzzy and Rough set theory is one of the approach for choosing the best path with minimal number of resources. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitations since it’s an infrastructure less network. So overcome these problems an optimal path management approach called path vector calculation based on fuzzy and rough set theory addressed. Focus of this research activity is to justify simpler rules and removes irrelevant resources for evaluating the best path. An example is also given to illustrate the efficiency of our proposed method.

33 Quantification of Short-TE Metabolite Signals in Human Brain at 3T using QUEST Algorithm and a Simulated Basis Set
Hyeon-Man Baek

Abstract—In vivo short-echo time (TE) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is a useful method for quantification of human brain metabolites. To evaluate the performance of QUEST (quantitation based on quantum estimation) method, a Monte Carlo study was done using the weighted sum signal. 8 of 10 metabolites had low Cramer-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB), but Asp and GABA showed relatively high CRLBs because these two peaks have lowconcentration, complex multiplets that severely overlap with other. In in vivo study, QUEST reliably quantified NAA, Cho, Cr (CRLB < 5%) and somewhat reliably quantified Glu, Glx, and Ins (CRLB = 10-20%) in the basal ganglia of healthy subjects at 3T. However, GABA, Asp, Gln, GSH and Tau could not be reliably quantified (CRLB > 30%) at 3T MRI scanner. Therefore, QUEST method is feasible for in vivo quantification of short-TE metabolite signals.

34 Cluster Based Protocol for Cooperative wireless Sensor Network
R.Suganya, P.Ravisasthiri, I.Arun

Abstract—In cluster based networks, transmission and receiving nodes engage adjacent nodes to aid in communication. In this model a cluster based transmission link in wireless networks as a transmitter cluster and a receiver cluster. The transmission link provides a cluster based protocol for establishing the cooperative networkby using the cooperative network we can save up to 80% of energy and it can be achieved by grid topology, while randomly placing the node in our cluster based protocol can save 40% of energyby comparing with other protocol. By reducing the error rates and saving energy which is used to increasethe efficiency of cooperative sensor networks.

35 Modeling And FEA Analysis Of Compression Spring For Feeder In Crushing Plants
A.V.Ramana Rao, G.Satish, D.J.Johnson, Chitturi Ramprasad

Abstract—This project describes design and FEA analysis of compression spring made of structural steel. The objective is to the load carrying capacity, elastic strain, deformation and stress steel compression spring. The dimensions of an existing conventional compression spring of a commercial screening machine are taken. The model of compression spring is created with the help of solid edge modelling software. Finite element analysis with full load on 3-D model of compression spring is done using ANSYS 14.

36 Factors Influencing Purchase Decisions of Durables in Nagaland: An empirical Study
Thangasamy Esakki

Abstract—Universally, consumers buy a variety of products to satisfy their needs and wants. The buying behaviours of ultimate consumers, as compared with business/industrial buyers, are more complex and dynamic. More participants, deliberations, and involvements are required to make sound purchase decisions of durables as it involves relatively larger cash outlay. Such consumer decision making processes, at different phases, are influenced by several factors such as cultural, social, psychological, personal etc. Apart from these factors, the products‟ multifaceted dimensions do also often influence the final buying decisions of the consumers. In order to integrate the interests of both the firms and consumers judiciously, by ensuring maximum satisfaction to consumers profitably, a study on product-related factors influencing the final buying decisions becomes the need of the hour. In India, such studies are being undertaken throughout the country off and on. However, in North Eastern Region, especially in Nagaland, no such significant studies on this front have been carried out so far. This crucial element has, thus, become the rationale for the present study. This paper is an attempt to analyze the factors influencing the purchase decisions of selected durables viz; Television, Refrigerator, Washing Machine, Four Wheeler and Furniture in Nagaland, to identify the intensity of their influence on consumers‟ buying decisions of the durables, and to put forward suggestive measures to the marketers for designing an apt product mix to the consumers within the State.

37 Improvement of Power Quality Using Transformerless Cascaded STATCOM under Balanced / Un-Balanced Supply Conditions with Non- Linear Loads
Mohammad.yaseen,S.Chandra Sekhar

Abstract—The rapid development of power electronics technology provides opportunities to develop new power equipment to improve the performance of the actual power systems. STATCOM can provide fast and efficient reactive power support to maintain power system voltage stability. Based on the cascaded H-bridge structure, a new STATCOM control strategy under the conditions of unbalanced loads and asymmetric system voltage is proposed. It proposes a control algorithm that devotes itself not only to meeting the demand of reactive power but also to voltage balancing of multiple galvanically isolated and floating dc capacitors. The control algorithm based on a phase-shifted carrier modulation strategy is prominent in having no restriction on the cascade number. This control strategy can be used to both the unbalanced loads and the asymmetric system voltage, avoiding the over current of negative sequence current and the clusters’ dc-side voltage unbalance due. The simulation results are obtained using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

38 Phase shifted carrier PWM control technique of a series parallel switched multilevel dc-link inverter topology
B. Ramakrishna Singh, Y. Kusumalatha

Abstract—The use of multilevel inverter (MLI) appears to experience an increasing trend in view of the extensive automation in industries. A good number of MLI topologies are in use over the past four decades. The variable voltage and frequency requirements emphasize the need and elaborate the increasing trend of using multilevel inverters (MLI) in modern drives and utility applications. The multilevel inverter [MLI] is a promising inverter topology for high voltage and high power applications. This inverter synthesizes several different levels of DC voltages to produce a stepped AC output that approaches the pure sine waveform. The conventional MLI requires more number of switches as the level increases and also switching losses and cost also increases. In order to address the above concerns, this paper presents a new series parallel switched multilevel dc-link inverter (SPMLDCLI) topology with reduced number of switches for a particular voltage level. By appropriately choosing a ratio for the voltage sources (V0: Vn) and connecting them in series/parallel, a particular level in the output voltage is generated and hence the name SPSMLDCLI. Finally the proposed technology is verified by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and the corresponding results are presented.

39 The Effects Of ESR Output-Capacitor On CCM Buck And Boost Converter By Using Pulse-Train-Control Technique
Ramuni Nagesh, P. Deepak Reddy

Abstract—In this project deals with pulse-train (PT) control technique for Boost and Buck converters. In this PT control of switching dc–dc converters operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The PT control technique has been proposed for to improve the transient performance of switching dc-dc converters. The output voltage of converters having ripples to minimize that by connect the equivalent series resistor (ESR) output capacitor. The effect of equivalent series resistor (ESR) output capacitor is to reduce the output voltage ripple. The larger ERS will result in a large output voltage ripple.

40 A Mathematical Model To Predict And Optimise The Gas Metal Arc Hardfaced Stelite 6 Weldbead On Low Carbon Steel
G. Chandrasekar, C. Bhagyanathan

Abstract—This paper comprises an experimental investigation to predict and optimize the parameters of gas metal arc hard facing using Design of Experimental technique. In this investigation a stellite 6 (cobalt chromium alloy) was deposited on the low carbon steel by gas metal arc welding process, weld bead geometry is highly influenced by the process parameters so, it should be optimized to attain a defect free weld. Minitab version 10.0 software was used to develop the mathematical model and to find the optimized gas metal arc welding (GMAW) parameters. The adequacy of the developed models was checked by using Anova technique. Finally, main and interaction effect of process parameters on responses were presented in the graphical form.

41 Simulation of Series, Parallel Configured 7 level Switched Capacitor Inverter with Inductive Load
Dosapati.Firoj Kumar, S.Chandra Sekhar

Abstract— Switched capacitor converters have become more common in recent years. A multilevel inverter with a limited number of switching devices is proposed. That inverter consists of an H-bridge and an inverter which outputs of multilevel voltage by switching the DC voltage sources in series and in parallel. Then the researched inverter can huge numbers of voltage levels in the equal number of switching devices by using the conversion system. When we reduce the number of gate driving circuits, which leads to reduce the size and power consumption in the driving circuits. And also reduce the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of the output waveforms. Unlike traditional multilevel inverters, this topology does not require an external voltage balancing circuit, a complicated control scheme, or isolated dc sources to maintain its voltage levels while delivering sustained real power. The simulation results are carried by MATLAB/SIMULINK SOFTWARE.

42 Investigation on VoIP for a WiMAX Communication Network
Manjotinder Singh Grewal, Rupinder Kaur Gurm

Abstract-Voice over internet protocol refers to the transmission of telephone traffic over IP-based networks. Voice transmission over internet is also called internet protocol (IP) telephony. IP telephony has gained wide popularity and has become an important service on the internet. The use of IP telephony became real due to the high bandwidth available on the internet and its low implementation cost. Digital form of communication has further led to its vital use. Due to above reasons, voice communications using the IP, is also called Voice over IP or VoIP, has become attractive. The simultaneous transport of voice and data over the internet has already been demonstrated using 3G networks. This paper presents the performance evaluation of a WiMAX network. In this paper, only static conditions for the application voice over IP has been considered.

43 Investigations On Light Weight Cinder Aggregate Concrete With Silica Fume And Fly Ash As Admixtures
K. Rajesh Reddy, V. Giridhar Kumar

Abstract-The objective of this project work is to determine the effects of silica fume and fly ash over light weight aggregate concrete with replacing as a normal aggregate by cinder aggregate with different volume percentages of 25,40,60,75 and 100. Experiments were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume and fly ash over conventional concrete with light weight aggregate at water-cement ratio of 0.50 and cement replaced by silica fume and fly ash (by weight of cement) were 5,10,15 and 10, 20, 30 percentage respectively. The conventional aggregate concrete mix has been designed for M20 grade concrete using ISI method. In this investigation cubes, cylinders of standard size 150x150x150mm, 150x300mm specimens have been cast and tested for curing periods. In totally 180 specimens have been cast and tested. The unit weight of the cinder concrete is 2220kg/m3. In present work , investigations are being carried out over lightweight aggregate concrete with cinder as lightweight aggregate. Tests are being carried out for ascertious results with respect to strength in compression strength, split tensile strength replacement with partial respectively.

44 Design and Development of Pneumatic Cotton- Picking Machine
Nakul.Mahalle , Dr. K. S. Zakiuddin , Prof. Prashant S. Kadu

Abstract-A pneumatic type cotton boll picking machine is designed and developed to pick cotton from cotton boll by using pure suction method. This suction pressure and velocity at inlet and outlet of impeller is calculated. Pneumatic cotton boll picking machine is having low weight ergonomically and efficient for Indian farm. It is knapsack type machine. When engine get start, impeller start rotating and suction is created at the outlet. By using this suction pressure cotton can be picked from cotton boll with the help of hose pipe.

45 Single-Stage Boost Inverter With Coupled Inductor For Wind Power Generation Using Space Vector Modulation
Vijaya Lakshmi Nallagopula, S.Yasoda Krishna

Abstract-Power sector faces great troubles in the generation of power when the energy sources are renewable resources. These resources may not be available at a constant rate continuously. In wind power generation the velocity of wind is not constant all the time. So the input will not be stable. In such condition a front end boost converter is added to step-up the DC voltage when the energy resources are at weak point. By using the single stage boost inverter with coupled inductor may leads improved reliability, high boost gain and efficiency. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify good performance.

46 Analysis Of Flexible Hose Used To Drive A Fire Fighting Water Monitor Trailer
Prof.Prashant.Kadu , Nilesh.Raut, Dr. K. S. Zakiuddin

Abstract-When a place catches fire it is well observed fact that a most of the time is wasted by the fireman while extinguishing fire due to larger distance present between the place of the fire and the hose or water monitor. Because of which huge amount of water is wasted because of evaporation during jet impact. It is impossible to take water monitor close to fire because of high temperature. Hence, an effective fire fighting cannot be done. As it requires delivery of water at right time, right place and in adequate quantity. To reduce the distance present in between water and place of the fire an innovative method of fire fighting using hydraulically driven vehicle is developed by Prof. Prashant S. Kadu. The vehicle uses the pressurized water from the pump to move forward taking into account the property of straitening, elongation and buckling of special purpose hose used for fire fighting. When the water is pumped, then pushing force developed due to straightening property of the fire hose is used to move the vehicle [1]. As flexible hose is used as medium to drive the trailer there is intense need to analyse the behaviour of hose and stress induced in it. The increasing trend of stress is observed with reduction in diameter of hose and increase in pressure of water. In this paper, efforts were taken to analysis the behaviour of hose at different pressure, when hose is straight and bends. This research will help to determine stress induced inside hose when it is straight or bend and the response of hose when hose is use as drive.

47 Practical Implementation Of A Sliding Mode Control For Buck Converter
Pathuri Nagatimmaiah, P. Deepak Reddy

Abstract-In this project, practical implementation of a sliding mode control for buck converter, operating in continuous conduction mode has been developed. A detailed analysis of the design principle of a sliding mode control for buck converter is studied. The performance of the sliding line for an ideal controller has been compared with the sliding line for practical controller and necessary results are presented to validate the sliding line for an ideal & practical controller.

48 Analysis of General Purpose Compactor
Sagar Kadu , Dr. K. S. Zakiuddin , Prof. Prashant S. Kadu

Abstract- Compactor is a garbage bin designed to compress garbage that is put in it and it is located inside the transportation vehicle of municipality. It is designed in order to avoid spilling of garbage on the roads which results into spread of diseases, disturbing pure ambience, excess handling cost etc. Compactor is a simple mechanism involving use of manual force to control the working of pneumatic or hydraulic system. A compactor consists of cylindrical shell or bin in which the garbage is collected from the hopper which is mounted at the top end of cylindrical shell. The compaction is performed through the action of pneumatic cylinder and piston that is mounted upon the cylindrical shell which rams the Municipal solid waste (MSW) into a cylindrical shaped space in the form of compacted cake. The ejector cylinder is placed at the bottom of the compactor in order to eject the compacted garbage from compactor to the storage space of municipal transportation vehicle. The compactor is to be designed and analyzed such that the whole system sustains the compaction pressure and maintain structural stability. It is mainly targeted to areas like housing societies, big educational institutes, malls, theaters etc.

49 WSN based automated irrigation system Driven by soil moisture
Vanumu Sirisha, S.Vidya Sagar Appaji, Eswara Rao Pandiripalli

Abstract-N In recent year’s automation is enjoying a significant role in each field like agriculture, military, business so on. Since an individual cannot exist in things once necessary automation would be generated to form things easier. During this we have a tendency to develop an automatic irrigation theme that is developed to revamp the water usage for agricultural crops. This technology trend has continuing to the purpose wherever we have a tendency to currently have several sensible controllers that permit the size of treatment to be reduced any, all the way down to the plant and even leaf scale. In doing so, these new methods of introducing smart controllers and automation have enabled the development of new concepts of practical crop management that were not feasible before. we have a tendency to currently have levels of automation wherever we will contemplate the ways individuals used before large-scale machinery was introduced and see if these same ways will be utilized these days victimization little sensible machines. This theme includes a distributed wireless network of soilmoisture and temperature sensors placed within the rootzone of the plants to ascertain the need of and supply installation victimization controller unit once needed supported the need and would stop once there's exuberance. The facility management system of this automation is completed victimization star panels.

50 Improve the Performance of Three Phases Cascaded Multilevel Inverter by using carrier PWM Topologies
P.Sri Rama Murthi , Sri. Mr.P.K.S. Sarvesh

Abstract-A new idea to enhance the performance of multilevel inverter that is an amalgamated rectangular reference function used to improve the performance of three phases cascaded multilevel inverter. In this paper we are using the bipolar trapezoidal amalgamated rectangular reference function is simulated for a phase shifted (PS) technique, level shifted (LS) technique and variable frequency (VF) techniques. In this level shifted strategy provides higher DC bus utilization and phase shifted strategy provides lowest distortions for moderate index ma.

51 Survey of Routing Protocol in Wireless Network
Durgesh , Akhilseh

Abstract-Ad Hoc Networks are complex distributed systems that consist of wireless mobile or static nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize. In this way they form arbitrary, and temporary “Ad hoc” networks topologies, allowing devices to seamlessly interconnect in areas with no pre-existing infrastructure .In this paper we study about types of routing protocol.

52 Compare of DSDV,AODV, DSR Using Wireless Network
Durgesh , Akhilseh

Abstract-In the paper I evaluate and compare the three routing algorithms using the NS-2 Simulator. I selected the DSDV routing as the representative of the table driven protocols because it maintains a loop free hop, which means the creation of fewer forwarded packets, path to every destination in network. DSDV achieves a low routing overhead and low average delay. I selected AODV as the second algorithm for the comparisons because it support unicast and mulicast packet transmissions and it achieves the lowest routing overhead from the other protocols in its category.

53 Aerodynamics Analysis Of NREL S809 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Using ANSYS/FLUENT

Abstract-Currently research has concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through wind tunnel testing and theoretical studies. These efforts are much time consuming and need expensive laboratory resources. However, wind turbine simulation through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software offers inexpensive solutions to aerodynamic blade analysis problem. In this work, two-dimensional airfoil CFD models are presented using ANSYS-FLUENT software. The dimensionless lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients were calculated for wind turbine. Then various values of lift coefficient are determined for various angles of attack. Then the optimal angle of attack for which lift coefficient is maximum is determined. Simulation is done for both laminar and turbulent flow.

54 Hop- by-Hop Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Bandwidth Guarantees
P.Rajani, P.K.Sahu

Abstract-Remote Mesh Network (WMN) has turned into a vital edge system to give Internet access to remote regions and remote associations in a metropolitan scale. In this paper, we contemplate the issue of distinguishing the greatest accessible transfer speed way, a basic issue in supporting nature ofadministration in Wmns. Because of impedance among connections, transmission capacity, a well-known bottleneck metric in wired systems, is not curved or added substance in remote systems. We propose another way weight which catches the accessible way data transfer capacity data. We formally demonstrate that our jump by-bounce steering convention focused around the new way weight fulfills the consistency and circle freeness necessities. The consistency property ensures that every hub settles on a legitimate bundle sending choice, so that an information parcel does navigate over the expected way. Our broad recreation explores likewise demonstrate that our proposed way weight beats existing way measurements in recognizing highthroughput ways.

55 The Impact of SERVQUAL Dimensions on Customer Loyalty in Banking Sector, Tamil Nadu, India - An Empirical Study
A. Vasumathi

Abstract-In today’s global competitive environment in Banking sector which provide excellent service to customers in order to attract customers from competitor banks. Customer satisfaction is the main factor for any bank and it is the aim of this study which examines various dimensions of Service Quality (SERVQUAL) of a Scheduled Bank. An empirical study was done to find out the best SERVQUAL dimension delivered by this bank to foster customer loyalty. Data were collected through a survey research from 250 customers of five district bank branches in Tamil Nadu, India. The findings showed that the customers prefer a particular bank was satisfied with the reliability dimension of SERVQUAL rendered by the staff members than other dimensions of SERVQUAL. The bank plays a less service in Responsiveness dimension of SERVQUAL. The findings reveal that improvement in service quality can enhance customer loyalty. The SERVQUAL dimensions that play a significant role in this equation are reliability, empathy, tangibility and assurance.