IJAIR- Volume 3 Issue 11 (November 2014)

 


Sr/No/ Title Pdf
1 Unwanted Messages Filtering On Social Network Walls
S.Mahalakshmi, Mr.S.Raja Ranganathan, Mr.Dr.S.Karthik

Abstract —Web Mining is the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from the web data. According to analysis targets, web mining can be divided into three different category, which are web usage mining, web content mining, web structure mining. Today’s modern life is totally based on Internet. Now a day’s people cannot imagine a life in without internet. On-line Social Network (OSN) is to give users the ability to control the messages posted on their own private space to avoid that unwanted content is displayed. To avoid these issues a flexible rule-based system and Machine Learning based soft classifier are automatically labeling the messages. In this paper, propose a user to directly control the message posted on their wall. Aim of the paper is mainly to provide user a classification mechanism to avoid useless data from online social network.

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2 Optimal Scheduling For Distribution System Using Advanced Metering Infrastructure with Smart Micro Grid
R.Santhoshkumar , P.Krishna Gandhi

Abstract—The integration of renewable energy sources and electrical vehicles (EVs) into micro grids is becoming a popular green approach. Micro grids become more reliable, stable, and cost-effective. In this paper we propose the optimal scheduling for distribution system using Microcontroller. Advanced Metering Infrastructure scheduling to maintain data and Transfer data using zigbee wireless communication mesh network data to encryption decryption technique improve secure Data transfer. Reducing electricity consumption effectively utilized electric power renewable source integrate to distribution systems.

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3 Research Methodology Of Kernel Development For Device Driver Platform
Tamilselvan.K, Dr.A.Satheesh

Abstract—GSM is a technology which is widely used all over the world for the purpose of communication. In our project we use GSM technology and RTOS system for the purpose of irrigation. The irrigation is carried out at a particular time interval automatically and also the irrigation time can be postponed according to our convenience. All these process are done by exchanging the information between user mobile phone and the GSM unit through SMS .This system uses 8051 microcontroller which is connected to dc motor, stepper motor and GSM. Here the quantity of water is measured using the water level indicator and then it is supplied to the field according to the requirement of different crops planted in different fields. The water can be diverted to different fields using the multi way ball valve whose direction is controlled by using the stepper motor. Here we introduced a RTOS system to increase an operation. Above operation are implemented in a RT kernel system. Using of Ubuntu operating system to initialize the commands.

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4 Variations Analysis In Face Recognition Using Ssift Model
B.Venkadesan, G.Revathy,A.Perumalraja

Abstract— Automated analysis of human affective behavior has attracted increasing attention from researchers in psychology, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, and related disciplines. Emotion recognition from facial images is a very active research topic in human computer interaction (HCI). However most of the previous approaches only focus on the frontal or nearly frontal view facial images. Person independent and pose invariant facial emotion classification is important for situation analysis and for automated video annotation. Shape and its changes are advantageous for these purposes. Research into facial expression recognition has predominantly been applied to face images at frontal view only. Some attempts have been made to produce pose invariant facial expression classifiers. Little work has been carried out to investigate the intrinsic potential of different poses for facial expression recognition. This work deals with single facial image to multiview facial expression recognition. Provide feature vectors to reduce the dimensionality in facial point’s extraction. Improve the classification accuracy to analyze expressions. In this paper proposed Sparse space invariant facial transformation with other algorithms to improve the authentication method for face recognition.


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5 Approach for the enhancement of Communication Skills
S.Manimekalai

Abstract-Language “Throughout history, outstanding leaders have been ordinary People with extraordinary vision and the skills to communicate it” says it…. So, Man has been using language as a tool of communication for centuries. It has enabled him to interact with the environment and regulate his social behavior. Though there are a number of means of communication, language is the most widely used instrument. Man communicates through a sophisticated system of symbols. Language is one of the most prized possessions of man. It act as a repository of wisdom, a propeller for the advancement of knowledge and a telescope to view the vision of the future. Though human society has progressed with remarkable speed, the use of language for communication is still not free from ignorance, prejudice and superstition.

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6 Implementation of Controlling Device Based on Thermo Actuation Using COMSOL4.3
Vinay Y. Jadhav, Sachin S. Kulkarni,Veeresh P. M.

Abstract -Thermo actuation is a technique in which mechanical displacement is achieved using thermal expansion of a material by the application of an electrical voltage to the material. Thermal actuators are considered as one of the most important MEMS device which has an immense application in switching and positioning activity. Several applications such as electro-optical communication, micro-assembly, and measurement of mechanical properties of materials, data storage and micro tools use this MEMS device. This paper proposes 3D design of thermo elastic micro-actuator with two-level cascaded bent beams using Solid Works tool and thermo-electro-mechanical analysis is performed using COMSOL4.3. This device produces larger forces and displacement compared to other MEMS devices. The TEM analysis of the model is subsequently carried out with applied electrical voltage and variations in displacement and temperature are observed.

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7 Speaker Identification System Using DSP Processor TMS320C6713
Aditya Pulekar, Tushar Patil, Rahul Kale

Abstract-This paper proposes a speaker identification system wherein the features of the speech signal are extra-cted using Mel Frequency Coefficients and the speaker is verified using the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. The results obtained are very accurate and satisfactory. The system stores the features (i.e. Mel Frequency Coefficents) of the speaker in the template during the training phase. In the testing phase, the user gives a run-time input to the system, on which, the system matches the features of the user with those in the template. The decision regarding the identity of the user is then made using the Dynmic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm.

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8 Advanced Automatic Detection of Malaria Parasite in Blood Images Using Image Analysis based system
Mr.Ranjeet R. Suryawanshi, Mr.Arjun R. Nichal

Abstract-Malaria is a serious disease and this disease requires rapid and accurate diagnosis.The system proposed here can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria. It is fully automated image classification system to positively identify malaria parasites present in thin blood smears, and differentiate the species. The biggest detraction of microscopy, namely its dependence on the skill, experience and motivation of a human technician, is to be removed. Used with an automated digital microscope, which would allow entire slides to be examined, it would allow the system to make diagnoses with a high degree of certainty. It would also constitute a diagnostic aid for the increasing number of cases of imported malaria in traditionally malaria-free areas, where practitioners lack experience of the disease. The algorithm generated will be helpful in the area where the expert in microscopic analysis may not be available. The effort of the algorithm is to detect presence of parasite at any stage. One of the parasites grows in body for 7 to 8 days without any symptoms. So if this algorithm is incorporated in routine tests, the presence of malaria parasite can be detected. Various algorithms like SUSAN, Component Labelling etc. are used for operations like Edge Detection, Segmentation, Feature Extraction, Noise Reduction etc

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9 Co2 emission controll in vehicle Using pcm with lithium battery
S.Benisha, G.Ramani

Abstract-This paper proposes an advanced technique which helps to control the CO2 emission in a vehicle by a module names Powertrain Control Module (PCM) located in the engine compartment. The PCM is the control centre of the vehicle which mainly designed to maintain exhaust emission levels which maintains excellent driveability and fuel efficiency. In addition to the PCM module the lithium battery is smaller size and lighter weight, which deliver performance that helps to protect the environment with improved charge efficiency without memory effect with lower exhaust emissions to reduces the polluted air and their by prevent the global warming. ARM 7 can be used here for the whole controlling and processing operation to be performed. The PCM can recognize operational problems and alert the driver via the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL). When the PCM detects a fault, the it stores a problem loaded code and then it can be changed.The problem area is identified by the particular DTC that is set.

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10 A Survey on Induction Motor Drive Using Direct Flux and Torque Control
K.Madumathi, M. Vijayaraghavan, M. Porkodir, Dr. S. Saravanan

Abstract─This paper presents about the direct control techniques which is used to control the electric drives. The direct control strategy that has been used in this paper is (DTC) Direct Flux and Torque Control. DTC is a direct method of controlling the stator side or the rotor side flux and torque. In this paper DTC is implied on a three phase Induction Motor drive (IMD).This approach has been examined with the help of PI controller and (FLC) Fuzzy Logic Controller. This proposed method has been simulated with the help of MATLAB software.

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11 Need Of Quality Improvement In Technical Education
Dr. Rohit Manjule, Mr. Prashant Tungar

Abstract -Technical education has seen a significant jump in terms of number of institutions and intake of students. As compared to 570 degree-level technical institutes ten years back, there are more than 2000 engineering colleges at present. While in 1998 the total intake of engineering institutions was 1.3 lakh, it has grown to around.5.0 lakhs in 2010. The last five years have seen the establishment of two Indian Institute of Technology (IIT, Roorkee, Guwahati) the Indian Institute of Information Technology (Allahabad) and the Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (Gwalior). Constant updating of knowledge is imperative for maintaining high quality of research and teaching in technical areas, India is known the world over for its enormous technical manpower. Yet there is a need to constantly adapt improvement in technical education to the changing technological and financial scenario and also to make it competitive in terms of quality.

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12 Identification of Fetus ECG from Composite ECG by Equalizer and Artificial Intelligence
Sachin S. Kulkarni1 , Vinay Y. Jadhav

Abstract-In this paper, Fetus ECG is extracted from the composite electrocardiogram (CECG) using artificial intelligence technique called Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) and Equalizers is proposed. Here, we investigate the use of ANFIS for fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) extraction from two ECG signals recorded at the thoracic and abdominal areas of the mother’s skin. The thoracic ECG is assumed to be almost completely maternal (MECG) while the abdominal ECG is considered to be composite as it contains both the mother’s and the fetus’ ECG signals. Three methods have been proposed namely (1) ANFIS (2) ANFIS followed by Equalizer. Performances of the above methods are compared. For numerical evaluation, the mean square error (MSE) between denoised and FECG signal and original FECG signal and Peak signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) is used.

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13 Improved quality measurement For distortion images
D.Suguna , S.Manikandan

Abstract— With the rise of high resolution monitors and cameras, consumers have increasing demands concerning the visual quality of multimedia applications. Image quality is a characteristic of an image that measures the perceived image humiliation. Imaging systems may establish some quantity of deformation or artifacts in the signal, so the quality measurement is a significant problem. So provide LAF system is specifically designed for the perceptual quality prediction of images or videos. To improve the quality prediction, objective quality measures based on Machine Learning (ML) for human visual system. The LAF framework is more reliable with the data measures and can better handle heteroscedastic preparing information.

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14 A Survey of Geo-fencing Algorithm and Implementation for Reporting Service over Mobile Satellite Service Band
Jaimin M. Raval

Abstract— Geo-Fencing can be predefined set of boundaries. A Geo-Fencing is a virtual perimeter for a real-world Geo-graphical area. Geo-Fencing allows an administrator to set up triggers. When a device enters or exits the boundaries defined by the administrator, text message or email alert is sent. In this paper, we gives Overview of Reporting Service and satellite configuration over Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) band. Use the simple polygon algorithm which determining whether terminals are inside or outside of a polygon and automatically alerting you.

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15 LZW-BHCDA: LZW compressive sensing based Bandwidth efficient heterogeneity aware Cluster based data aggregation protocol
Gurbinder Kaur, Er.Varinderjit Kaur

Abstract— In the application based WSNs situation, energy and bandwidth of the sensors are valued resources and essential to consume proficiently. Data aggregation at the base station by individual nodes causes flooding of the data which consequences in maximum power utilization. To diminish this problem a BHCDA has been proposed which has improved the performance of the LEACH protocol by using the inter-cluster based data aggregation. In BHCDA grouping of nodes has been done on the basis of the available clustering techniques and grouping of cluster heads is also done to utilize the features to inter cluster data aggregation. But BHCDA has neglected the use of compressive sensing to enhance the data communication between cluster heads and sink. To enhance the BHCDA further a LZWBHCDA protocol has been proposed in this work that helps to reduce the energy consumption problem and also aggregates and transmit the data in efficient manner. In addition, the additive and divisible data aggregation function has been used by the proposed technique at cluster heads to minimize the power consumption and also controls flooding at base station. The performance evaluation has shown the effective improvement of the LZW-BHCDA over the BHCDA.

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16 Decision Based Unsymmetric Trimmed Mean Filter for removal of salt and pepper noise using in image
B.Balaji,K.Balachandra ,T.Lalith Kumar

Abstract—In this paper, we have proposed a new method for removal of salt and pep per noise from gray scale images. In this technique when the processing pixel is uncorrupted then it is left unchanged otherwise the neighbors are checked. When all the neighbors are corrupted i.e. having values O's or 255's or both then we go for the mean of the window and the processing pixel is replaced with this mean value. When some of the neighbors are corrupted then we go for unsymmetric trimmed mean value. Simulations are carried out for different percentage of noise density. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides better result than the Median Filter (MF) and its variants in terms of Peak signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Image Enhancement Factor (IEF).

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17 Protection against Low –Rate TCP-Targeted DoS Attack
Bhupendra Puri Goswami , Prof. Somesh Dewangan ,Shrikant Nirmalkar

Abstract- It has been proven in theory and through simulations [3, 9] that a low-rate TCP-targeted Denial-of- Service (DoS) attacks is possible by exploiting the retransmission timeout (RTO) mechanism of TCP. In contrast to most DoS attacks, this exploit requires periodic, low average volume traffic in order to throttle TCP throughput. Consequently this attack is hard to detect and prevent, since most DoS detection systems are triggered by high-rate traffic. For the attack to be successful, the attacker must inject a short burst of traffic, capable of filling up the bottleneck buffers, right before the expiration of the sender’s RTO. This forces the sender’s TCP connections to timeout with very low throughput. The effectiveness of the attack depends on the attacker’s synchronization with the victim’s RTO. Certain commercial systems follow the guidelines of RFC-2988 [4] (suggesting a minimum RTO of 1 sec), making this synchronization is far from impossible, while popular operating systems using lower minRTO values (e.g. Linux) are still vulnerable to an attacker using a low latency network.

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18 IDWDEEC: Improved Distance & Waiting Nodes Based Enhanced Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol
Rajni Sharma, Er Varinderjit Kaur

Abstract— Heterogeneous Wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) are getting very popular in real time applications because of their synthetic intelligence. An sensor node could be quickly became the intelligent product by applying the embedding programming. HWSNs contain many sensor nodes having limited battery power, which transfer sensed data to the sink that really needs high power consumption. So consuming the energy in efficient manner become more crucial area of research in wireless sensor networks. Numerous energy efficient methods have been planned in this respect of getting power efficiency in heterogeneous sensor environment. However, each method has its own limitations. Performance of WSNs declines when the cluster size become high or too low. Although EDDEEC has shown very significant results over present WSNs methods but it has neglected the use of waiting time of sensor node to become CHs. So might some nodes will not become CHs for a long time even they have more potential to become CHs. So to overcome this we have applied a waiting time based parameter named as . is then total number of waiting rounds for a given node to become cluster head. It will produce a an positive value which will continually increase the T (n) value for a given node to become CH thus increase the chances to become CH. So it will produce more optimized cluster heads. To improve the results further the use of distance between two cluster heads has also been considered. The experimental results have shown the significant improvement of the proposed technique further.

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20 Ubiquitous Information Forwarder For Personal Healthcare Data In Big Data Systems
C.Merlinlagnes, Mr.M.B.Prasanthyokesh

Abstract- Pervasive healthcare systems enabled by information and communication technology (ICT), can allow the elderly and chronically ill to stay at home while being constantly monitored. A big data solution is presented using wearable sensors capable of carrying out continuous monitoring of the patient at home and alerting the caretaker when necessary and to forward only pertinent information to the big data system for analysis. A challenge of such a solution is the development of context awareness through the multidimensional, dynamic and nonlinear sensor readings that have weak correlation with observable human behaviors and health conditions. To address this challenge, a wearable sensor system with intelligent data forwarder is discussed. The forwarder adopts a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for human behavior recognition. Locality sensitive hashing is proposed as an effective mechanism to learn sensor patterns. The intelligent information forwarder can provide the remote sensors with context awareness. They transmit only important information to the big data server for analysis, when certain behaviors happen and avoid overwhelming communication and data storage. The system functions unobtrusively, by giving the user peace of mind that their safety is being monitored and analyzed.

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21 Fortifying flood attacks in Disruption tolerant networks
Mr.Y.Arockia Raj

Abstract-Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) make use of the mobility of nodes and the opportunistic contacts among nodes for data communications. Due to the restriction in network resources such as contact opportunity and buffer space, DTNs are susceptible to flood attacks in which attackers send as many packets or packet replicas as possible to the network, in order to exhaust the limited network resources. In this paper, we use rate limiting to defend against flood attacks in DTNs, such that each node has a boundary over the number of packets that it can generate in each time interval and a limit over the number of replicas that it can generate for each packet. We propose a disseminated scheme to detect if a node has violated its rate limits. To deal with the challenge that it is difficult to count all the packets or replicas sent by a node due to lack of communication transportation, our detection adopts claim-carryand check: each node itself counts the number of packets or replicas that it has sent and claims the count to other nodes; the receiving nodes carry the claims when they travel, and crosscheck if their carried claims are inconsistent when they contact. The claim construction uses the pigeonhole principle to guarantee that an attacker will make inconsistent claims which may lead to detection. We provide meticulous analysis on the probability of detection, and evaluate the value and efficiency of our scheme with extensive trace driven simulations.

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22 Review On Image Steganalysis Techniques
Ravneet Kaur, Navroz Kahlon

Abstract-Steganography is the art of hiding a message in an image and Steganalysis is the virtuosity and discipline of finding the message that has been hidden by stegnography. Stegnography is used in copious fields like authentication, secret communication in military, banking etc. But nowadays it possess the menace of its use in scheduling criminal activities [1]. So steganalysis helps to perceive that certain files that contain embedded data and it has found its uses in innumerable fields as stegnography does. Extraction of hidden message can be done with the help of numerous available techniques like LSB detection, Support vector matrix, Frequency and spatial domain features, differential markov etc. Centered on the pragmatic stegnography technique we can choose the related steganalysis technique.

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23 Biclustering algorithms for Bilogical data analysis: a survey
K. Sathish kumar, Dr.V. Thiagarasu, M. Ramalingam

Abstract-The traditional clustering algorithms analyse only the properties of the data samples (the number and types of the attributes or variables) but not focus on the components of data such as Data Table, Data Column, Data Relation etc., which is a major issue that affects the clustering performance. Several biclustering algorithms are used in microarray gene expression data which is important for these algorithms are significantly dependent on the initial random values, high computational complexity, computational time, accuracy and speed. In this survey, attempt has been made to analyse the microarray gene expression based on biclustering algorithms such as BiMax, OPSM, CoBi, FBT, CC, SAMBA and GSO. In this comprehensive survey analyzes a large number of existing approaches to biclustering and it classifies them in accordance with the type of biclusters which is useful to find, the patterns of biclusters that are discovered and the methods used to perform in the search and target applications. From the survey it is observed that the hybrid glow worm swarm optimization technique has good convergence efficiency and better capability for upgrading the best approach and helps to overcome the problems by analysing and focusing the components of microarray gene expression data.

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24 Design of non isolated voltage doubler fed With sepic converter
V.Dhinesh,T.Premkumar,R.Satheeshkumar,Dr.S.Saravanan

Abstract— The voltage doubler circuit is proposed using a sepic converter. It is the combination of a boost converter with a non isolated high step-up converter. As a solution to distribute a voltage stress of a boost converter, a sepic-integrated boost (SIB) converter, which provides an additional step-up gain with the help of an isolated sepic converter, is proposed. Boost converter is integrated with SEPIC converter which provides good step-up ratio and distribute voltage stress. Since the boost converter and the sepic converter share a boost inductor and a switch, it has a simple structure. The transformer leakage inductor alleviates reverse recovery; therefore SIB converter does not require current snubber for the diodes.

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25 A profile based user customizable privacy preserving Web search
B.Dhivya, Mr.R.Mahesh, C.Chitra

Abstract -Search enginelike yahoo, google, etc is a tool to retrieve the information from the web. Information is stored in to web search engine by means of clustering. K-means clustering algorithm is used to store the data.Generally the information stored on the web search engine can be retrieved by using Click through Log based method. In this paper we proposed a profile based method, which consists of details of the user stored on the proxy server, to retrieve the information from the web very efficiently and effectively.Greedy DP and Greedy IL techniques are used to obtain the result. It improves the runtime faster. While the user submitting the query to the search engine, the search engine re-structure the documents based on ranking method. Feedback sessions are produced, which consists of user goals in details, includes both clicked and unclicked URL. Feedback sessions are mapped into pseudodocuments, which includes only keywords of user search goals that are termed into logs, thatconsist of only clicked URL. Profile based method helps the user to retrievethe information faster and produces appropriate results.

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26 Implementation of a new very highly secure Encryption (VHSE) method for secure networks
Tulika Pandey, Prof. Ravi Mohan

Abstract—The importance of the security is higher in existing data networks than was in older systems because now users are provided with the systems to fulfil very critical operations like sharing of confidential and important, banking transactions which needs high quality protection. Weaknesses in security architectures allow successful eavesdropping, message tampering and masquerading attacks to occur, with disastrous consequences for end users, companies and other organizations. Encryption is a solution for the issue related to data security but the encryption cannot consider as necessary requirement in data communication and one should try to develop the encryption system very complex so no one can decipher it and it should not consume lots of hardware and time to generate cipher exiting systems are no doubt complex enough but they also requires huge area and significant time. Proposed work can be a better solution through existing data security systems are itself an achievement but it can be more optimised in terms of speed and area, and as speed of encryption gets high it will improve throughput. Proposed paper shows a new approach for achieving highly secure and highly throughput Encryption technique.

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27 Underwater Image Quality Enhancement using new proposed Image De-hazing Wavelength Compensation (IDWC) method
Soniya shrivastava1, Prof. Ravi Mohan

Abstract-Underwater environments generally cause colour cast or colour scatter while photography. Colour scatter is due to haze effects appearing when light reflected from thing which absorbed or may be scattered several times by particles of water. This cause lowers the visibility and less contrast of the image. Colour cast is due to the varying attenuation of light in various wavelengths, and this is cause underwater environments bluish. To mention distortion from Colour scatter and Colour cast, this paper proposes a method to reconstruct underwater images that which is a combination of a wavelength compensation and de-hazing algorithm (IDWC). One has to determine the distance between the objects and the camera using dark channel prior, then haze effects cause by Colour scatter can be removed by the de-hazing algorithm. Next, one has to estimation the photography scene depth using residual energy ratios for each. According to the attenuation of every wavelength, reverse compensation conducted to restore all distortion from Colour cast.

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28 Influence of Ontology Approaches in Various Technologies
K.Poongothai, R.Kamalraj, S.Karthik

Abstract- Ontologies play an important protagonist in semantic web, internet and other social related application. Normally ontologies focus on the demand of high quality of ontology. The ontology is more luxurious and inefficient of time process. Ontology learning is the process of assembling the ontologies by the ontology engineer. Ontology learning is a framework that proceeds with some of the fields which specified in the form of ontology import, extraction, pruning, refinement, and evaluation given by the ontology engineer. The problem that the ontologies learning technique deals with the difficulty to retrieve the knowledge relevant to the interest of the users or stakeholders. In this survey paper, some of the ontology techniques can be used in various fields like NLP, Text Mining, database integration and other fields like biomedical, medical and web technologies.

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29 High performance low leakage body biased full adder circuit with power gating technique
Vivek Bajpai, Sanaulla Khan , Sobran.S.Dhakad

Abstract—Power dissipation and propagation delay increases exponentially with technology scaling degrade the performance of IC. Multi threshold CMOS technique which is called as Power gating is a wellknown way to reduce power dissipation but abrupt transitions of signal from input to output mode propagation delay degrades the efficiency and speed of circuit because we used several transistors in the circuit. An effective technique is proposed here to deal with reduction of power dissipation under sleep mode as well as active mode and increase the performance of the circuit. For that an additional body basing is added in the circuit to reduce power dissipation and increase the performance by upgrade the speed of circuit. Proposed high performance low leakage body bias circuit technique is used. A comparison between existing techniques is done on 45 nm technology node which shows that the proposed technique reduces power dissipation 40% from conventional power gating and 19% from tri-mode MTCMOS and proposed technique reduced propagation delay is 60.6% from conventional power gating and 75% from tri-mode MTCMOS .

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30 Grid Computing
Sangita Mohite

Abstract—basically greed computing is the modified version of distributed system. In a basic grid computing system, every computer can access the resources of every other computer belonging to the network. A scientist studying proteins logs into a computer and uses an entire network of computers to analyse data. A businessman accesses his company's network through a PDA in order to forecast the future of a particular stock. An Army official accesses and coordinates computer resources on three different military networks to formulate a battle strategy. All of these scenarios have one thing in common: They rely on a concept called grid computing. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of large collection of connected heterogeneous system sharing various combinations of resources.

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31 Rapid Wall Technology
Ramesh M. Kapse, Prof.Mayura M. Yeole

Abstract—The construction industry must seek new technologies to lower costs and to gain a competitive advantage in changing business environment. The main objective during any construction project is to deliver quality product in a timely, cost effective, and safe manner. The world construction companies are competing to transform their attitude from using the conventional construction, to the prefabricated technologies, which providing the high quality of the final product and high productivity to get higher profitability. The governments should look for technologies that solve the homes deficits, energy consumption, high valuable natural resources depletion, high wastages in money, time, building materials &labour demand. The above mentioned aspects are provided by rapid wall technology which is making these goals guaranteed. Gypsum, glass fiber and additives is the main raw material which is natural and abundant resource. Rapid wall is considered to be a good solution to get homes at affordable cost and short time.

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32 Image enhancement analysis in Vectored value images
R.Senthamilselvi , S.Vidivelli

Abstract—In this paper proposed a new approach emphasizing the geometric correlation between channels by considering the degree of parallelism between the level sets of each channel. Align their gradient which leads to processing applications like denoising or demosaicking of color images. This correlation leads to parallel level sets and hence to similar structures. It is stand on the detail that the belonging of an infrared range image is similar to that of red channel in a visible range color image. This method analyzes the image details, which are frequently, be located in in dark area and not visible well in the noticeable range picture, directly beginning the red channel of the given picture.

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33 Investigation on various anonymous Routing protocols in MANET
Indhurekha.S, Kala.I, Dr Karthik.S

Abstract—Mobile adhoc network is a network (MANET) which consists of set of mobile nodes communicating with each other without having any base station. The main feature of a mobile ad-hoc network is it has no fixed infrastructure, and because of mobile nodes the topology will be dynamically changing, which is smooth to malicious traffic analysis. Adversaries, if allowed to trace network routes and then the secret operations may be affected. So anonymity is needed, to avoid all these attacks. Providing anonymity to the routes, source and destination is a one of the important factor. This paper poses challenging constraints on anonymous MANET routing and data security. To tackle the new challenges, some anonymous routing schemes have been proposed newly. And the result shows that some of the anonymous routing protocol satisfies the requirement of network in different manner.

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34 Performance and analysis of low power error resilient MIMO detectors
S.Sobana, S.P.Prabu

Abstract—In a broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communication system large portion of chip areas are occupied by the embedded buffering memories and they consume a significant amount of power. Increase in number of transmit and receive antennas increases the system bandwidth. the proposed error resilient K-best MIMO detector for the 4 × 4 64-QAM system achieves the better power consumption and throughput compared to the conventional K-best MIMO detectors. The proposed system is designed using verilog HDL, simulated using modelsim and synthesised using Xilinx project navigator software. The results shows that the number of slices & LUT (look up tables) needed for this error resilient K-best MIMO detector is reduced when compared with the conventional k-best MIMO detectors.

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35 A Review on Low Power Pulse Triggered Flip-Flops
Arthi C K , Nagarajan P

Abstract—Low power flip-flops are crucial for the design of low power digital systems. In this paper we survey a set of flip-flops designed for low power. Pulse triggered flip-flops are widely used in high-speed applications. Its simple structure paves way for power consumption. Our analysis is mainly focused on explicit pulse triggered flip-flops. Power consumption due to the logical separation from latch can effectively be reduced if one pulse generator shares a group of flip-flops. We highlight the basic features of these flip-flops and provide a comparison based on the power consumption and other metrics.

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36 FAHP and FMPDM Technique Using MANET for Improving Energy Efficiency In Cluster Head Selection
R.Aiyshwariya Devi

Abstract—Clustering is one of the important methods for prolonging the network lifetime in Mobile AD Hoc Networks. It involves grouping of nodes into clusters and electing cluster heads (CHs) for all the clusters.CHs collect the data from respective cluster’s nodes and forward the aggregated data to main node. A major challenge in MANET is to select appropriate cluster heads. In this paper, a novel fuzzy multiple criteria decision making approach, which is based on hierarchical fuzzy integral (FAHP) and Fuzzy multiple parameter decision-making (FMPDM) is introduced to optimize the selection of cluster heads to develop a distributed energy-efficient clustering algorithm. In FAHP, Single parameter is taken into account simultaneously as the main factors that can influence the selection of cluster heads while each factor contains some sub-criteria. The main Problems with single criteria are mostly based on residual energy. Doesn’t consider other information, like location of nodes, number of neighbor nodes etc. So normal nodes consumes more energy to send their data to CHs. So Fuzzy multiple parameter decision-making (FMPDM) approach is used to select CHs using three criteria including residual energy, number of neighbors, the distance from the main nodes and location. The simulation results demonstrate that this approach is more effective in maximizing the connectivity within each cluster and also localizing high intensity traffic within a cluster.

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37 A Survey On Various Opinion Mining Approaches
S. Kavitha , K.Sangeetha , S.Karthik

Abstract—Nowadays online users are increasing day by day. They also interested in sharing their views and feelings through the social network like face book, twitter and so on. Online reviews are available for a product or a service. Recent research is based on the online review for analyzing the sentiments. One of the main problems is finding the aspects in evaluating the reviews. The other problem is that to identify the aspects according to the sentiments. Through the ratings it can be identified whether the product is good or bad, but all the aspects are not considered. For example the digital camera can have the good clarity but battery consumption may not be satisfied.

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38 A Survey On Image Contrast Enhancement Method For Atmospheric Turbulence Mitigation
M. Pavithra Devi, T. Maragatham, S.Karthik

Abstract—A habitual problem for imaging in the atmosphere is fog and the other one is the atmospheric turbulence. The fog can be described as the mist. The turbulence is nothing but the unsteady movement in air. The images captured in the fog weather by outdoor surveillance system degrades the image and the image does suffer from the poor contrast. Over the years, many researchers have provided deep understanding into the physics of either the fog or turbulence but not both. Not long ago, researchers have proposed various methods to remove fog in images fast enough for real-time processing. In addition to this, methods have been proposed by other researchers that address the various atmospheric turbulence problems. Contrast Enhancement methods can be used to remove the atmospheric turbulence.

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39 Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Rupali Mahajan

Abstract—Ad hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol is specially designed for mobile ad hoc networks with reduce overhead using Expanding Ring Search technique. BERS is an energy efficient alternative that was developed recently based on the Expanding Ring Search (ERS). Enhanced BERS is a faster and more energy-time efficient version of BERS.EBERS; BERS has achieved the best performance in terms of energy efficiency.

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40 Study on Various Techniques in Hand Gesture Recognition
J.Ramya, Dhanalakshmi, S. Karthik

Abstract—Hand Gesture recognition is a technique used by human to communicate and interact with machine naturally without any mechanical devices. Gesture recognition allows the computer to understand and bring the human ideas. Gesture recognition act as a bridge between machines and humans, which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Gesture recognition in which it recognize the expressions of motion by a human such as hands, arms, face, head, and body. Hand gestures recognition provides a separate complementary modality to bring ones ideas. Hand gesture is a method of non-verbal communication for human beings for its free hand expressions much more other than other parts. Hand gesture recognition has greater efficient for human computer interaction system.

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41 Deflection control in high rise Buildings under seismic excitations Using lateral systems
Sandhyapogu Sudheer, B.Ajitha

Abstract— The basic principles of design for vertical and lateral loads (wind & seismic) are the same for low, medium or high rise building. But a building gets high both vertical & lateral loads become controlling factors. The vertical loads increase in direct proportion to the floor area and number of floors. In contrast to this, the effect of lateral loads on a building is not linear and increase rapidly with increase in height. Due to these lateral loads, moments on steel components will be very high. By providing bracing, these moments can be reduced. In the present analysis, a residential building with 60 floors is analyzed with columns, columns with X,V & Inverted V bracings at different locations were for all the 4 cases. The building comes under zone 4.Moments, Base Shear, Displacement, Drift, storey shear were compared for all the cases. It is observed that the deflection was reduced by providing the bracings. Earthquake load is becoming a great concern in our country as because not a single zone can be designated as earthquake resistant zone. One of the most important aspects is to construct a building structure, which can resist the seismic force efficiently. Study is made on the different structural arrangement to find out the most optimized solution to produce an efficient safe earthquake resistant building. A commercial package ETABS has been utilized for analyzing high-rise building of 180m height and for different zones. The result has been compared using tables & graph to find out the most optimized solution. Concluding remark has been made on the basis of this analysis & comparison tables.

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42 Survey on VLSI architecture for Wavelet filter bank
S.Priya, S.Sobana

Abstract-This paper proposed image compression by Daubechies 6-tap wavelet filter and Orthogonal filter. Image compression with Daubechies 6-tap wavelet filter are multiplierless architecture based on algebraic integer representation and Image compression using orthogonal reconstruction filter banks are used to reduce the number of adders/ counters. This paper presents an overview of the available wavelet filter banks and their drawbacks when compared with the Daubechies 6-tap wavelet filter.

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43 Network-On-Chip(NOC)-A Survey
K.Saranya, C.Karthikeyini

Abstract-With advancement in the technology in the on chip communication, the need of faster interaction between devices is becoming vital. Network on Chip (NoC) can be one of the solutions for faster on chip communication. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art regarding the NoC proposals. The major trends of the NoC research and aspects that require more investigations are pointed out. A packet-switched 2-D mesh is the most used and studied topology so far. The research shows that NoC constitutes an unification of current trends of intrachip communication rather than an explicit new alternative.

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44 Evaluation of Various Fault Diagnosis Algorithms in FPGA - Review
C.Jenifer pon catherin, P.Maniraj kumar

Abstract-A Field Programmable Gate Arrays(FPGAs),are used in various applications like signal processing, networks and other computing applications. During system operation, testing of components are done to improve the system’s reliability and performance.This article illustrates the various detection and location methods and its algorithms in an FPGA architecture. Diagnosis methods were based on Programmable logic blocks and interconnects, since faults in both resources are vulnerable during manufacturing and testing. As a result, the number of test configurations resulted to diagnose the faults, rate of fault coverages, complexity issues has been evaluated for various diagnosis method after implementation in benchmark circuits.

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45 Robust Blind Image Watermrking Using Optimum Strength Factor
Ms.Rekha D.Patil

Abstract-This paper presents a robust image watermarking scheme based on a sample projection approach. While we consider the human visual system in our watermarking algorithm, we use the low-frequency components of image blocks for data hiding to obtain high robustness against attacks. In this paper we are giving a new image watermarking method. This method give robustness to watermark with good image quality .To provide robustness we used optimum strength factor with maximum likelihood decoder because of this imperceptibility is also achieved. why is used. It is a blind watermarking method. Means original image is not required at the time of watermark recovery.

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46 Techniques to reduce leakage And peak temperature in VLIW Scheduling -A Survey
S.Rasky, C.Karthikeyini

Abstract-The technology scaled to nanometerscale, leakage energy contributes a greater proportion, especially for very long instruction word (VLIW) architectures. The presence of a large number of functional units in the very long instruction word (VLIW) architectures attribute a large fraction of this leakage energy consumption in the functional units. However, functional units which are not fully utilized in the very long instruction word (VLIW) architectures because of the inherent variations in the Instruction-level parallelism (ILP) of the programs. This under utilization is even more pronounced in the context of clustered very long instruction word (VLIW) architectures because of the contentions for the limited number of slow inter-cluster communication channels which lead to many short idle cycles. The growing energy consumption that increases the chip temperature, which brings an exponential growth in leakage current, and consequently leakage energy. Several approaches have been proposed for the solution of these problem but development is currently still very much in progress.This article discuss some approaches for leakage energy and peak temperature reduction.

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47 A Survey on Distributed Data Search in MANET
R. Yazhini, S.Kannan, S.Karthik

Abstract-Manet uses a large number of nodes and it is a large scale network. Data search quite difficult in search networks. In this paper mentioned various data search protocols like LORD (Locality based distributed data search system), Opportunistic Flooding, Data dissemination, TPSR (Tree-based Power-aware Source Routing) and GHT (Tree-based Power-aware Source Routing) among these protocols LORD protocol finds to be the best in data search in manet.Since this protocol is scalable and has high density and this overcomes the flows of the remaining mentioned protocols.

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48 A Survey on Different Feature Selection Techniques Based on Constraints
A.Sindhu, T.Kalaikumaran, S.Karthik

Abstract-In recent years, the enlargement of high dimensional data has been increased, which poses a great deal of issue in the knowledge discovery process. This work addresses the process of reducing the high dimensional data by feature selection method in the semi-supervised data. Here, the study on various techniques on different feature selection method based on constraints has been performed.

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49 Advanced Hybrid Multi-hop Routing - A approach for Allocation of Channel and Routing in hybrid multichannel wireless mesh networks
G.Mariammal, G.Karunanandhini, P.Lakshmanan

Abstract-The proposal work is an enhancement of many to one transmission with power aware routing protocol and efficient channel allocation. This work focuses on single sink based WSNs, in which a WSN is composed of a number of sensor nodes associated with a single sink node. The primary role of sensor nodes is to gather data of importance from its surroundings. in this work, we consider a WSN design that is practical, and low cost. We propose Advanced Hybrid Multi-hop routing (AHYMN) to mitigate the impact of sink node isolation. To our best knowledge, this is the first design that considers a hybrid multihop routing architecture1 given below. Although flat multi-hop routing algorithms enable routing of data in a fashion that minimizes the power consumption of the WSN, they fail to exploit the data aggregation opportunities by virtue of data collected from the WSN. In many WSN applications with the relatively high node density, the data collected by individual nodes are highly redundant, thus making data aggregation a very attractive scheme in WSNs. Hierarchical multi-hop routing algorithms aim to capitalize on the highly correlated nature of WSN’s collected data. We describe the operation of the most notable example of hierarchical multi-hop routing algorithms, from that we can improve the routing efficiency and channel allocation in cluster networks. The cluster head selection is obtained based on energy level and routing efficiency of the network.

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50 A Survey paper on “Hybrid system for Fingerprint Identification”
Annapoorani D, Caroline Viola Stella Mary M

Abstract-This paper describes a fingerprint identification technique which is fusion of two approaches: a minutiae based and wavelet statistical features. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition but shows poor performance when image quality is degraded. However, its performance can be enhanced by the combination of other technique like wavelet transform method. Wavelets are good for local analysis, so used for extracting local features from fingerprint. The final matching score is estimated using fusing matching scores of minutiae based and wavelet based method. By measuring False reject rate (FRR) and false accept rate (FAR) the performance of hybrid fingerprint identification method is calculated. This method is better than conventional minutiae method for real time verification.

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51 Test cases Generated by Collaborating Two UML Diagrams
Gurpreet Singh, Rasbir Singh

Abstract-In order to develop any software two phases are considered, one is designing phase and other is testing phase. In designing phase system is designed which consists of all aspects of the system like its functions, operations and features. In testing phase test cases are generated to test the system in order to develop an efficient software. In this paper designing phase and testing phase is done with the help of the UML models. So UML models are helpful in both designing and testing of the system as UML models give a lot of information that should not be ignored in designing and testing. An innovative approach of generating test cases from the combination of UML diagrams has been discussed in this paper. So the present work used an approach where message dependency graph of sequence diagram and control flow graph of state chart diagram has been used to generate UML interaction graph. The UML interaction graph thus generated is suitable for generating test cases.

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52 Study of Various Routing Protocols in Manet
B.Suganyapriyadharasani, R.M.Bhavadharini, S.Karthik

Abstract- Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of free or independent nodes that can arrange themselves in various ways & function without a strict top-down network administration. The mobile nodes can dynamically interchange data along themselves. Because of this characteristic path connecting with source is unstable which makes communication difficult. So to overcome the instability, the routing protocols have been proposed like AODV, DSR, PSR and DSDV. This survey paper brings out the overview of these protocols by their functionality, characteristics, benefits and limitations which can be used for analyzing the execution. The main rationale of this surveillance is to show how the execution of these protocols can be improved.

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53 Static structural and static Thermal analysis of diesel engine Poppet valve
G.Lavanya Lakshmi, K.Koteswara Rao, Y.Dhanasekhar, D.J.Johnson

Abstract- This project deals with Thermal and structural analysis of diesel engine Exhaust valve. The aim of the project is to design an exhaust valve with a suitable material for a four wheeler diesel engine using Pro-E crio 2.0 and analysis is done using ANSYS 11.O. 2D drawings are drafted from the calculations. During power stroke due to high temperature gases the exhaust valve life time may be decreased. So to increase the life time of the poppet valve we replace the existing materials with high strength materials. Thermal and structural analysis is to be done on the exhaust valve when valve is closed. Analysis will be conducted when the study state condition is attained at 5000 cycles using three materials namely Titanium 6242, Steel 347, Steel 304.

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54 Harmonic Reduction Using Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive
T. Premkumar, V. Dhinesh, P. Vijayakumar, Dr. S. Saravanan

Abstract- In this project, a multilevel inverter was designed and implemented to operate a stand-alone solar photovoltaic system. The proposed system uses selective harmonics elimination pulsewidth modulation (PWM) in the multilevel inverter to convert DC voltage from battery storage to supply AC loads. In the PWM method, the effectiveness of eliminating low-order harmonics in the inverter output voltage is studied and compared to that of the sinusoidal PWM method. This work also uses SHEPWM to predict the optimum modulation index and switching angels required for a nine-level cascaded H-bridge inverter with improved inverter output voltage. The proposed predictive method is more convincing than other techniques in providing all possible solutions with any random initial guess and for any number of levels of a multilevel inverter. The simulation results prove that the lower-order harmonics are eliminated using the optimum modulation index and switching angels. An experimental system was implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

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55 Offline Sensorless Control for BLDC-PM Motor Using Finite Element Method
P.M. Manikandan, G. Praveen Santhoshkumar, T. Muthukumar, R. Satheeshkumar

Abstract- This paper presents the FEM assisted sensorless control for BLDC-PM motor. The sensorless control of BLDC motor is based on the line to line PM flux linkage. The rotor position and speed are obtained by using this FEM method. The position is determined by comparing the line to line PM flux linkage with the FEM calculated PM flux linkage. The reliability of this method for BLDC-PM motor is determined through the simulations and experimental results.

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56 Study and Analysis of Transmission Power in Wireless Sensor Network Using RSSI methods
Dhanveer Singh, Ankit Jha

Abstract- In wireless communication systems, strength of the signals degraded as function of distance. Received signal strength may also affected by temperature of receiver node and detection of information is depends on received signal strength. Therefore here we are analyzing required power level of transmission so signal can be received and information can be detected. In this paper, we propose Energy-efficient Scheme for Transmission power adjustment in WSN using RSSI method. In this scheme, we will use open-loop for temperature aware link quality assessment and reward while closed-loop feedback helps to split network addicted to several logical regions to reduce overhead of control packets on basis of Threshold transmitter power loss (RSSIloss) for each region and current number of neighbour nodes that help to adapt transmit power according to connection class changes due to temperature difference. We will discuss the power level of transmitter by dividing the RSSI loss into two scenarios i.e. High and low.

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57 An Efficient Automatic Cross Document Text Summarization using Genetic Algorithm
R.Sudha, S.Jeyanthi

Abstract- Cross document text summarization plays an important role in the field of natural language processing. In the previous works the underlying entity of a given document depending on the original text which is unreliable if the original text contains multiple parts of different themes. In this paper cross document text summarization is done using genetic algorithm and cosine similarity. The informative indicative summary from different documents is extracted by genetic algorithm technique such as selection, fitness and crossover. The selection of random line makes the summarization automated. The selected lines are checked for its fitness. Crossover is the process in which fitness calculated lines are taken for account. Then by using cosine similarity the summarization is carried down for intra document.

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58 Disruption Tolerant Military Network with Enhanced Security- A Survey
P.Sobiyaa, R.M.Bhavadharini, S.Karthik

Abstract-A freely roaming nodes forming as a group of network for effective communication is called Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). In MANET nodes have liberty of moving around the network with no defensive boundaries and often nodes join and leave the network as per their needs. Due to this nature MANETs are insecure. Mobile nodes in military environment suffer from intermittent network connectivity and frequent partitions. Disruption Tolerant military Networks (DTN) are becoming successful solution that allows wireless devices carried by soldiers to communicate with each other reliably. DTN technologies have the potential to interconnect devices in regions that current networking technology cannot reach. This paper is survey about security and efficient management of data retrieval in Disruption Tolerant military Networks.

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59 Duty cycle scheduling algorithm for Wireless sensor networks
V.Yaknapriya, T.Saarulatha, P.M.Manikandan, S.Saravanan

Abstract- Wireless sensor network consists of a group of sensors which has the capability to sense and transmit the real time information to the server. Scheduling in sensor gateway always remains a challenge as it needs to consider the optimal channel utilization of the sensor motes. Most of the scheduling algorithm in the sensor gateway is based on node’s duty cycle i.e., active time, sleep time and idle listening period of the sensors. The duty cycle scheduling is varied randomly based on the data arrival with FIFO queue as common consideration for diverse traffic loads. In this paper, a new queue based scheduling algorithm called Adaptive Duty Cycle Scheduling for Embedded Sensor Networks is proposed for a diverse traffic condition to provide an efficient scheduling with reduced delay and energy consumption. The duty cycle for a sensor node is varied based on the arrival rate of data from sensor nodes and considering the queue length at the gateway. Extensive analyses are carried out under NS-2 simulation environment for SMAC and TMAC scheduling algorithm and their performance were noted for further enhancement.

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60 Improving Privacy In Multi keyword Top-K Retrieval Over Encrypted Cloud Data
K.Santhosh, S.Dhanalakshmi, S.Karthik

Abstract- Migration of users into the cloud environment is increased with the high popularity of services provided by the cloud providers. When large number users outsourcing their files into the cloud environment privacy becomes the most important issue. So the users outsource their data’s after encryption. The searching and retrieval of files becomes most complex when the files are stored in the encrypted format. In the previous work Multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted data (MRSE) is implemented to assure the privacy enhanced searching mechanism. The ranking mechanism is used to retrieve the most similar values over the encrypted files. However one cannot assure that whether the all retrieved results are having most similar fields. The rank test mechanism can be implemented to find out the files are having similar fields or not. Our proposed system is used to retrieve the files with the most similarity values. It mainly concentrates on checking whether the retrieved queries are similar group of files or not.

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61 Vibration control of framed Structures under seismic Excitations using tmd
A.Abdul Malik, Dr C.Sashidhar

Abstract-Vibration control is having its roots primarily in aerospace related problems such as tracking and pointing, and in flexible space structures, the technology quickly moved into civil engineering and infrastructure-related issues, such as the protection of buildings and bridges from extreme loads of earthquakes and winds. The number of tall buildings being built is increasing day by day. Today we cannot have a count of number of lowrise or medium rise and high rise buildings existing in the world. Mostly these structures are having low natural damping. So increasing damping capacity of a structural system, or considering the need for other mechanical means to increase the damping capacity of a building, has become increasingly common in the new generation of tall and super tall buildings. But, it should be made a routine design practice to design the damping capacity into a structural system while designing the structural system. Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) consists of mass, spring (stiffness) and damper. Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is a passive energy dissipation device which absorbs energy reduces dynamic responses. It is attached to vibratory system. The principle of Tuned Mass Damper is that, its damping ratio is same as that of main structure. This study was made to study effectiveness of using TMD for controlling vibration of structure. Time history as per spectra of Is-1893(part-1) 2002 for 5% damping at medium soil, for different Earth Quake zones, study is done on the vibration control of the framed structure by using ETABS software.

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62 Applications of Image Processing Techniques in Text Processing: A Review
Aditi N. Kulkarni, S. S. Nagtilak, Pradnya N. Sadigale

Abstract-In India language for communication changes state wise. As all the boards, names or any information in a written format is in the regional language. A human being can remember very few of them. Even if someone is able to speak in many languages but unable to read that something written in that particular one. Therefore when a person travels to another state he/she may not be able to understand the regional language of that state. In such a scenario though the informative boards are there in front of a person but he/she will be totally unable to get the meaning of that. Interpretation of the text written in a language that is unknown language to the reader is impossible. This task can be made possible with the help of various image processing techniques such as Optical Character Recognition, Segmentation and Background Elimination etc. An overview of previously discovered techniques is done in this paper.

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64 A study on various routing Protocols over a VANET: a survey
V.Soundaryah , Dr.D.Shanthi

Abstract-In recent years, the aspect of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) which is a special class of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) has become an interesting research area. VANET is an autonomous self configuring wireless network that integrates ad hoc network with cellular technology in order to achieve intelligent communications among vehicles for the provision of safety and increased efficiency. Because of varying dynamic topology, network size and mobility constraints in VANETS efficient routing protocols must be designed adapting to different VANET environments. This paper includes a survey on various routing strategies which incorporates both vehicle to vehicle (v2v) and vehicle to Infrastructure (v2I) communications. It compares various routing protocols in accordance with their methodologies advantages and disadvantages by pointing out some open issues in it.

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65 A Survey on Personalized Web Search
R. Dhivya, B. Vinodhini, S. Karthik

Abstract-An individual person searching through the web according to their interest is known as personalized web search. Many users accessing the web but the web results shows similar results to everyone for example a fruit seller and programmer may use the same word “Apple” to search for their individual needs. In this paper, it mainly describe about the different personalized web search methods such as client side web search and others which is used to protect the personal information of users.

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66 A Survey on Anonymization Techniques for Privacy Preserving Data Mining
R.Monisha, A.Chandrasekar, S.Karthik

Abstract-In recent years, the data is produced at an unusual rate. So our ability to store data has grown. The data that is been stored can be analyzed for useful information. In order to make research useful, the data should be published. The data may contain personal details and sensitive attributes which an individual may not like to publish. The personal data may be misused for variety of purposes. Hence, the Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) plays a key role in securing data from disclosure. The data is anonymized and then published. There are many techniques that help in data privacy. These techniques are from wide areas such as data mining, cryptography and information security. In this paper, we propose futuristic methods for privacy preservation.

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67 Secure Mining Of Association Rules in Vertically Distributed Database
Mr.M.S.Thanabal, Mr.L.Ganesan, Ms.S.Annapoorani

Abstract-Distributed data mining technology has enhanced for identifying patterns and trends from large quantities of data shared from multiple parties. Privacy preserving algorithm to mine association rules from horizontally partitioned data using a Inverse Frequent Itemset Tree (IFIT). However, for very high dimensional data this system increases the time complexity rate of the system. In order to improve the accuracy rate of the system as well as reduce the time complexity rate, we are proposing the optimization method. The proposed approach is most helpful for securing the corporate privacy, and it is analyzed with the large datasets approach called genetic algorithm. In our proposed work, we aim to find Inverse Frequent Item-set and to develop a global association rules model based on the genetic algorithm. This scheme is most helpful for securing the corporate privacy, using rob frugal scheme and it is analyzed with the large datasets and it is using vertical partition data. It is simpler and significantly more efficient to preserve the data well in secured multiparty computation.

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68 Survey over Efficient Schemes to detect & Prevent Accidents in VANET
M.Sowndarya, Dr.D.Shanthi

Abstract-VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is an emerging new technology having unique characteristics different from other ad hoc network. This paper presented a literature survey on an efficient Scheme to avoid accident and Secured Mobility Pattern in Vanet. Recent years the total number of vehicles around the world is increasing day by day. Therefore it is necessary to improve the road safety rather than improving the quality of the roads. VANET is one of the influencing areas for the improvement of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) which can increase road safety, provide traffic information etc. In this paper, I propose a warning service to prevent accidents by alerting drivers about accidents and dangerous road conditions. Apart from it helps to create balance in traffic load by reducing the travelling time and also broadcast emergency signal via Road Side Unit (RSU) to the other vehicles behind the accident. Misbehavior detection nodes are found using the Mobility Pattern in vehicular ad hoc networks. A warning message about the misbehaving node is send to all other nodes. A DynamicBip Algorithm is designed for vehicles using the mobility pattern to reduced accidents and increased safety in VANET.

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69 A Survey on Bus Tracking System Based on GPS and GSM for Bus Arrival Time Prediction
P.Nivetha,Mrs.T.Vigneswari

Abstract-The bus arrival time is the key information for most of the people who travel by buses. Bus is the most inclusive and inexpensive mode of transport especially for the students, the employees of a company or for a common man. The usage of the bus transport depreciates personal vehicle usage and thus decreases the fuel consumption. Bus transport also suppress the traffic congestion. Prolonged waiting time at the bus stops dispirit the usage of buses.Also the bus schedules are delayed due to many unpredictable factors such as harsh weather situation, traffic conditions etc. So, generally the accurate arrival time of the bus is required for the every bus passengers. Towards the intend of reducing this problem,there are various bus tracking system for predicting the bus arrival time and for providing service for the bus travelers are developed.This paper reviews different types of the bus tracking system based on GPS and GSM for the Bus arrival Time Prediction which is used for providing accurate arrival time information for the querying bus travelers. And it also reviews the merits and demerits of the GSM and GPS based tracking system in the form of tabulation.The discussed systems can be able to decrease the problems that are arising due to unavailability of a reliable, efficient, accurate, and updated bus arrival time prediction system.

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70 Assessment of giant fulfillment of On-chip networks with distributed buffer Routers
M. Deivakani, JO.Joy Stanley

Abstract-In Network-on-chip routers, its buffers committed to their ports of each input and output. Buffers store the non permanent information and involves in consumption of each space and power. Buffer less routers take away buffers from the router thus save abundant space however; their performance becomes poor just in case of incoming information packets rates are massive. As a result of having no handiness of buffers, previous router styles planned to drop and channel packets or to deflect them once network competition happens which will consume even higher energy per packet than a router with buffers. Whereas examining the network traffic but not each input ports of routers incoming packets have required to be transported at the same time. Broad number of buffers is empty and a few are somewhat busy, this encourages going for the shared line-up buffer technique. Every router has five ports, four ports to neighbour router and one to the processor through network interface (NI). In this paper, it tends to gift a distributed buffer line-ups technique to utilize idle buffers once the network delivery becomes heavy. If the incoming packet is at light-weight delivery case, the input packets at the input ports bypass the shared line-ups however at the significant delivery condition it have to be compelled to be travel through the shared line-ups to extend the outturn rate.

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71 Real time biometrics security system through Finger-vein recognition
Jayalilly.S

Abstract-The main objective of this system is to develop an embedded system, which is used for ATM security applications. In this system, Bankers will collect the customer finger-vein while opening the accounts and then only customer can access the ATM machine. The working of this ATM machine is, when customer places finger on the finger vein module it automatically generates every time a different 4- digit code as a message to the monitor. The code received by the customer should be entered by pressing the keys on the touch screen. After entering it checks whether it is a valid one or not and allows the customer to access.

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72 A Voltage Controlled PFC SEPIC Converter Based PMBLDCM Drive for Air-Conditioners Using Fuzzy Controller
Mr.S.Saranraj, Mrs.A.Sasipriya, S.Ramkumar, M.Muruganandam

Abstract-This project proposes a SEPIC converter as a powerfactor improvement converter for Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor Drive. Generally, PMBLDCM Drive is operated by an electronic commutator (3 phase VSI). PMBLDC Motor drives having lagging power factor when it is supplied from AC supply due to its inductive load nature. Therefore the speed control of the motor is cannot be efficient. This leads to poor power quality at AC mains. Because of this poor power quality at AC mains compressor could not work efficiently. In an Air-Conditioner, Compressor speed needs to control effectively intends to achieve optimum air conditioning. And Moreover, Implementation of SEPIC Converter in this drive improves the power quality at AC mains. This Proposed method is constructed and also its performance analyzed by using Matlab software.

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73 Service oriented analysis of Big Data
B.Manivannan, M.Ananda kumar

Abstract-Big Data is an all-inclusive term for any gathering of information sets so huge and complex that it gets to be hard to process utilizing conventional information handling utilization. The difficulties of incorporate investigation, capture, search, sharing, storage, exchange, visualization, and security infringement. The pattern having bigger information sets because of the extra data logical from examination of a solitary huge set of related information, as contrasted with independent more diminutive sets with the same aggregate sum of information, permitting associations to be found to spot business patterns, avoid maladies, battle wrongdoing etc. In this paper we proposed a semantic analysis and trust analysis because in semantic analysis text mining approach is utilized for survey the item and discover the related services. Trust Analysis is applied for discover whether is trustable or non-trustable.

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74 VHDL Implementation of I2C Master Bus Controller
A.Surendra nadh, V.Satyanarayana, U.Yedukondalu

Abstract-Today, at the low end of the communication protocols I²C protocol was in major use. The I²C bus was developed in 1982; its original purpose was to provide an easy way to connect a CPU to peripherals chips in a TV set. Peripheral devices in embedded systems are often connected to the microcontroller as memory-mapped I/O devices.The focus of this paper is on I²C protocol following master controller. This controller is connected to a microchip or pc and reads eight bit directions following I²C protocol. The entire module is meant in VHDL and simulated in ModelSIM. The planning is additionally synthesized in Xilinx 14.1

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75 Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sake Pothalaiah,D. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract-A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of spatially disseminated autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental circumstances, such as temperature, sound, moisture, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The main constraint in wireless sensor networks is that the nodes need to use as less power as possible to increase the lifetime of the network. Most of the nodes run on batteries and are deployed in hostile areas where accessing and replacing nodes is not a feasible option. Hence if the nodes use up their limited energy too fast the network will die out faster. Hence energy efficient routing protocols are required for the design of strong and efficient wireless sensor networks. In this paper deals with the study and simulation of LEACH protocol and then compared with AODV and simulation results are carried out using NS 2 their performance is analyzed with different parameters like throughput, end to end delay, power consuming, power reaming and number of dead nodes .

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76 DC link Voltage Control for High Performance Asymmetric Twin Converter Based D-STATCOM Fed to Induction Drive
Ch. Pavan Kumar, Kiran Kumar Kuthadi, K.V.Uma Mahesh

Abstract-Power Electronics (PE) converter technology is a very efficient alternative for medium-voltage and highpower applications and also for other applications where high-quality voltages and currents are required. The main concern of consumers is the quality and reliability of power supplies at various load centers where they are located at .Even though the power generation in most well developed countries is fairly reliable. The controller can balance individual dc capacitor voltages when H-bridges run with different switching patterns and have parameter variations. It has two advantages: 1)the controller can work well in all operation modes (the capacitive mode, the inductive mode, and the standby mode) and 2) the impact of the individual dc voltage controller on the voltage quality is small. This paper suggests further improvements in this topology. A threephase cascaded H-bridge inverter his control method uses a discrete-time model of the system to predict the future value of the current for all voltage vectors, and selects the vector which minimizes a cost function. In order to improve the performance, a phase-shifted carrier based pulse width modulation technique is used. A mathematical model of the system is derived, based on which a controller for the scheme is designed. The effectiveness of the scheme is verified through detailed simulation study using Mat lab/Simulink.

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77 DA survey of various image Enhancement techniques
R.Ragumadhavan

Abstract-Image enhancement is one of the key issues in high quality pictures such as digital cameras. Since image clarity is very easily affected by lighting, weather, or equipment that has been used to capture the image. These conditions lead to image may suffer from loss of information. The image enhancement is to bring out detail that is hidden in an image or to increase contrast in a low contrast image. It provides a multitude of choices for improving the visual quality of images. This paper presents a short description of various image enhancement techniques in order to make familiar with the enhancement of a blurred image, setting the brightness, contrast and other degradations in images in image processing.

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78 Power quality improvement in a PMBLDCM Drive using a buck converter
R.Ragumadhavan

Abstract-Solid-state switch-mode rectification converters have reached a matured level for improving power quality in terms of power-factor correction (PFC), reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains and precisely regulated dc output in buck, boost, buck–boost and multilevel modes with unidirectional and bidirectional power flow. In this paper, an improved power quality converter employing conventional PI based & intelligence controlled( FLC) forward buck converter topology is used to feed a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. Normally, the PMBLDCM drive consists of a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) and a PMBLDCM which is fed from single-phase AC mains through a diode bridge rectifier (DBR). In this proposed system a conventional pi and fuzzy logic controlled based forward buck DC-DC converter is used after the DBR and it performs power factor correction (PFC) at input AC mains and voltage control at DC link, in a single-stage. The proposed PMBLDCM drive is designed, modeled and its performance is evaluated in Matlab- Simulink environment for an air conditioner (Air-Con) load. The speed of the compressor is controlled for efficient operation of the Air-Con which results in controlling the temperature in the conditioned area at the set point, effectively. Obtained results are presented to demonstrate an improved power quality of PFC converter based PMBLDCM drive in wide range of the speed control.

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79 A High Step-Up Converter With a Voltage Multiplier Module for a Photovoltaic System
K.Sindhuja, P.Joel and B.Shivashankar

Abstract-A high step-up converter for front end photo voltaic system is proposed in this paper. An asymmetrical interleaved high step-up converter obtains high step-up gain without operating at an extreme duty ratio through a voltage multiplier module. The voltage multiplier module consists of a conventional boost converter and coupled inductors.To achieve a considerably higher voltage conversion ratio an extra conventional boost converter is integrated into the first phase. This two-phase configuration will not only reduce the current stress through each power switch, but also diminishes the input current ripple, which decreases the conduction losses of metal–oxide– semiconductor field–effect transistors (MOSFETs). In addition, the proposed converter also behaves as an active clamp circuit. This feature may allivate large voltage spikes across the power switches. Thus, in the proposed system the low-voltage-rated MOSFETs can be adopted for reductions of conduction losses and cost. Hence the efficiency increases as the energy stored in leakage inductances is re-cycled to the output terminal. Also a prototype circuit with a 40-V input voltage, 380-V output, and 1000-W output power is operated to verify its performance. The highest efficiency that can be obtained with system can be 96.8%

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80 An survey on automated secure Configuration using internet Protocol version 6
J.Jayanthi, C. Mahesh Kumar

Abstract-This paper presents the automated secure configuration using IPv6. Ipv6 is a network layer protocol designed as an evolution from ipv4. Ipv6 resolves many of the problems inherent in ipv4 and also incorporates many enhancements. In this paper, proposed secure configuration for delivering packet using authentication header. It solves the internet scaling problem, provides a flexible transition mechanism, meets the needs of mobile users, Supports a auto configuration (plug and play). Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) nodes use a local IPv6 routing table to determine how to forward packets. IPv6 automatically it creates routing table entries when initializing, and it adds entries from its static configuration, based on the receipt of on-link prefixes and routes. This paper includes introduction, Advantages and its limitations, basic ipv6 configuration, working of ipv6 and protocol overview.

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81 Implementation of Secure Data communication technique on FPGA
Satish kumar vishwakarma, Prof. Shivam Khare, Prof. Richa shrivastava

Abstract-The XXTEA block encryption includes both the f8 data security algorithm and the f9 data integrity algorithm for Mobile communications Networks. XXTEA implementation requires high performance and has low power use in order to be proper for network components. Presented work is principally based on designing an optimised architecture (IP) for a cryptographic block for cellular mobile phone and a network intrusion detection system (NDIS) for a high speed network. The complete designs are coded using VHDL and are synthesized using Xilinx ISE for verifying their functionality. Virtex-4 pro FPGA is chosen as the target device for realization of the proposed design. The work is to design an optimised solution for secure 3G mobile communication XXTEA is the standard encryption technique but proposed work is more optimised solution for the same when the chip area and encryption time considers as design parameters. Thesis work describes a new method for the Sbox-7 and Sbox-9 of XXTEA approach.

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82 Modified exhaust manifold for reduction Of catalyst light off temperature duration: a review
Nirmal Raja R, Senthil Prabhu M

Abstract-An improvement of exhaust manifold design requires better fundamental understanding of complex processes taking place involving heat and mass transfer with chemical reactions. The paper was mainly focused on the study of fluid flow inside the exhaust manifold and the study of temperature distribution and chemical reaction in catalytic converter. Three way catalytic converter (TWC) has become a common feature for the gasoline engines with closed loop lambda feedback control. TWCs are being progressively improved in their design structure, material properties and hence performance. However, the catalytic converter will not able to function effectively until it reaches the light-off operating temperature though TWC used in motor vehicles nowadays are able to achieve the reductions of CO, UBHC and NOx by up to 95% when they are fully warmed up. The light-off temperatures of the TWCs are in the range of 250°C-340°C. Recent research has revealed that 60-80% of the UBHC and CO is emitted from a motor vehicle equipped with TWC within the first few minutes following engine cold start. This peculiarity offers scope for the reduction of overall engine emissions in particular where short journals are frequently encountered in urban road driving. In this connection we considered detailed heat transfer processes in the engine exhaust system. So as to predict the performance of the catalytic converter and its light off temperature. The various complex geometries like (divergent, convergent and regular pipe) of the exhaust line and the special flow conditions complicate the problem of accurately estimating several important heat transfer parameters. The exhaust gas temperatures along the exhaust pipe and across the catalyst monolith spatially predicted and compared with the conventional exhaust system (regular pipe) results.

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83 Big Data – The Tsunami of Data in the Digital Universe
A.H.Nandhu Kishore, VE. Jayanthi, A.Sasireka

Abstract-The amount of available data grows day by day enormously led to one of the buzzwords in the digital era and in the Information Technology industry from the last decade namely the “Big Data”. The process of identifying interesting patterns and performing automatic data-driven decision making from the large amount of data has become one of the hot research challenges and growing enthusiasm in dealing with the notion of “Big Data”. The data is generated at a very faster rate by means of mainframe systems, client / server systems, distributed systems, the Internet, Mobiles, social networks and the cloud. The multitude of users, devices and the generated data with incredible volume, variety and velocity all lead to the explosion of data. The organizations need some means to store, utilize, protect and gain real-time access from Big Data. The research focus of Big Data is now more towards on making timely and accurate decisions to be obtained from Big Data rather than on storing, manipulating and retrieving them. This paper aims at exploring on the origin of Big Data, Big Data characteristics, Big Data analytics, Big Data architecture and applications of Big Data in various fields

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84 Comparison of test cases Generated by using two UML diagrams with one UML diagram
Tanu Gupta, D. S. Dhaliwal, Ravinder Kumar Vohra

Abstract-In order to develop an effective software, the main thing is to considered that the developed software should be error free. But the reality is that, it is impossible to develop a software which is completely free from errors. So, developers try to develop a software which may generate errors in rare cases. For this purpose Software Testing plays an important role in Software development because it can minimize the development cost and improve the system performance. In today’s world functionality of software increases very quickly which may increase the complexity and size of software applications, due to this more emphasis has been sited on object oriented design strategy to reduce the software cost and increase its performance. An innovative approach is to use UML models for test cases generation for object oriented system. This paper will show the comparision between the test cases generated by using combination of two or more UML models and single UML model for an object oriented system.

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85 An Implementation of Ant Colony Optimization Technique on Medical Image Segmentation (A Review)
JagdeepKaur,Rajinderkumar

Abstract-Image segmentation plays vital role to understand an image. The segmentation of an image tells that what it represents and various objects present in the image. This review paper we have proposed a new approach Ant colony optimization of swarm intelligence for the segmentation of Medical images. Medical Image segmentation is done with many techniques like PSO, BBO, ABC& GA (Genetic Algorithm)etc. Ant colony based Optimization approach for image segmentation for partitioning an image into multiple segments.

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86 Performance Comparison of Wind Power Systems Fed with different Induction Generators
B.Masthanaiah, J.Nagarjuna Reddy, and B.M Manjunatha

Abstract-This paper describes the performance of DFIG in detail. The SCIG was already proved the importance’s in renewable energy systems. But still their exit some limitations in SCIG power generation. Those are, SCIG needs almost constant shaft speed to generator to generate constant power. In order to achieve this, we are using pitch angle control which reduces the efficiency of the overallsystem. In order to increases the efficiency and reliability we are inventing new technology is called DFIG.In this paper clearly explains the comparison between SCIG and DFIG.The both systems are modeled in mat lab by simulink environment and the operation is tested for wind turbine maximum power extracting algorithm results.

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87 Enhancement of heat transfer by analysis of fluid flow in inclined non-circular duct
Gururaj Biradar, S.S.Kubasad , H.V.Harish & Amaresha patil

Abstract-The phenomenon of forced convection with turbulent flow is complex and hard to develop analytically. The aim of the project is to enhance heat transfer by optimizing the design of domain. In this study forced airflow at 5 m/s for different heat input, for different inclination both for circular and non-circular ducts has been carried. Naturally convection depends on fluid parameters and geometry of the domain through which fluid flows. The aim of our project used to find the value of heat transfer coefficient ‘h’ for turbulent flow in many fluid transfer systems. Heat transfer coefficient ‘h’ very important parameter because they determine rate of heat transfer. A review of literature on heat transfer coefficients indicated very little work reported for crossflow pipe arrangement at various angles of inclination. This project uses experimental results (based on reference paper) to determine heat transfer coefficient, comparison of heat transfer coefficient for circular, square, rectangular and triangular duct at different inclination has been carried out finally and also passive method of enhancement of heat transfer for triangular duct carried out and the duct which gives maximum heat transfer coefficient has been optimized. ICEM-CFD has been used for modeling and meshing purpose, CFX has been used for analysis and CFD-POST has been used for result.

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88 Hand Gesture Recognition System to Count Finger Using Contour Based Features
Ann Abraham Babu, Satishkumar Varma, Rupali Nikhare

Abstract-In this paper we propose a hand gesture recognition system for counting number of fingers in a hand gesture using contour based features. This system involves four phases namely image capture phase, image pre-processing and segmentation phase, feature detection phase and gesture recognition phase. In the first phase, the input image is acquired by means of a web camera. In the second phase the skin color of hand region is detected using YCbCr color space and morphological operations such as erosion and dilation are performed to remove noise followed by smoothing and thresholding of hand image. Feature detection is performed by extracting features namely centroid, contour based feature which includes convexity defects and convex hull, relative length and also angle is computed between primary axis and line joining centroid and hull for orientation detection. Finally, the recognition phase recognizes the gesture number based on extracted features.

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89 A novel technique for denial of service Attack detection in interconnected Systems
A.Arunpandiyan, R.Mahesh

Abstract-Interconnected systems, such as Web servers, database servers, cloud computing servers etc, are now under threads from network attackers. As one of most common and aggressive means, Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks cause serious impact on these computing systems. In this paper, we present a DoS attack detection system that uses Multivariate Correlation Analysis (MCA) for accurate network traffic characterization by extracting the geometrical correlations between network traffic features. Our MCA-based DoS attack detection system employs the principle of anomaly-based detection in attack recognition. This makes our solution capable of detecting known and unknown DoS attacks effectively by learning the patterns of legitimate network traffic only. Furthermore, a triangle-area-based technique is proposed to enhance and to speed up the process of MCA. The effectiveness of our proposed detection system is evaluated using KDD Cup 99 dataset, and the influences of both non-normalized data and normalized data on the performance of the proposed detection system are examined. The results show that our system outperforms two other previously developed state-ofthe- art approaches in terms of detection accuracy.

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90 Communication Coverage in Wireless Passive Sensor Networks Using Low-Cost FIR Filter Design
K Arun Veer Kumar, N Apparao

Abstract-Low-cost finite impulse response (FIR) designs are presenting using the concept of multipliers with producing full results. In this paper it was considered that the optimization in partial products and hardware resources without sacrificing the frequency response and output signal precision. Multiple constant multiplication/accumulation in a direct FIR structure is implemented using multipliers. Comparisons with previous FIR design approaches show that the proposed design is used for signed coefficient multiplications. In this new method, I implement a multiplier which is useful to multiply all type of coefficient values with its proportionate Signal values. Comparisons with previous FIR design approaches show that the proposed designs achieve the best area and power results. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are in general, composed of low-cost, low-power sensor nodes which can only be equipped with a limited power source, i.e., a battery. Sensor nodes consume most of the stored power during RF transmission. At this point, modulated backscattering (MB) is a promising communication technique leading to a new sensor network paradigm, Wireless Passive Sensor Networks (WPSN). WPSN are supplied with energy by external RF power sources. With MB approach, a passive sensor node transmits its data simply by modulating the incident signal from an RF source by switching its antenna impedance. Therefore, the transmitter is basically an antenna impedance switching circuitry, and WPSN is free of the lifetime constraint of conventional WSN.

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91 Highly Efficient Parallel Built-In Self Repair with March C Algorithm
M.Durga, Mr.G.Balasubramanian, Mr.K.Prithviraj

Abstract-A parallel pseudo-random bit sequence generator with March c- algorithm is proposed for high-speed self-test applications in FPGA. The reseeding method makes LFSR to generate test patterns without repetition leads high speed testing. As FPGAs is used to implement any logical function for faster prototype development, it is necessary to implement the existing design of LFSR on FPGA to test and verify the simulated & synthesis result between different lengths. The total number of random state generated on LFSR depends on the feedback polynomial. The main objective is to design and implement high speed online parallel Built InSelf-Test using March c- algorithm with reseeding method to cover more faults with less clock cycles.

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92 A Survey on different Feature Selection and Classification Techniques for Cancer Prediction
G.Givya, Dr. S. Karthik

Abstract-Microarray gene expression data which has an adequate number of genes are used to screen and determine whether those genes are active, silent in normal or cancerous tissues. By using this, the potential gene markers of each cancer subtype can be identified. The cancerous tissues in the gene expression data can be found by using both the feature selection and classification techniques. Where the feature selection is the process of selecting the subset of relevant features and the classification is the process of assigning a class label to a set of unclassified cases. In this paper, the hybrid feature selection that combines both filter and wrapper method along with the semi-supervised SVM classification is used in the prediction and diagnosis of cancer.

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93 Design and Optimization of Wideband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications
Jatin Kumar, Saranjeet Singh

Abstract-In this paper, we present Wideband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications. The design comprises of four rectangular patch array each embedded on four L slots and one rectangular patch array embedded on a plus slot. The design results in reduction in weight size and allow easily integration in hand held device. Proposed antenna is designed using IE3D and results are analysed by comparing the gain, return loss, directivity, bandwidth and VSWR with the reference antenna.

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94 A Survey On Improving The Efficiency Of Retrieving Weakly Labeled Images In Web
M.Manikandan, S.Raja Ranganathan, Dr.S.Karthik

Abstract-Data Mining is the process of discover and extract information from various source. It extract the pattern and discover the knowledge of data. In modern developments of digital media number of human facial images available in the social websites,some images are properly tagged but many of images are not tagged properly. so to overcome this problem an image is taken as an input and based on the features the related images are extracted then those images are annotated properly. This paper poses various techniques and methods are used to overcome the limitation of existing approach.

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95 A High Efficiency ZVS PWM Resonant Full bridge dc-dc Converter for Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers
M.Nagarani, B.Satyavani

Abstract-This paper presents combing resonant and pulse width modulation (PWM) power conversions with a zero voltage switching (ZVS) full-bridge dc-dc converter for electric vehicle battery chargers. This converter has a half bridge LLC resonant circuit, it shares the lagging leg with a phase shift full bridge (PSFB) dc–dc circuit to guarantee ZVS of the lagging-leg switches from zero to full load. A secondary side hybrid switching circuit formed by the leakage inductance, output inductor of the PSFB dc–dc circuit, a small additional resonant capacitor, and two additional diodes, is integrated at the secondary side of the PSFB dc–dc circuit. With the clamp path of a hybrid-switching circuit, the voltage overshoots that arise during the turn off of the rectifier diodes are eliminated and the voltage of bridge rectifier is clamped to the minimal achievable value, which is equal to secondary-reflected input voltage of the transformer. The output voltage of LLC resonant circuit and the resonant capacitor voltage of the hybrid-switching circuit added, which is applied between the bridge rectifier and the output inductor of the PSFB dc–dc circuit during the freewheeling phases. As a result, the primary side circulating current of the PSFB dc–dc circuit is instantly reset to zero, achieving minimized circulating losses. The effectiveness of converter was verified by using MATLAB- simulink.

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96 Assessment on Traffic Noise Pollution at Different Location in Jabalpur City
Krishen Bhagwan Sharma, Prof. R. K. Bhatia, Prof. M.K. Koshta

Abstract-Cities and towns of the world are now facing enormous rise of noise pollution problem due to very high population rise, transport congestion and associated commercial and industrial activities. Definition of pollution from a legal point of view is the wrongful contamination of the atmosphere, or of water, or of soil, to the material injury of the right of an individual. This study investigates traffic noise pollution in Jabalpur .Jabalpur, a district headquarter of Madhya Pradesh is one of such a place where noise pollution is very frequent. In order to assess noise level, noise data were collected from various places of the city by sound level meter with duration of 14 days /location during specified time like 7.00 am to10.00pm. Traffic behaviour and characteristics at various roads near schools, hospitals, railway tracks, offices, courts, etc. using “Sound Level Meter” Then, the maximum value of noise level in decibels is Estimated.

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97 Charging Unit for 100CC Bike Battery
Rahamath Basha Shaik

Abstract-An Investigational study on DC Power generation by using 100 CC Bike and Bladed wheel is presented in this paper. The main objective of the present study is to generating DC power and Charging of DC Battery. The Power generations at different speeds are measured and listed, respective graphs also plotted.

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98 A Novel Approach To Detect Human Or A BOT
Bantupalli SatishKumar, Santosh Kumar Uppada

Abstract-The advent usage of internet has made all the information to be sent and shared throughout the world in a much simplified way. In this aspect of attaining information, there will be majorly a great demand for understanding the requester of particular information. With the automata that has been developed and the intervention of robots and bots in the communication has increased a negative impact on the availability of correct information at current time. Differentiation has been made by using certain Human Interactive proofs (HIPs). Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CATCHA) is the major Human Interactive proof that has been used widely. Many image based, logical based, randomized and linguistic based CAPTCHA techniques has been developed to have a crystal clear difference between bots and a general Human.

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99 Cross-Layer Optimization for Cognitive Radio Networks
Sayali S. Mane, Prof. Dr. S. V. Sankpal

Abstract-Cross layer optimization and localization of primary user (PU) in cognitive radio network is formulated. The location of PU is tracked by using Bayesian estimator. Different interference constraints are also considered which gives coverage region boundary of each primary user receiver. Bayesian estimator is based on 1-bit messages, referred as “interference tweet”.

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100 High Throughput DAB Architecture Using Maximum Likelihood Decoding and I2C
P.Srinivasan, Mr.L.Veeraraghavan, Mr.S.Savakumar

Abstract-Today we have a wide choice of standards for audio data compression, such as MPEG-2/4 AAC (ISO/IEC), MPEG-1 Layer 3 (MP3 ISO/IEC)], Dolby AC3 (ATSC), OggVorbis (XIPH.ORG) , Windows Media Audio (WMA Microsoft) and etc. For most of the recent embedded media applications, it is a trend and must to support multi-standard audio decoding, while the restrictions of cost, power consumption and time to market are always tough. In this paper we have presented the hardware design implementation of low power State transition based encoding and maximum likelihood decoding algorithm by replacing Huffman CODEC. To achieve high throughput with low distortion, a 1/2 bit rate encoder and decoder is proposed. Clock gating technique with flip flop grouping method is proposed to achieve low power and area.

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101 High speed Adaptive FIR filter Implementation using memory based optimization
K.S.Karthiga, K.N.Natarajan, S.P.Sophia

Abstract-Advancements of digital signal processing functions in FPGA have put great efforts in designing efficient way of multiplication for DSP functions. Conventional design of a Digital FIR Filter based on the direct implementation of a N-tap FIR filter requires N multiply-and-accumulate (MAC) blocks. The Project deals with the anti-symmetric product coding (APC) and modified odd-multiple-storage (OMS) techniques for lookuptable (LUT) design for memory-based multiplication for Adaptive FIR filter. The combined approach provides a reduction in LUT size to one-fourth of the conventional LUT. It is shown that the proposed LUT design for small input sizes can be used for efficient implementation of high-precision multiplication by input operand decomposition.

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102 Vibrant Weight Harmonizing For Cloud Computing Using Virtual Machine
Veeresham Yamsani, Gnanender Reddy

Abstract-Cloud computing allows business customers to scale up and down their resource usage based on needs. Many of the Touted gains in the cloud model come from resource multiplexing through virtualization technology. In this paper, we present a system that uses virtualization technology to allocate data center resources dynamically based on application demands and support green computing by optimizing the number of servers in use. We introduce the concept of “skewness” to measure the unevenness in the multidimensional resource utilization of a server. By minimizing skewness, we can combine different types of workloads nicely and improve the overall utilization of server resources. We develop a set of heuristics that prevent overload in the system effectively while saving energy used. Trace driven simulation and experiment results demonstrate that our algorithm achieves good performance.

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103 Ethno-medicinal plants used for treatment of gynecological Disorders by tribal of Shivpuri district of Madhya Pradesh
Ramdayal Jatav, Rakesh Mehta

Abstract-Medicinal plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The present paper deals with the Ethno medicinal plants used by the tribes of Shivpuri district. The tribals depend on the herbal medicines for curing various gynecological disorders. Ethno-gynecology means the medical practices for the treatment of Shivpuri district for their healthcare needs. The present paper documented 59 medicinal plants of Shivpuri district belonging to 52 genera and the local health healers for the treatment of gynecological diseases used 27 families. The medicinal plants used by the traditional users of Shivpuri district are arranged alphabetically followed by botanical name, local name, family, parts used and medicinal uses. The binomial names are enumerated with utilization of these plants. Further studies were suggested to validate the claims and herbal drug development for treatment of such disorder.

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104 A Study On Data Replication Techniques In MANETs
P.Arivalagan, D.Prabakar, S. Karthik

Abstract-Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes are connected in dynamic manner. Mantes are dynamic topology because of node mobility. Nodes must behave as routers, The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves at random. MANET is a fast growing area of research to find in variety of applications. This paper aims to provide a means of understanding the designing issues of MANETs. This paper describes data replication is taken as main problem in mobile adhoc networks also identifies data replication Techniques in MANETs and also investigating the behaviour of data replication techniques. In addition, this paper also proposes s criteria for selecting appropriate data replication techniques for various application requirements.

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105 Study On Various Methodologies In Facial Expression Recognition
N.Satheesh Kumar, P.Sundaramoorthy, S. Karthik

Abstract-In human communication facial Expression plays an significant role. Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is a process of detecting the face in the image and the face region will be preprocess, features are extracting from image by analyzing change in the appearance of facial features and classifying this information into facial expression categories like prototypic facial expression such as fear, happy, sad or Action Units(AU) such as eye open or mouth stretched. Face Expression Recognition techniques have always been a very challenging task in real life applications because of the variations in their appearance, pose and occlusion. This paper addresses a methodology for face expression recognition.

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106 Placement Driven Clock Gate Cloning and Fan-out Redistribution on 28nm Processor
G Anilkumar, M Kranthi kumar

Abstract-Most widely used low power technique for reducing dynamic power is Clock Gating. The clock gating strategy employed has a huge bearing on the clock tree synthesis quality along with the impact to leakage and dynamic power. This paper proposes a technique for clock gate optimization to aid clock tree synthesis. The technique enables cloning and redistribution of the fan-out among the existing equivalent clock gates. The technique is placement aware and hence reduces overall clock wire length and area. The method involves employing the “K means clustering algorithm” to geographically partition the design’s registers. This enables better clock tree quality entitlement during clock tree synthesis in terms of clock tree area, power and better local skew distribution.

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107 Scalability Of Phase Based Binarization Of Archaic Document Images
V.Arivumalar@Suganya,Mrs.K.Rejini

Abstract-Text segmentation between the foreground and background images is high challenging task because of large inter/intra variation. Human visual system is able to detect blur and evaluate sharpness of visual images. An image captured by an imaging system represents the degraded version of an original image due to the additive noise. Document image binarization is of great importance in the document image analysis and recognition pipeline.It affects the stages of the recognition process and identifies pixel-based binarization evaluation methodology for archaic handwritten/machine-printed document images.Also the, rates of broken and missed text, false alarms, background noise, character enlargement, and merging are identified. The first two steps are phase derived,then Gaussian and Trimmed median filter are used in the post processing step. One of the outputs of the existing adaptive median filter is also removing the needed portions of image.Based on that, use the trimmed median filter for high performance. The pre-processing of degraded handwritten documents including the steps of binarization and form line removal. It shows high recall performance to improve the binarization methodologies. Also the mean shift method is used to fasten the ground truth process for ancient documents.

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108 A Survey on Clustering Algorithm
Halima Begam .T, Vasuki. M

Abstract-Cluster analysis is the procedure of grouping of data rendering their similarity and dissimilarity. clustering has several clustering algorithm like connectivity based, grid based, density based, hierarchical based each having its own characteristics which fulfills the following criteria such as arbitrary shapes, spherical shapes, high dimension databases and so on. From this survey we see about the detailed information of each technique

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109 Solar energy conversion using hybrid 13- Level H-bridge inverter
A.Subramani, Dr.S.Senthilkumar

Abstract-This Paper has emerged recently as a very important alternative in the area of high-power medium voltage energy control. The multilevel voltage source inverters unique structure allows them to obtain high voltages with reduced harmonics without the use of transformers or series connected switching devices. The general function of the multilevel inverter is to provide a required AC output voltage from several levels of dc input voltage for these reason multilevel inverters can easily used for the high power applications. In this paper we used three phase 13-level inverter for better accuracy with reduced harmonic distortion in the output waveform. The proposed system used the topology of cascade H-Bridge Multilevel inverter with separate dc sources for the switching circuit. As the number of step level and voltage increases in the output waveform has more steps, which produces a desired output waveform with low harmonic distortion. Application of multilevel inverter for high power equipments in industry has become popular because of its high-quality output waveform.

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110 Clutter Density Model Recognition Using Multi Target Tracking
M.aswini, R. Femila Goldy

Abstract-Tracking a group of targets in video sequences has used in many application like security monitoring, traffic flow measuring, accident detection on highways. The main aim is to obtain a record of the trajectory of the moving objects in the video like human or vehicles over space and time by processing the video data. The moving target tracking the target can go non-rigid deformation, rotations or occlusion. In multi target tracking the video is loaded and converted into frame based on the video sequence. After that the Pre-processing is applied to the frames for filtering process. Then the pre-processed frame is taken for background subtraction method. In background subtraction method the static pixels are identified and removed. Then the moving targets are identified and labelled. The resulting identified object is then compared with the image dataset to recognize the person. Finally the person action in the video is identified by compare with the action dataset.

111 A Proposed Approach For Image De-Noising
Baljinder Kaur, Varinderjit Kaur

Abstract-Wavelet thresholding is an admired move toward the de-noising, due to its unfussiness. This procedure operates in the orthogonal wavelet domain, where every coefficient is threshold by comparing adjacent to a threshold. Because the information, which is transmitted in the form of digital images, is obsequious for Visual information, which is becoming a major means of communication in the recent era. But the image obtain after diffusion is often tarnished with noise. The received image demands processing before it can be used in applications. Image de-noising involves the manipulation of the image data to construct a visually high quality image. This  paper defined proposed approach for  image de- noising a nd the existing de-noising algorithms, such as Donoho Soft & Hard Thresholding De-noising, Standard wavelet de-noising, Basian Thresholding De-noising, Bayes Shrinkage De-noising, and BLS De-noising for their comparative study. A quantitative measure of comparison is provided by the different parameter such as PSNR, MSE, and MAE of the image. By implementing the proposed approached we capture less time complexity as compare to the existing techniques having better result for MSE, MAE & PSNR.

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112 ECC-MAC: An Efficient Flow Control and Congestion Control MAC Protocol For VANETs
Nancy Sharma, Tanu Preet Singh

Abstract-Vehicular adhoc networks (VANETs) which are self organizing networks, have recently been developed to address critical issues like safety and congestion, by accumulating information and communication technologies into vehicles and transportation infrastructure. In this paper we address the congestion and medium access control (MAC) issue for VANETs. A new algorithm is proposed based on mobility models like Random way point and Manhattan which can monitor network performance from four aspects: Throughput, Delay, Packet delivery ratio (PDR), Adaptability to speed, so as to achieve the purpose of congestion control. The algorithm works at the MAC layer to avoid transmission collision in VANETs. Finally, analysis and simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the protocol based on this proposed algorithm can provide significantly lesser delays.

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113 A Survey on Clustering Algorithm
Halima Begam .T, Vasuki. M

Abstract-Cluster analysis is the procedure of grouping of data rendering their similarity and dissimilarity. clustering has several clustering algorithm like connectivity based, grid based, density based, hierarchical based each having its own characteristics which fulfills the following criteria such as arbitrary shapes, spherical shapes, high dimension databases and so on. From this survey we see about the detailed information of each technique

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